Detection and Monitoring of Insecticide Resistance Mutations in Anopheles gambiae: Individual vs Pooled Specimens.
ABSTRACT: Bioassays and molecular diagnostics are routinely used for the monitoring of malaria vector populations to support insecticide resistance management (IRM), guiding operational decisions on which insecticides ought to be used for effective vector control. Previously developed TaqMan assays were optimised to distinguish the wild-type L1014 from the knockdown resistance (kdr) point mutations 1014F and 1014S (triplex reaction), and the N1575 wild-type from the point mutation 1575Y (duplex reaction). Subsequently, artificial pools of Anopheles gambiae (An. gambiae) specimens with known genotypes of L1014F, L1014S, and N1575Y were created, nucleic acids were extracted, and kdr mutations were detected. These data were then used to define a linear regression model that predicts the allelic frequency within a pool of mosquitoes as a function of the measured ?Ct values (Ct mutant - Ct wild type probe). Polynomial regression models showed r2 values of >0.99 (p < 0.05). The method was validated with populations of variable allelic frequencies, and found to be precise (1.66?2.99%), accurate (3.3?5.9%), and able to detect a single heterozygous mosquito mixed with 9 wild type individuals in a pool of 10. Its pilot application in field-caught samples showed minimal differences from individual genotyping (0.36?4.0%). It allowed the first detection of the super-kdr mutation N1575Y in An. gambiae from Mali. Using pools instead of individuals allows for more efficient resistance allele screening, facilitating IRM.
Project description:Insecticide resistance is an ideal model to study the emergence and spread of adaptative variants. In the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, this is complemented by a strong public health rationale. In this insect, resistance to pyrethroid and DDT insecticides is strongly associated with the mutations L1014F and L1014S within the para voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC). Across much of West Africa, 1014F frequency approaches fixation. Here, we document the emergence of a mutation, N1575Y, within the linker between domains III-IV of the VGSC. In data extending over 40 kbp of the VGSC 1575Y occurs on only a single long-range haplotype, also bearing 1014F. The 1014F-1575Y haplotype was found in both M and S molecular forms of An. gambiae in West/Central African sample sites separated by up to 2,000 km. In Burkina Faso M form, 1575Y allele frequency rose significantly from 0.053 to 0.172 between 2008 and 2010. Extended haplotype homozygosity analysis of the wild-type 1575N allele showed rapid decay of linkage disequilibrium (LD), in sharp contrast to the extended LD exhibited by 1575Y. A haplotype with long-range LD and high/increasing frequency is a classical sign of strong positive selection acting on a recent mutant. 1575Y occurs ubiquitously on a 1014F haplotypic background, suggesting that the N1575Y mutation compensates for deleterious fitness effects of 1014F and/or confers additional resistance to insecticides. Haplotypic tests of association suggest the latter: The 1014F-1575Y haplotype confers a significant additive benefit above 1014F-1575N for survival to DDT (M form P = 0.03) and permethrin (S form P = 0.003).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel at codon 1014 confer knock-down resistance (kdr) to pyrethroids in a wide range of insects. Anopheles gambiae exhibits two mutant alleles at codon 1014, serine and phenylalanine; and both are now widespread across Africa. Existing screening methods only allow for one resistant allele to be detected per assay. A new locked nucleic acid (LNA) qPCR assay was developed for the simultaneous detection of both mutant alleles and the wild type allele in a single assay. This tri-allelic detection assay was assessed as part of a study of the insecticide resistance in An. gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) in the previously un-sampled area of Nord Ubangi, Democratic Republic of the Congo. METHODS:Samples from three sites were tested for insecticide susceptibility using WHO bioassays, with and without the synergist PBO preceding pyrethroid exposures, and were subsequently analysed for frequency and resistance-association of the Vgsc-1014 and Vgsc-N1575Y mutations. Results from the LNA-kdr 1014 assay were compared to results from standard TaqMan-kdr assays. RESULTS:Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) was by far the predominant vector captured (84%), with only low frequencies of Anopheles funestus s.l. (9%) detected in Nord Ubangi. Molecular identification found An. gambiae s.s. to be the principal vector (99%) although Anopheles coluzzii was detected at very low frequency. Anopheles gambiae were susceptible to the carbamate insecticide bendiocarb, but resistant to DDT and to the pyrethroids permethrin and deltamethrin. Susceptibility to both pyrethroids was partially restored with prior exposure to PBO suggesting likely involvement of metabolic resistance. Anopheles gambiae s.s. was homozygous for kdr resistant alleles with both the L1014F and L1014S mutations present, and the N1575Y polymorphism was present at low frequency. The LNA-kdr assay simultaneously detected both resistant alleles and gave results entirely consistent with those from the two TaqMan-kdr assays. CONCLUSION:This study provides rare data on insecticide resistance and mechanisms in Anopheles from the centre of Africa, with the first detection of N1575Y. Nord Ubangi populations of An. gambiae s.s. show insecticide resistance mediated by both metabolic mechanisms and Vgsc mutations. The LNA-kdr assay is particularly suitable for use in populations in which both 1014S and 1014F kdr alleles co-occur and provides robust results, with higher throughput and at a quarter of the cost of TaqMan assays.
Project description:Background. The intensification of insecticide use for both public health and agriculture in Africa has contributed to growing insecticide resistance. Today, resistance to World Health Organization (WHO)-approved insecticide classes is widespread. In an agricultural area of Southern Côte d'Ivoire, the main malaria vector Anopheles coluzzii shows multiple resistance across insecticides mediated by both target site mutation and metabolic mechanisms. To plan new vector control strategies and avert future resistance liabilities caused by cross-resistance mechanisms extant within populations, it is crucial to monitor the development and spread of both resistance and mechanisms. Methods. Larvae of Anopheles gambiae were collected from natural breeding sites in Tiassalé and Elibou, between April and November 2016 and raised to adults . Adult female non-blood fed mosquitoes, three to five days old, were exposed to deltamethrin in WHO bioassays. Extracted DNA samples from exposed mosquitoes were used for species characterisation and genotyping. Results. Most adult An. gambiae tested were resistant to deltamethrin, with mortality rates of only 25% in Tiassalé and 4.4% in Elibou. Molecular analysis of DNA from samples tested showed the presence of both An. coluzzii and An. gambiae s.s in Elibou and only An. coluzzii for Tiassalé. As previously, the L1014F kdr mutation was present at high frequency (79%) in Tiassalé and the L1014S mutation was absent. The N1575Y mutation, which amplifies resistance conferred by L1014F was detected in a single unique individual from a Tiassalé An. coluzzii female whereas in Elibou 1575Y was present in 10 An. gambiae s.s, but not in An. coluzzii. Conclusion. This is the first report of the N1575Y mutation in Côte d'Ivoire, and as in other populations, it is found in both dominant West African malaria vector species. Continued monitoring of N1575Y is underway, as are studies to elucidate its contribution to the resistance of local vector populations.
Project description:Background: To optimize the success of insecticide-based malaria control intervention, knowledge of the distribution of Anopheles gambiae species and insecticide resistance mechanisms is necessary. This paper reported an updated data on pyrethroids/DDT resistance in the An. gambiae s.l population from Togo. Methods: From December 2013 to April 2015, females of indoor-resting An. gambiae s.l were captured in three locations belonging to three different ecological zones. Resistance to DDT, permethrin and deltamethrin was screened in F1 progeny of collected mosquitoes using WHO susceptibility tests. The identification of species of An. gambiae complex and the detection of kdr and ace.1 R allele were carried out using DNA-based molecular techniques. Results:An. gambiae from Kovié and Nangbéto were highly resistant to DDT and permethrin with mortalities rate ranging from 0.83% to 1.58% for DDT and zero to 8.54% for permethrin. Mosquitoes collected in Nangbéto displayed 81.53% mortality with deltamethrin. An. coluzzii and An. gambiae s.s were found in sympatry in Nangbéto and Mango . The allelic frequency of L1014F was high, ranging from 66 to 100% in both An. coluzzii and An. gambiae s.s. For the first time we detected the L1014S allele in both An. coluzzii and An. gambiaes.s. from Togo at the frequency ranging from 5% to 13% in all the sites. The kdr N1575Y was present at various frequencies in both species ranging from 10% to 45%. Both An. gambiae s.s. and An. coluzzii shared the ace1 R mutation in all investigated sites with allelic frequency ranging from 4% to 16%. Conclusion: These results showed that multiple mutations are involved in insecticides resistance in An. gambiae populations from Togo including the kdr L1014F, L1014S, and N1575Y and ace.1 R G119S mutations.
Project description:Leucine-to-phenylalanine substitution at residue L1014 in the voltage-gated sodium channel, target site of action for dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and pyrethroids, is the most common knockdown resistance (kdr) mutation reported in several insects conferring resistance against DDT and pyrethroids. Here, we report presence of two coexisting alternative transversions, A>T and A>C, on the third codon position of L1014 residue in malaria vector Anopheles subpictus Grassi (species A) from Jamshedpur (India), both leading to the same amino acid substitution of Leu-to-Phe with allelic frequencies of 19 and 67%, respectively. A single primer-introduced restriction analysis-polymerase chain reaction (PIRA-PCR) was devised for the identification of L1014F-kdr mutation in An. subpictus resulting from either type of point mutation. Genotyping of samples with PIRA-PCR revealed high frequency (82%) of L1014F-kdr mutation in the study area.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are the principal tool for malaria control in Africa and are presently treated with a single class of insecticide; however, increasing levels of insecticide resistance threaten their success. In response to this threat nets have been developed that incorporate the synergist, piperonyl butoxide (PBO), which inhibits the activity of cytochrome P450s which is one main mechanisms of insecticide resistance, allowing resistance to pyrethroids to be reversed. However, data on the value and cost effectiveness of these nets is lacking. A large-scale cluster randomised trial of conventional LLINs and PBO-LLINs was conducted in Uganda in 104 health sub-districts (HSDs) in 2017-2019. Prior to the mass distribution of LLINs, a baseline entomological survey was carried out, the results of which are reported herein. Ten households from each HSD were randomly selected for entomological surveillance at baseline which included household mosquito collections. RESULTS:Prior to LLIN distribution entomological collections were carried out in 1029 houses across the 104 HSDs. Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) was the principal vector in all but 9 of the 71 HSDs that yielded vector species. Molecular analysis found An. gambiae (s.s.) to be the predominant vector collected. Plasmodium falciparum was detected in 5.5% of An. gambiae (s.s.) and in 4.0% of An. funestus (s.s.) examined. Infection rates of other plasmodium species (P. vivax, P. ovale and P. malariae) were lower with infection rates of 1.2% and 1.7% for An. gambiae (s.s.) and An. funestus (s.s.), respectively. The knockdown resistance (kdr) mutation Vgsc-L1014S was found at very high frequency in An. gambiae (s.s.) with the Vgsc-L1014F mutation at low frequency and the wild-type allele virtually absent. In An. arabiensis the wild-type allele was predominant. The resistance-associated alleles, Cyp4j5-L43F and Coeae1d were found at moderate frequencies which varied across the study site. Vgsc-N1575Y mutation was not found in any samples examined. CONCLUSIONS:No significant differences between planned intervention arms was observed in vector densities, sporozoite infection rate or insecticide resistance marker frequency across the study site prior to the distribution of LLINs. Very high levels of kdr resistance were observed in all areas; however, the resistance-associated markers Cyp4j5-L43F and Coeae1d were found at varying frequencies across the study site which may have implications for the effectiveness of standard LLINs. Trial registration This study is registered with ISRCTN, ISRCTN17516395. Registered 14 February 2017, http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN17516395.
Project description:Routine monitoring of occurrence, levels and mechanisms of insecticide resistance informs effective management strategies, and should be used to assess the effect of new tools on resistance. As part of a cluster randomised controlled trial evaluating a novel insecticide-based intervention in central Côte d'Ivoire, we assessed resistance and its underlying mechanisms in Anopheles gambiae populations from a subset of trial villages. Resistance to multiple insecticides in An. gambiae s.s. and An. coluzzii was detected across villages, with dose-response assays demonstrating extremely high resistance intensity to the pyrethroid deltamethrin (>?1,500-fold), and mortality following exposure to pyrethroid-treated bednets was low (<?30% mortality in cone bioassays). The 1014F kdr mutation was almost fixed (??90%) in all villages but the 1575Y kdr-amplifying mutation was relatively rare (<?15%). The carbamate and organophosphate resistance-associated Ace-1 G119S mutation was also detected at moderate frequencies (22-43%). Transcriptome analysis identified overexpression of P450 genes known to confer pyrethroid resistance (Cyp9K1, Cyp6P3, and Cyp6M2), and also a carboxylesterase (COEAE1F) as major candidates. Cyp6P3 expression was high but variable (up to 33-fold) and correlated positively with deltamethrin resistance intensity across villages (r2?=?0.78, P?=?0.02). Tools and strategies to mitigate the extreme and multiple resistance provided by these mechanisms are required in this area to avoid future control failures.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In recent years, the scale-up of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) has greatly reduced malaria transmission. However, malaria remains a global public health concern with the majority of the disease burden in sub-Saharan Africa. Insecticide resistance is a growing problem among Anopheles vector populations, with potential implications for the continued effectiveness of available control interventions. Improved understanding of current resistance levels and underlying mechanisms is essential to design appropriate management strategies and to mitigate future selection for resistance. METHODS:Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes were collected from three villages in Faranah Prefecture, Guinea and their levels of susceptibility to seven insecticides were measured using CDC resistance intensity bioassays. Synergist assays with piperonyl butoxide (PBO) were also undertaken to assess the role of elevated mixed-function oxidases in resistance. Five hundred and sixty-three mosquitoes underwent molecular characterization of vector species, presence of target site mutations (L1014F kdr, N1575Y and G119S Ace-1), Plasmodium falciparum infection, and relative expression of three metabolic genes (CYP6M2, CYP6P3 and GSTD3). RESULTS:In Faranah, resistance to permethrin and deltamethrin was observed, as well as possible resistance to bendiocarb. All assayed vector populations were fully susceptible to alpha-cypermethrin, pirimiphos-methyl, clothianidin and chlorfenapyr. Plasmodium falciparum infection was detected in 7.3% (37/508) of mosquitoes tested. The L1014F kdr mutation was found in 100% of a sub-sample of 60 mosquitoes, supporting its fixation in the region. The N1575Y mutation was identified in 20% (113/561) of individuals, with ongoing selection evidenced by significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The G119S Ace-1 mutation was detected in 62.1% (18/29) of mosquitoes tested and was highly predictive of bendiocarb bioassay survival. The metabolic resistance genes, CYP6M2, CYP6P3 and GSTD3, were found to be overexpressed in wild resistant and susceptible An. gambiae sensu stricto populations, compared to a susceptible G3 colony. Furthermore, CYP6P3 was significantly overexpressed in bendiocarb survivors, implicating its potential role in carbamate resistance in Faranah. CONCLUSIONS:Identification of intense resistance to permethrin and deltamethrin in Faranah, is of concern, as the Guinea National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) relies exclusively on the distribution of pyrethroid-treated LLINs for vector control. Study findings will be used to guide current and future control strategies in the region.
Project description:The development of resistance to insecticides has become a classic exemplar of evolution occurring within human time scales. In this study we demonstrate how resistance to DDT in the major African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae is a result of both target-site resistance mechanisms that have introgressed between incipient species (the M- and S-molecular forms) and allelic variants in a DDT-detoxifying enzyme. Sequencing of the detoxification enzyme, Gste2, from DDT resistant and susceptible strains of An. gambiae, revealed a non-synonymous polymorphism (I114T), proximal to the DDT binding domain, which segregated with strain phenotype. Recombinant protein expression and DDT metabolism analysis revealed that the proteins from the susceptible strain lost activity at higher DDT concentrations, characteristic of substrate inhibition. The effect of I114T on GSTE2 protein structure was explored through X-ray crystallography. The amino acid exchange in the DDT-resistant strain introduced a hydroxyl group nearby the hydrophobic DDT-binding region. The exchange does not result in structural alterations but is predicted to facilitate local dynamics and enzyme activity. Expression of both wild-type and 114T alleles the allele in Drosophila conferred an increase in DDT tolerance. The 114T mutation was significantly associated with DDT resistance in wild caught M-form populations and acts in concert with target-site mutations in the voltage gated sodium channel (Vgsc-1575Y and Vgsc-1014F) to confer extreme levels of DDT resistance in wild caught An. gambiae.
Project description:The effectiveness of insecticide-based malaria vector control interventions in Africa is threatened by the spread and intensification of pyrethroid resistance in targeted mosquito populations. The present study aimed at investigating the temporal and spatial dynamics of deltamethrin resistance in An. gambiae s.l. populations from North Cameroon. Mosquito larvae were collected from 24 settings of the Garoua, Pitoa and Mayo Oulo Health Districts (HDs) from 2011 to 2015. Two to five days old female An. gambiae s.l. emerging from larval collections were tested for deltamethrin resistance using the World Health Organization's (WHO) standard protocol. Sub samples of test mosquitoes were identified to species using PCR-RFLP and genotyped for knockdown resistance alleles (Kdr 1014F and 1014S) using Hot Ligation Oligonucleotide Assay (HOLA). All the tested mosquitoes were identified as belonging to the An. gambiae complex, including 3 sibling species mostly represented by Anopheles arabiensis (67.6%), followed by Anopheles coluzzii (25.4%) and Anopheles gambiae (7%). Deltamethrin resistance frequencies increased significantly between 2011 and 2015, with mosquito mortality rates declining from 70-85% to 49-73% in the three HDs (Jonckheere-Terstra test statistic (JT) = 5638, P< 0.001), although a temporary increase of mortality rates (91-97%) was seen in the Pitoa and Mayo Oulo HDs in 2012. Overall, confirmed resistance emerged in 10 An. gambiae s.l. populations over the 24 field populations monitored during the study period, from 2011 to 2015. Phenotypic resistance was mostly found in urban settings compared with semi-urban and rural settings (JT = 5282, P< 0.0001), with a spatial autocorrelation between neighboring localities. The Kdr 1014F allelic frequencies in study HDs increased from 0-30% in 2011 to 18-61% in 2014-2015 (JT = 620, P <0.001), especially in An. coluzzii samples. The overall frequency of the Kdr 1014S allele was 0.1%. This study revealed a rapid increase and widespread deltamethrin resistance frequency as well as Kdr 1014F allelic frequencies in An. gambiae s.l. populations over time, emphasizing the urgent need for vector surveillance and insecticide resistance management strategies in Cameroon.