Computed tomography-quantified body composition predicts short-term outcomes after gastrectomy in gastric cancer.
ABSTRACT: Background:Malnutrition is a common and critical problem that influences outcome in cancer patients. Body composition reflects a patient's metabolic profile and physiologic reserves, which might be the true determinant of prognosis. In the present study, which aimed to identify valuable new prognostic indicators, we investigated the association between computed tomography-quantified body composition and short-term outcomes after gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Methods:Skeletal muscle index, mean muscle attenuation, and ratio of visceral-to-subcutaneous adipose tissue area (vsr) were calculated from preoperative computed tomography images. Low skeletal muscle index, low mean muscle attenuation, and high vsr were respectively termed "sarcopenia," "myosteatosis," and "visceral obesity." The association of body composition with postoperative complications and serum markers of nutrition and inflammation after radical gastrectomy were analyzed. Results:The overall complication rate was significantly higher in the sarcopenia (62.5% vs. 27.3%, p = 0.001) and myosteatosis groups (38.2% vs. 4%, p = 0.002). Patients with visceral obesity had a higher incidence of inflammatory complications (20.3% vs. 6.5%, p = 0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that sarcopenia (p = 0.013), myosteatosis (p = 0.017), and low serum retinol-binding protein (p = 0.019) were independent risk factors for overall complications. Compared with control subjects, patients with sarcopenia had lower postoperative levels of serum retinol-binding protein (p = 0.007), and patients with visceral obesity had higher levels of C-reactive protein (p = 0.026). Conclusions:Sarcopenia, myosteatosis, and visceral obesity were significantly associated with increased rates of postoperative complications and affected the postoperative nutrition and inflammation status of patients with gastric cancer.
Project description:Pancreatic and periampullary adenocarcinomas are associated with abnormal body composition visible on CT scans, including low muscle mass (sarcopenia) and low muscle radiodensity due to fat infiltration in muscle (myosteatosis). The biological and clinical correlates to these features are poorly understood.Clinical characteristics and outcomes were studied in 123 patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic or non-pancreatic periampullary adenocarcinoma and who had available preoperative CT scans. In a subgroup of patients with pancreatic cancer (n = 29), rectus abdominus muscle mRNA expression was determined by cDNA microarray and in another subgroup (n = 29) 1H-NMR spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to characterize the serum metabolome.Muscle mass and radiodensity were not significantly correlated. Distinct groups were identified: sarcopenia (40.7%), myosteatosis (25.2%), both (11.4%). Fat distribution differed in these groups; sarcopenia associated with lower subcutaneous adipose tissue (P<0.0001) and myosteatosis associated with greater visceral adipose tissue (P<0.0001). Sarcopenia, myosteatosis and their combined presence associated with shorter survival, Log Rank P = 0.005, P = 0.06, and P = 0.002, respectively. In muscle, transcriptomic analysis suggested increased inflammation and decreased growth in sarcopenia and disrupted oxidative phosphorylation and lipid accumulation in myosteatosis. In the circulating metabolome, metabolites consistent with muscle catabolism associated with sarcopenia. Metabolites consistent with disordered carbohydrate metabolism were identified in both sarcopenia and myosteatosis.Muscle phenotypes differ clinically and biologically. Because these muscle phenotypes are linked to poor survival, it will be imperative to delineate their pathophysiologic mechanisms, including whether they are driven by variable tumor biology or host response.
Project description:Background:Visceral obesity is a risk factor for complications after gastrectomy in patients with gastric cancer. However, it is unclear whether postoperative complications decrease with preoperative reduction of visceral fat without the achievement of a nonobese state. This is because previous studies have performed categorical comparisons of obesity and nonobesity. The current study was performed to estimate the impact of the preoperative visceral fat area (VFA) as a continuous variable on postoperative complications after gastrectomy. Methods:Consecutive patients with gastric cancer who underwent curative gastrectomy between June 2006 and August 2017 at the Kyoto University Hospital were included in this retrospective study. The VFA at the level of the umbilicus was measured using preoperative computed tomography. The relationship between postoperative complications and VFA was investigated with univariate and multivariate analyses. Results:total of 566 patients were included in the study. Their mean VFA was 110?±?58?cm2, and postoperative complications occurred in 121 patients (21.4%). The larger the VFA (<50, 50-99, 100-149, and ?150?cm2), the higher the incidence of postoperative complications (11%, 14%, 21%, and 38%, respectively, P < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that the VFA was associated with postoperative complications (odds ratio: 1.009, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.004-1.013, P < 0.001), with an incidence of postoperative complications that was 9% (95% CI: 4%-12%) higher for every 10?cm2 increase in the VFA. Conclusion:The incidence of postoperative complications after gastrectomy increases in proportion to an increase in the preoperative VFA.
Project description:Background: Nutritional risk and sarcopenia are both associated with increased postoperative morbidity and mortality following elective surgery. This study aimed to investigate whether sarcopenia has additional predictive value for postoperative complications and long-term survival besides nutritional screening tools. Methods: Clinical data of patients underwent radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer was prospectively collected. Sarcopenia was diagnosed by grip strength plus muscle quanlity/quality based on preoperative abdominal CT scans. Nutritional screening was performed using 4 common nutritional screening tools, including Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS)-2002, Malnutrition Screening Tool (MST), and Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire (SNAQ). Results: A total of 880 patients were analyzed, in which 167 (18.98%) were diagnosed with sarcopenia. The incidence of nutritional risk identified by the 4 tools were 44.66% (MUST ?1), 35.23% (NRS-2002 ?3), 29.89% (MST ?2), and 20.34% (SNAQ ?2). Multivariate analyses showed that nutritional risk identified by the 4 nutritional screening tools were not independently associated with postoperative complications, overall survival (OS) or disease-free survival (DFS), except for NRS-2002 ?3 as an independent risk factor of OS. Sarcopenia was always an independent risk factor for postoperative complications, OS, and DFS after adjusting for nutritional risk and the other covariates in the multivariate analyses. Conclusions: MUST, NRS-2002, MST, and SNAQ had low predictive power for postoperative complications and long-term survival in patients underwent radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Sarcopenia had additional predictive value for postoperative complications and long-term survival besides these nutritional screening tools and should be implemented in the preoperative assessments.
Project description:Sarcopenic obesity combines the words sarcopenia and obesity. This definition of obesity should be better differentiated between visceral and subcutaneous fat phenotypes. For this reason, this review lays the foundation for defining the subcutaneous and the visceral fat into the context of sarcopenia. Thus, the review aims to explore the missing links on pathogenesis of visceral fat and its relationship on age: defining the peri-muscular fat as a new entity and the subcutaneous fat as a first factor that leads to the obesity paradox. Last but not least, this review underlines and motivates the mechanisms of the hormonal responses and anti-inflammatory adipokines responsible for the clinical implications of sarcopenic visceral obesity, describing factor by factor the multiple axis between the visceral fat-sarcopenia and all mortality outcomes linked to cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cirrhosis, polycystic ovary, disability and postoperative complications.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The relationship between sarcopenia and the prognoses of patients with gastric neuroendocrine neoplasms (g-NENs) is unclear. This study was designed to explore the effects of sarcopenia on short-term and long-term outcomes of patients with g-NENs after radical gastrectomy. METHODS:This study retrospectively collected data from 138 patients with g-NENs after radical gastrectomy. The skeletal muscle index (SMI) diagnostic threshold for sarcopenia was determined using X-tile software. Cox regression analyses were performed to determine the independent risk factors for 3-year overall survival (OS) and 3-year recurrence-free survival (RFS). RESULTS:In this study, 59 patients (42.8%) were diagnosed with sarcopenia. Among patients in the sarcopenia group and nonsarcopenia group, the incidences of total postoperative complications were 33.9 and 30.4%, incidences of serious postoperative complications were 0 and 3.7%, incidences of postoperative surgical complications were 13.6 and 15.2%, and incidences of postoperative systemic complications were 20.3 and 15.2%, respectively (all p?>?0.05). The 3-year OS and RFS rates were significantly worse in the sarcopenia group than in the nonsarcopenia group (OS: 42.37% vs 65.82%, p?=?0.004; RFS: 52.54% vs 68.35%, p?=?0.036). The multivariate analysis revealed a relation between sarcopenia and the long-term prognoses of patients with g-NENs. A stratified analysis based on the pathological type revealed that the Kaplan-Meier curve was only significantly different in patients with gastric mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (gMANEC) (OS: 40.00% vs 71.79%, p?=?0.007; RFS: 51.43% vs 74.36%, p?=?0.026); furthermore, the multivariate analysis identified sarcopenia as an independent risk factor for patients with gMANEC (p?<?0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Sarcopenia is not related to the short-term prognoses of patients with g-NENs. Sarcopenia is an independent risk factor for patients with gMANEC after radical surgery.
Project description:Background:Sarcopenia and visceral adiposity have been suggested to affect prognosis and treatment efficacy in various types of cancers. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether pretreatment sarcopenia and visceral adiposity are associated with prognosis in patients with extensive-disease small-cell lung cancer (ED-SCLC). Methods:Between September 2007 and March 2018, 128 ED-SCLC patients received first-line and platinum-based chemotherapy at our hospital. Based on pretreatment body mass index (BMI), psoas muscle index (PMI), intramuscular adipose tissue content (IMAC) and visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio (VSR) at lumbar vertebra L3 level, we divided these patients into two groups, and then compared overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Adjusted by age, serum albumin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), clinical stage and performance status, we detected independent prognostic factors by multivariate Cox proportional hazard analyses. Results:We did not find any significant differences in OS and PFS between two groups divided by BMI, PMI, IMAC and VSR. According to multivariate analyses, none of BMI, PMI, IMAC and VSR was an independent prognostic factor of OS and PFS. Conclusions:Neither pretreatment sarcopenia nor visceral adiposity is a prognostic marker of patients with ED-SCLC treated with standard regimen of platinum-based chemotherapy.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the prognostic significance of changes in body composition in patients with newly diagnosed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).Patients (n=178) newly diagnosed with HCC participated in the study between 2007 and 2012. Areas of skeletal muscle and abdominal fat were directly measured using a three-dimensional workstation. Cox proportional-hazards modes were used to estimate the effect of baseline variables on overall survival. The inverse probability of treatmentweighting (IPTW) method was used to minimize confounding bias.Cutoff values for sarcopenia, obtained from receiver-operating characteristic curves, were defined as skeletal muscle index at the third lumbar vertebra of ? 45.8 cm/m2 for males and ? 43.0 cm/m2 for females. Sarcopenia patients were older, more likely to be female, and had lower body mass index. Univariable analysis showed that the presence of sarcopenia and visceral to subcutaneous fat area ratio (VSR) were significantly associatedwith prognosis. The multivariable analyses revealed that VSR was predictive of overall survival. However, in the multivariable Cox model adjusted by IPTW, sarcopenia, not VSR, were associated with overall survival.The presence of sarcopenia at HCC diagnosis is independently associated with survival.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Risk assessment is relevant to predict postoperative outcomes in patients with gastro-oesophageal cancer. This cohort study aimed to assess body composition changes during neoadjuvant chemotherapy and investigate their association with postoperative complications. METHODS:Consecutive patients with gastro-oesophageal cancer undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy and surgery with curative intent between 2016 and 2019 were identified from a specific database and included in the study. CT images before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy were used to assess the skeletal muscle index, sarcopenia, and subcutaneous and visceral fat index. RESULTS:In a cohort of 199 patients, the mean skeletal muscle index decreased during neoadjuvant therapy (from 51·187 to 49·19?cm2 /m2 ; P?<?0·001) and the rate of sarcopenia increased (from 42·2 to 54·3 per cent; P?<?0·001). A skeletal muscle index decrease greater than 5 per cent was not associated with an increased risk of total postoperative complications (odds ratio 0·91, 95 per cent c.i. 0·52 to 1·59; P = 0·736) or severe complications (odds ratio 0·66, 0·29 to 1·53; P = 0·329). CONCLUSION:Skeletal muscle index decreased during neoadjuvant therapy but was not associated with postoperative complications.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Laparoscopic distal gastrectomy is used widely in surgery for gastric cancer. Excess visceral fat can limit the ability to dissect the suprapancreatic region, potentially increasing the risk of local complications, particularly pancreatic fistula. This study evaluated perirenal fat thickness as a surrogate for visceral fat to see whether this was related to complications after laparoscopic distal gastrectomy. METHODS:Perirenal fat thickness was measured dorsal to the left kidney as an indicator of visceral fat in patients with gastric cancer who underwent laparoscopic distal gastrectomy. Patients were divided into two groups: those with and those without complications. The relationship between perirenal fat thickness and postoperative complications was evaluated. RESULTS:The optimal cut-off value for predicting morbidity using adipose tissue thickness was 10·7?mm; a distance equal to or greater than this was considered a positive perirenal fat thickness sign (PTS). A positive PTS showed a significant correlation with visceral fat area. Multivariable analysis found that a positive PTS was an independent risk factor for complications (hazard ratio 4·42, 95 per cent c.i. 2·31 to 8·86; P?<?0·001). CONCLUSION:Perirenal fat thickness as an indicator of visceral fat was an independent predictor of postoperative complications after laparoscopic distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer.
Project description:Background:This study aimed to investigate the association of computed tomography (CT)-assessed sarcopenia and visceral adiposity with efficacy and prognosis of immune-checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy for pretreated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods:We retrospectively collected 74 patients with pretreated NSCLC who had initiated programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) or programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitor monotherapy between December 2015 and November 2018 at our hospital. As CT-assessed pretreatment markers, we used psoas muscle index (PMI), intramuscular adipose tissue content (IMAC), visceral-to-subcutaneous ratio (VSR) and visceral fat area (VFA) at lumbar vertebra L3 level. We divided 74 patients into high and low groups according to each Japanese sex-specific cut-off value. Using Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank tests, we compared overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Adjusted by serum albumin, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, performance status and driver mutations, multivariate Cox proportional hazard analyses evaluated various variables as independent prognostic factors of OS and PFS. Results:We could not find significant difference in response rate (RR) and disease control rate (DCR) between low and high groups according to any factors. The OS of patients with body mass index (BMI) < 18.5 was significantly shorter than that of patients with BMI ? 18.5 (median 3.3 vs. 15.8 months, P < 0.01), while there was no significant difference in OS and PFS according to PMI, IMAC, VSR and VFA. Multivariate analyses detected no significant prognostic factor in OS and PFS, except for low IMAC (hazard ratio 0.43, 95% confidence interval 0.18 - 0.998, P = 0.0496) as a favorable prognostic factor of longer OS. Conclusions:Neither PMI nor VSR, VFA might be a significant prognostic factor of PFS and OS of ICI monotherapy for pretreated NSCLC. According to our multivariate analyses, IMAC was a significant prognostic factor of OS, but not of PFS. Thus, neither sarcopenia nor visceral adiposity may be associated with the efficacy of ICI therapy.