Multicenter study comparing oncologic outcomes between two nodal assessment methods in patients with deeply invasive endometrioid endometrial carcinoma: A sentinel lymph node algorithm versus a comprehensive pelvic and paraaortic lymphadenectomy.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:To compare oncologic outcomes in the staging of deeply invasive endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (EEC) using a sentinel lymph node algorithm (SLN) versus pelvic and paraaortic lymphadenectomy to the renal veins (LND); to compare outcomes in node-negative cases. METHODS:At two institutions, patients with deeply invasive (?50% myometrial invasion) EEC were identified. One institution used LND (2004-2008), the other SLN (2005-2013). FIGO stage IV cases were excluded. Clinical characteristics and follow-up data were recorded. RESULTS:176 patients were identified (LND, 94; SLN, 82). SLN patients were younger (p?=?0.003) and had more LVSI (p?
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>To compare survival after nodal assessment using a sentinel lymph node (SLN) algorithm versus comprehensive pelvic and paraaortic lymphadenectomy (LND) in serous or clear cell endometrial carcinoma, and to compare survival in node-negative cases.<h4>Methods</h4>Three-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival were compared between one institution that used comprehensive LND to the renal veins and a second institution that used an SLN algorithm with ultra-staging with inverse-probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) derived from propensity scores to adjust for covariate imbalance between cohorts.<h4>Results</h4>214 patients were identified (118 SLN cohort, 96 LND cohort). Adjuvant therapy differed between the cohorts; 84% and 40% in the SLN and LND cohorts, respectively, received chemotherapy ± radiation therapy. The IPTW-adjusted 3-year RFS rates were 69% and 80%, respectively. The IPTW-adjusted 3-year OS rates were 88% and 77%, respectively. The IPTW-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for the association of surgical approach (SLN vs LND) with progression and death was 1.46 (95% CI: 0.70-3.04) and 0.44 (95% CI: 0.19-1.02), respectively. In the 168 node-negative cases, the IPTW-adjusted 3-year RFS rates were 73% and 91%, respectively. The IPTW-adjusted 3-year OS rates were 88% and 86%, respectively. In this subgroup, IPTW-adjusted HR for the association of surgical approach (SLN vs LND) with progression and death was 3.12 (95% CI: 1.02-9.57) and 0.69 (95% CI: 0.24-1.95), respectively.<h4>Conclusion</h4>OS was not compromised with the SLN algorithm. SLN may be associated with a decreased RFS but similar OS in node-negative cases despite the majority receiving chemotherapy. This may be due to differences in surveillance.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To compare the prevalence of patient-reported lower-extremity lymphedema (LEL) with sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping versus comprehensive lymph node dissection (LND) for the surgical management of newly diagnosed endometrial carcinoma.<h4>Methods</h4>Patients who underwent primary surgery for endometrial cancer from 01/2006-12/2012 were mailed a survey that included a validated 13-item LEL screening questionnaire in 08/2016. Patients diagnosed with LEL prior to surgery and those who answered ?6 survey items were excluded.<h4>Results</h4>Of 1275 potential participants, 623 (49%) responded to the survey and 599 were evaluable (180 SLN, 352 LND, 67 hysterectomy alone). Median BMI was similar among cohorts (P = 0.99). External-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) was used in 10/180 (5.5%) SLN and 35/352 (10%) LND patients (P = 0.1). Self-reported LEL prevalence was 27% (49/180) and 41% (144/352), respectively (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.25-2.74; P = 0.002). LEL prevalence was 51% (23/45) in patients who received EBRT and 35% (170/487) in those who did not (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.06-3.6; P = 0.03). High BMI was associated with increased prevalence of LEL (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.06; P = 0.001). After controlling for EBRT and BMI, LND retained independent association with an increased prevalence of LEL over SLN (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.22-2.69; P = 0.003). Patients with self-reported LEL had significantly worse QOL compared to those without self-reported LEL.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This is the first study to assess patient-reported LEL after SLN mapping for endometrial cancer. SLN mapping was independently associated with a significantly lower prevalence of patient-reported LEL. High BMI and adjuvant EBRT were associated with an increased prevalence of patient-reported LEL.
Project description:<i>Background</i>: Lymph node dissection (LND) is recommended as staging procedure in presumed low stage endometrial cancer. LND is associated with risk of lower-extremity lymphedema and post-operative complications. The sentinel lymph node (SLN) procedure has been shown to have high diagnostic accuracy, but its effects on complication risk has been little studied. This systematic review compares the risk of lower-extremity lymphedema and post-operative complications in SLN versus LND in patients with endometrial carcinoma. <i>Methods</i>: A systematic search was conducted in PubMed and Cochrane Library. <i>Results</i>: Seven retrospective and prospective studies (total n = 3046 patients) were included. Only three studies reported the odds ratio of lower-extremity lymphedema after SLN compared to LND, which was 0.05 (95% CI 0.01-0.37; <i>p</i> = 0.067), 0.07 (95% CI 0.00-1.21; <i>p</i> = 0.007) and 0.54 (95% CI 0.37-0.80; <i>p</i> = 0.002) in these studies. The pooled odds ratio of any post-operative complications after SLN versus LND was 0.52 (95% CI 0.36-0.73; I<sup>2</sup> = 48%; <i>p</i> < 0.001). For severe post-operative complications the pooled odds ratio was 0.52 (95% CI 0.28-0.96; I<sup>2</sup> = 0%; <i>p</i> = 0.04). <i>Conclusions</i>: There are strong indications that SLN results in a lower incidence of lower-extremity lymphedema and less often severe post-operative complications compared to LND. In spite of the paucity and heterogeneity of studies, direction of results was similar in all studies, supporting the aforementioned conclusion. These results support the increasing uptake of SLN procedures in endometrial cancer.
Project description:To assess clinicopathologic outcomes between two nodal assessment approaches in patients with endometrioid endometrial carcinoma and limited myoinvasion.Patients with endometrial cancer at two institutions were reviewed. At one institution, a complete pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy to the renal veins was performed in select cases deemed at risk for nodal metastasis due to grade 3 cancer and/or primary tumor diameter>2cm (LND cohort). This is a historic approach at this institution. At the other institution, a sentinel lymph node mapping algorithm was used per institutional protocol (SLN cohort). Low risk was defined as endometrioid adenocarcinoma with myometrial invasion <50%. Macrometastasis, micrometastasis, and isolated tumor cells were all considered node-positive.Of 1135 cases identified, 642 (57%) were managed with an SLN approach and 493 (43%) with an LND approach. Pelvic nodes (PLNs) were removed in 93% and 58% of patients, respectively (P<0.001); para-aortic nodes (PANs) were removed in 14.5% and 50% of patients, respectively (P<0.001). Median number of PLNs removed was 6 and 34, respectively; median number of PANs removed was 5 and 16, respectively (both P<0.001). Metastasis to PLNs was detected in 5.1% and 2.6% of patients, respectively (P=0.03), and to PANs in 0.8% and 1.0%, respectively (P=0.75). The 3-year disease-free survival rates were 94.9% (95% CI, 92.4-97.5) and 96.8% (95% CI, 95.2-98.5), respectively.Our findings support the use of either strategy for endometrial cancer staging, with no apparent detriment in adhering to the SLN algorithm. The clinical significance of disease detected on ultrastaging and the role of adjuvant therapy is yet to be determined.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Uterine serous carcinoma (USC) is a rare highly aggressive disease. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the survival implication of the systematic lymphadenectomy in patients who underwent surgery for apparent early-stage USC. METHODS:Consecutive patients with apparent early-stage USC surgically treated at six Italian referral cancer centers were analyzed. A comparison was made between patients who underwent retroperitoneal staging including at least pelvic lymphadenectomy "LND" vs. those who underwent hysterectomy alone "NO-LND". Baseline, surgical and oncological outcomes were analyzed. Kaplan- Meier curves were calculated for disease-free survival (DFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS). Associations were evaluated with Cox proportional hazard regression and summarized using hazard ratio (HR). RESULTS:One hundred forty patients were analyzed, 106 LND and 34 NO-LND. NO-LND group (compared to LND group) included older patients (median age, 73 vs.67 years) and with higher comorbidities (median Charlson Comorbidity Index, 6 vs. 5) (p<0.001). No differences in terms of recurrence rate (LND vs. NO-LND, 33.1% vs. 41.4%; p=0.240) were observed. At Cox regression analysis lymphadenectomy did not significantly influence DFS (HR=0.59; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.32-1.08; p=0.09), and DSS (HR=0.14; 95% CI=0.02-1.21; multivariable analysis p=0.07). Positive node was independently associated with worse DFS (HR=6.22; 95% CI=3.08-12.60; p<0.001) and DSS (HR=5.51; 95% CI=2.31-13.10; p<0.001), while adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with improved DFS (HR=0.38; 95% CI=0.17-0.86; p=0.02) and age was independently associated with worse DSS (HR=1.07; 95% CI=1.02-1.13; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Although lymphadenectomy did not show survival benefits in patients who underwent surgery for apparent early-stage USC, the presence of lymph node metastasis was the main adverse prognostic factors, supporting the prognostic role of the retroperitoneal staging also in this histological subtype.
Project description:Importance:Lymph node metastases are common in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), yet the impact of nodal metastases on survival remains unclear. Lymph node density (LND) is the ratio between the number of positive lymph nodes excised and the total number of excised lymph nodes. Lymph node density has been suggested as a prognostic factor in many types of cancer. Objective:To evaluate the prognostic role of LND in PTC. Design, Setting, and Participants:This cohort study reviewed medical records of patients with PTC who were treated at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2015. Survival and recurrence outcomes were calculated by using the Kaplan-Meier method. Significant variables on univariate analysis were subjected to a Cox proportional hazards regression multivariate model. Main Outcomes and Measures:Primary study outcome was disease-specific survival (DSS); other measurements included overall survival (OS). Results:The study cohort included data for 2542 patients (1801 [71%] male; median age, 48 years [range, 18-97 years]) with a median follow-up of 55 months (range, 4-192 months). The 10-year disease-specific survival rate was 98% for patients with LND of 0.19 or less, compared with 90% for those with LND greater than 0.19 (effect size, 8%; 95% CI, 4%-15%). The 10-year overall survival was 87% for patients with LND of 0.19 or less, compared with 79% for patients with LND greater than 0.19 (effect size, 8%; 95% CI, 3%-15%). Multivariable analysis revealed that LND greater than 0.19 was independently associated with an adverse DSS (hazard ratio [HR], 4.11; 95% CI, 2.11-8.97) and OS (HR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.24-4.11). Subgroup analysis of patients with 18 or more lymph nodes analyzed revealed that LND greater than 0.19 remained a significant marker for DSS (HR, 2.94; 95% CI, 1.36-9.81) and OS (HR, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.12-5.34). Incorporating LND into the current American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system successfully stratified risk groups compared with the traditional TNM staging system. Conclusions and Relevance:This single-institute study demonstrates the reproducibility of LND as a predictor of outcomes in PTC. Lymph node density can potentially assist in identifying patients with poorer survival who may benefit from more aggressive adjuvant therapy.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To evaluate the utility of sentinel lymph node mapping (SLN) in endometrial cancer (EC) patients in comparison with lymphadenectomy (LND).<h4>Methods</h4>Comprehensive search was performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, OVID, Web of science databases, and three clinical trials registration websites, from the database inception to September 2020. The primary outcomes covered operative outcomes, nodal assessment, and oncological outcomes. Software Revman 5.3 was used. Trial sequential analysis (TSA) and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) were performed.<h4>Results</h4>Overall, 5,820 EC patients from 15 studies were pooled in the meta-analysis: SLN group (N = 2,152, 37.0%), LND group (N = 3,668, 63.0%). In meta-analysis of blood loss, SLN offered advantage over LND in reducing operation bleeding (I<sup>2</sup> = 74%, P<0.01). Z-curve of blood loss crossed trial sequential monitoring boundaries though did not reach TSA sample size. There was no difference between SLN and LND in intra-operative complications (I<sup>2</sup> = 7%, P = 0.12). SLN was superior to LND in detecting positive pelvic nodes (P-LN) (I<sup>2</sup> = 36%, P<0.001), even in high risk patients (I<sup>2</sup> = 36%, P = 0.001). While no difference was observed in detection of positive para-aortic nodes (PA-LN) (I<sup>2</sup> = 47%, P = 0.76), even in high risk patients (I<sup>2</sup> = 62%, P = 0.34). Analysis showed no difference between two groups in the number of resected pelvic nodes (I<sup>2</sup> = 99%, P = 0.26). SLN was not associated with a statistically significant overall survival (I<sup>2</sup> = 79%, P = 0.94). There was no difference in progression-free survival between SLN and LND (I<sup>2</sup> = 52%, P = 0.31). No difference was observed in recurrence. Based on the GRADE assessment, we considered the quality of current evidence to be moderate for P-LN biopsy, low for items like blood loss, PA-LN positive.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The present meta-analysis underlines that SLN is capable of reducing blood loss during operation in regardless of surgical approach with firm evidence from TSA. SLN mapping is more targeted for less node dissection and more detection of positive lymph nodes even in high risk patients with conclusive evidence from TSA. Utility of SLN yields no survival detriment in EC patients.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Uterine carcinosarcoma is a rare, aggressive subtype of endometrial cancer. Treatment consists of hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and lymphadenectomy (LND). The survival benefit of LND in relation to adjuvant radio- and/or chemotherapy is unclear. We evaluated the impact of LND on survival in relation to adjuvant therapy in uterine carcinosarcoma. METHODS:Retrospective data on 1,140 cases were combined from the Netherlands Cancer Registry (NCR) and the nationwide network and registry of histo- and cytopathology in the Netherlands (PALGA). LND was defined as the removal of any nodes. Additionally, cases where 10 nodes or less (LND ?10) or more than 10 nodes (LND > 10) were removed were analyzed separately. Adjuvant therapy was evaluated as radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or radiochemotherapy. Associations were analyzed by ?2 test, log-rank test, and Cox regression analysis. RESULTS:Overall survival (OS) had improved after total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with LND > 10 (HR 0.62, 95% CI 0.47-0.83). Adjuvant therapy was related to OS with an HR of 0.64 (95% CI 0.54-0.75) for radiotherapy, an HR of 0.65 (95% CI 0.48-0.88) for chemotherapy, and an HR of 0.25 (95% CI 0.13-0.46) for radiochemotherapy. Additionally, adjuvant treatment was related to OS when lymph nodes were positive (HR 0.22, 95% CI 0.11-0.42), but not when they were negative. CONCLUSION:LND is related to improved survival when more than 10 nodes are removed. Adjuvant therapy improves survival when LND is omitted, or when nodes are positive.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>For patients with sentinel lymph node (SLN)-positive cutaneous melanoma, the Second Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy trial demonstrated equivalent disease-specific survival (DSS) with active surveillance using nodal ultrasound versus completion lymph node dissection (CLND). Adoption and outcomes of active surveillance in clinical practice and in adjuvant therapy recipients are unknown.<h4>Methods</h4>In a retrospective cohort of SLN-positive adults treated at 21 institutions in Australia, Europe, and the United States from June 2017 to November 2019, the authors evaluated the impact of active surveillance and adjuvant therapy on all-site recurrence-free survival (RFS), isolated nodal RFS, distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and DSS using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard models.<h4>Results</h4>Among 6347 SLN biopsies, 1154 (18%) were positive and had initial negative distant staging. In total, 965 patients (84%) received active surveillance, 189 (16%) underwent CLND. Four hundred thirty-nine patients received adjuvant therapy (surveillance, 38%; CLND, 39%), with the majority (83%) receiving anti-PD-1 immunotherapy. After a median follow-up of 11 months, 220 patients developed recurrent disease (surveillance, 19%; CLND, 22%), and 24 died of melanoma (surveillance, 2%; CLND, 4%). Sixty-eight patients had an isolated nodal recurrence (surveillance, 6%; CLND, 4%). In patients who received adjuvant treatment without undergoing prior CLND, all isolated nodal recurrences were resectable. On risk-adjusted multivariable analyses, CLND was associated with improved isolated nodal RFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.36; 95% CI, 0.15-0.88), but not all-site RFS (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.45-1.02). Adjuvant therapy improved all-site RFS (HR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.47-0.57). DSS and DMFS did not differ by nodal management or adjuvant treatment.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Active surveillance has been adopted for most SLN-positive patients. At initial assessment, real-world outcomes align with randomized trial findings, including in adjuvant therapy recipients.<h4>Lay summary</h4>For patients with melanoma of the skin and microscopic spread to lymph nodes, monitoring with ultrasound is an alternative to surgically removing the remaining lymph nodes. The authors studied adoption and real-world outcomes of ultrasound monitoring in over 1000 patients treated at 21 centers worldwide, finding that most patients now have ultrasounds instead of surgery. Although slightly more patients have cancer return in the lymph nodes with this strategy, typically, it can be removed with delayed surgery. Compared with up-front surgery, ultrasound monitoring results in the same overall risk of melanoma coming back at any location or of dying from melanoma.
Project description:A sentinel lymph node (SLN) is the first lymph node to drain a solid tumor and likely the first place metastasis will travel. SLN biopsy has been well established as a staging tool for melanoma and breast cancer to guide lymph node dissection (LND); its utility in bladder cancer is debated. We performed a systematic search of PubMed for both human and animal studies that looked at SLN detection in cases of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. We identified a total of nine studies that assessed a variety of imaging techniques to identify SLNs in patients with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. Eight studies investigated human patients while one looked at animal (dog) models. Seven studies representing 156 patients noted the negative predictive value of the SLN to predict a metastasis free state was 92% (92/100). The SLN biopsy was less accurate in metastatic patients with a positive predictive value of only 77% (43/56) with a false negative range of in individual studies of 0-19%. Clinically, positive nodes routinely do not take up the pharmaceutical agent for SLN. Therefore, SLN biopsy is a promising concept with a 92% negative predictive value; however, the false negative rates are high which may be improved by standardizing populations and indications. Novel technologies are improving the detection of SLN and may provide the surgeon with an improved ability to detect micrometastasis, guide surgery, and reduce patient morbidity.