Progression of aggressive vertebral hemangiomas during pregnancy: Three case reports and literature review.
ABSTRACT: RATIONALE:Vertebral hemangiomas (VHs), one of the most common benign tumors of the spine, can be aggressive, which is a rare condition and causes neurological deficits. Pregnancy is related to the worsening of aggressive VHs. The diagnosis and treatment of aggressive VHs remain challenging, especially for pregnant cases. PATIENT CONCERNS:We report 3 cases of aggressive VH in women who developed progressive neurological deficits during pregnancy among 95 patients treated for aggressive VH in our hospital in the past 15 years. DIAGNOSES AND INTERVENTIONS:All 3 patients experienced progressive deterioration of neurological function and pain at 13, 28, and 41 weeks' gestation. On radiological examination, VHs were the suspected radiological diagnoses in 2 patients; 1 patient was preoperatively misdiagnosed with a spinal metastatic tumor. All 3 patients underwent decompression surgery with intraoperative vertebroplasty and/or postoperative radiotherapy. The pathological diagnosis after surgery was all hemangiomas. OUTCOMES:In all 3 patients, there were no tumor recurrences, and neurological functions remained normal at the last follow-up of 75, 38, and 15 months after the treatment, respectively. LESSONS:Pregnancy might lead to the onset of aggressive VHs. The diagnosis and treatment of VHs during pregnancy remain controversial due to concern for both maternal and fetal safety. Timely surgery could preserve neurological function. Decompression surgery by laminectomy followed by adjuvant therapies require less skill and have a shorter surgery time, and can be considered more appropriate for aggressive VHs with pregnancy.
Project description:Vertebral hemangiomas (VHs) are the most common benign vertebral neoplasm and typically are asymptomatic, only to be discovered incidentally on imaging from the fourth to fifth decade of life. Seldom do they enlarge to a point of compression, causing pain and focal neurologic deficits. We present the rare case of an 8-year-old female who presented with paraparesis after a fall. Imaging revealed a pathological fracture of the T8 vertebra with retropulsion and spinal cord compression from both fracture and epidural tumor tissue. The patient underwent an anterior and posterior removal of the tumor, decompression, and fusion. Pathological report of specimen biopsy confirmed a benign hemangioma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the same age as the youngest previously reported case of symptomatic VH and it is the longest to be recurrence-free at follow-up. The hemangioma was successfully treated with tumor removal, decompression, and fusion. No adjuvant treatment was required, and she remained asymptomatic without recurrence at her 4-year follow-up.
Project description:Hemangiomas are benign tumors characterized by proliferation of blood vessels. A few hemangiomas are aggressive, characterized by bone expansion and extraosseous extension. These benign tumors may be mistaken for metatasis resulting in unnecessary biopsies, which have a high risk of hemorrhage. These hemangiomas can spread not just into the paraspinal soft tissues but also into the epidural region of the spinal canal causing cord compression and paraparesis. These clinical symptoms can be relieved by surgical decompression of the posterior elements, embolization or radiotherapy.In this case report the authors describe the imaging features of two aggressive vertebral body hemangiomas in two patients with back pain. One patient had isolated motor deficit while the other patient had both sensory and motor deficit. On imaging this benign tumor was seen involving both the vertebral body and its posterior elements with paraspinal and epidural extension causing compressive myelopathy.Thus, these case reports help identify the characteristic imaging features of an aggressive vertebral body hemangioma, preventing unnecessary and often risky biopsy. The clinical symptoms of the patient can be relieved by surgical decompression of the posterior elements or by radiotherapy. Use of onyx for intraarterial embolization is now believed to be the safest and most efficacious method for treatment of aggressive vertebral body hemangiomas. However, in the absence of definite guidelines, a multicentric study is warranted to prove that embolization with onyx is better than surgery with post-operative radiotherapy.
Project description:Cervical spine spondylodiscitis is a rare, but serious manifestation of spinal infection. We present a retrospective study of 20 consecutive patients between 01/1994 and 12/1999 treated because of cervical spondylodiscitis. Mean age at the time of treatment was 59.7 (range 34-81) years, nine of them female. In all cases, diagnosis had been established with a delay. All patients in this series underwent surgery such as radical debridement, decompression if necessary, autologous bone grafting and instrumentation. Surgery was indicated if a neurological deficit, symptoms of sepsis, epidural abscess formation with consecutive stenosis, instability or severe deformity were present. Postoperative antibiotic therapy was carried out for 8-12 weeks. Follow-up examinations were performed a mean of 37 (range 24-63) months after surgery. Healing of the inflammation was confirmed in all cases by laboratory, clinical and radiological parameters. Spondylodesis was controlled radiologically and could be achieved in all cases. One case showed a 15 degrees kyphotic angle in the proximal adjacent segment. Spontaneous bony bridging of the proximal adjacent segment was observed in one patient. In the other cases the adjacent segments radiologically showed neither fusion nor infection related changes. Preoperative neurological deficits improved in all cases. Residual neurological deficits persisted in three of eight cases. The results indicate that spondylodiscitis in cervical spine should be treated early and aggressive to avoid local and systemic complications.
Project description:RAG endonuclease initiates antibody heavy chain variable region exon assembly from V, D, and J segments within a chromosomal V(D)J recombination center (RC) by cleaving between paired gene segments and flanking recombination signal sequences (RSSs). The IGCR1 control region promotes DJH intermediate formation by isolating Ds, JHs, and RCs from upstream VHs in a chromatin loop anchored by CTCF-binding elements (CBEs). How VHs access the DJHRC for VH to DJH rearrangement was unknown. We report that CBEs immediately downstream of frequently rearranged VH-RSSs increase recombination potential of their associated VH far beyond that provided by RSSs alone. This CBE activity becomes particularly striking upon IGCR1 inactivation, which allows RAG, likely via loop extrusion, to linearly scan chromatin far upstream. VH-associated CBEs stabilize interactions of D-proximal VHs first encountered by the DJHRC during linear RAG scanning and thereby promote dominant rearrangement of these VHs by an unanticipated chromatin accessibility-enhancing CBE function.
Project description:BACKGROUND:As spinal cord compression at the craniocervical junction (CCJ) is a life-threatening manifestation in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) IVA, surgical decompression should be performed before damage becomes irreversible. We evaluated the diagnostic value of several examinations for determining the need for decompression surgery. METHODS:We retrospectively analysed results of clinical neurological examination, somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 28 MPS IVA patients. A scoring system - based on the severity of findings - was used to compare results of patients with and without indication for decompression surgery. Individual test scores and two composite scores were evaluated for their potential to assess severity of CCJ impairment. RESULTS:Sixteen patients had an indication for surgery; 12 of them had undergone surgery. Twelve patients had no indication for surgery; none had received surgery. Neurological (P = 0.004), MRI (P < 0.001) and atlantoaxial subluxation (P = 0.006) scores, but not SEP and odontoid hypoplasia scores, differed significantly between patients with and without surgical indication. Both the abbreviated CCJ score, i.e. sum of neurological and MRI scores, and the extended CCJ score, i.e. sum of abbreviated CCJ and atlantoaxial subluxation score, discriminated between patients with and without surgical indication (abbreviated: 0-2 points vs 2-5 points, P < 0.001; extended: 0-3 points vs 3-7 points; P < 0.001). Although CCJ instability plays a major role in cervical cord pathology, decompression surgery without occipito-cervical stabilisation may yield good postoperative results. CONCLUSIONS:The abbreviated and extended CCJ scores are objective, transparent and reproducible tools for assessing the CCJ pathology and the need for surgery.
Project description:To investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of intraoperative myelography in determining adequacy of indirect spinal canal decompression during transpsoas lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF).Seven patients diagnosed with degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS) were prospectively included to this study. All patients underwent LLIF and subsequently received intraoperative myelography to determine the effect of indirect spinal canal decompression, which was visualized in both anterior-posterior and lateral images. Those patients with insufficient indirect canal decompression were further resolved by microendoscopic canal decompression (MECD). Radiological parameters, including stenosis ratio and dural sac area of operated levels, were measured and compared before and after operation. Besides, all patients were followed up for at least one year using visual analogue scale (VAS) for back and leg, Japanese Orthopaedic Association score (JOA), and Oswestry disability index (ODI).Seven patients with 8 operated levels underwent LLIF safely and demonstrated significant symptom relief postoperatively. Five operated levels showed adequate indirect canal decompression intraoperatively, while the remaining three levels did not achieve the adequacy, and their residual stenosis was resolved following MECD. Radiological parameters were improved statistically when compared with preoperation (P < 0.05). Furthermore, neurological symptoms of all patients were also improved significantly (P < 0.05), shown by improved VAS (back and leg), JOA, and ODI at both two-week and one-year follow-up.Intraoperative myelography during LLIF is able to assess adequacy of indirect canal decompression for DLSS, thus promising favorable clinical outcomes.
Project description:Cervical spondylotic myelopathy is a common clinical problem. No study has examined the pattern of neurological recovery after surgical decompression. We conducted a prospective study on the pattern of neurological recovery after surgical decompression in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Patients suffering from cervical spondylotic myelopathy and requiring surgical decompression from January 1995 to December 2000 were prospectively included. Upper limbs, lower limbs and sphincter functions were assessed using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score. Assessment was done before the operation, at 1 week, 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year and then yearly after surgery. Results were analysed with the t-test. Differences with P-values less than 0.05 were regarded as statistically significant. Fifty-five patients were included. The average follow-up period was 53 months. Thirty-nine patients (71%) had neurological improvement after the operation with a mean recovery rate of 55%. The JOA score improved after surgery, reaching statistical significance at 3 months and a plateau at 6 months. Thirty-six patients (65%) had improvement of upper limb function. Twenty-four patients (44%) had improvement of lower limb function. Eleven patients (20%) had improvement of sphincter function. The recovery rate of upper limb function was 37%, of lower limb function was 23% and of sphincter function was 17%. Surgical decompression worked well in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Seventy-one percent of patients had neurological improvement after the operation. The neurological recovery reached a plateau at 6 months after the operation. The upper limb function had the best recovery, followed by lower limb and sphincter functions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Many complications are associated with thoracic open decompression surgery, such as dural tears and neurological deficits. The clinical outcomes are also not satisfactory. Full-endoscopic decompression of the lumbar spinal canal has achieved satisfactory results for the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis. This surgery may be used for the treatment of thoracic ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF) under local anesthesia. The aim of our study is to introduce the surgical techniques used for full-endoscopic decompression for thoracic OLF and to evaluate its safety and efficacy. METHODS:Fourteen patients with thoracic OLF (4 combined with dural ossification) underwent full-endoscopic decompression surgery. An interlaminar approach was performed. The anchoring method was used to establish the working passage. Spinal cord exposure began at a space between the ossification and the spinal cord, and dorsal and contralateral decompression were performed with the "Over the Top" technique. The modified Japanese Orthopedic Association score (11 points) was used to evaluate the efficacy during follow-up. At the same time, the visual analogue scale score for assessing back pain before and after the operation was evaluated. RESULTS:The average operation time was 159.73?±?62.09?minutes, and the hospitalization time was 7.43?±?1.79 days. The follow-up period ranged from 8 to 22 months. Neurological function was improved. There were no serious complications. Dural tears occurred in 5 patients, intraoperative neurological deterioration occurred in 1 patient, and intraoperative headache and neck pain occurred in 1 patient. CONCLUSION:Full-endoscopic decompression is an effective, safe surgical technique for thoracic OLF even the cases combined with dural ossification.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Decompression and maintaining or restoring a cervical lordosis are major goals in the surgical treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Numerous studies support the assumption that cervical lordosis is a key factor for neurological recovery and pain reduction. However, even kyphotic patients can be asymptomatic. The balance of the spine is subject of an increasing number of publications. The main purpose of the study was to evaluate the validity of lordotic alignment on the course of CSM and to set this parameter in context with well-validated tools, namely the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association scoring system (mJOAS) and the visual analogue scale (VAS), to predict and measure the clinical outcome after surgery.<h4>Methods</h4>This is a retrospective study with prospectively collected data of a heterogeneous cohort. The authors analyzed the records of 102 patients suffering from CSM that underwent decompressive surgery and instrumentation. Clinical outcome was assessed by using the mJOAS, VAS and Odom's criteria. The radiological analysis involved comparison of pre- and postoperative radiographs. The patients were divided into subgroups to be able to compare the influence of various amounts of correction (3 Delta-groups: <0°, 1-7° and ?8°) and final lordosis (4 Omega-groups: 0-7°, 8-14°, 15-21°, ?22°).<h4>Results</h4>219 levels were fused in 102 patients. Surgery improved the clinical outcome of all groups significantly. A lordotic profile was achieved in all analyzed groups. Patients that showed small lordosis after surgery (<8°) did not have an inferior clinical outcome compared to patients with larger cervical lordosis (>14°). The comparison of Odom's criteria showed that preoperatively kyphotic patients benefitted more from surgery than lordotic patients (p = 0.029), but no differences could be seen comparing neck pain and neurological improvement. The improvement of pain and neurological impairment measured by VAS and mJOAS supports the statistical impact and validity of the data despite comparatively small numbers of patients. The lack of postoperative kyphosis is a major limitation of the study to encompass the impact of sagittal alignment on clinical outcome.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Decompression and stabilization appear to be key elements of surgical treatment of CSM. While the achievement of cervical lordosis remains a major goal of surgery, clinical improvement is not hindered in patients who show small lordosis. However, kyphosis should be eliminated in symptomatic patients. The terms "balance" and "physiologic lordosis" remain complex entities without clear definition. To check the results of our study controlled randomized trials to validate and determine the exact role of cervical balance on the course of CSM would be helpful.
Project description:A germ-line heavy-chain variable region (VH) gene (RTVH431) has been isolated from a rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and characterized by complete nucleotide sequencing. It is characteristic of VH, as shown by the conserved octamer and TATA motif in the 5' region, the heptamernonamer recombination signal sequence in the 3' region, and the 18-amino-acid-long hydrophobic leader interrupted by an intron. The 98-amino-acid-long VH coding region has 50-70% nucleotide sequence homology and 40-60% amino acid sequence homology with VHS of various vertebrate species. We have also found unique or species-specific amino acid residues in the VHS of rainbow trout, amphibia (Xenopus), reptile (Caiman), and shark (Heterodontus) in our sequence analyses. The RTVH431 has an unusual amino acid in the conserved 34th position in complementarity-determining region 1 of VH. Southern hybridization results suggest the presence of a large gene family related to RTVH431 in the trout genome. The complex evolution of antibody V genes is discussed.