Deconvoluting the Innocent vs. Non-innocent Behavior of N,N-diethylphenylazothioformamide Ligands with Copper Sources.
ABSTRACT: Redox-active ligands lead to ambiguity in often clearly defined oxidation states of both the metal centre and the ligand. The arylazothioformamide (ATF) ligand class represents a redox-active ligand with three possible redox states (neutral, singly reduced, and doubly reduced). ATF-metal interactions result in strong colorimetric transitions allowing for the use of ATFs in metal detection and/or separations. While previous reports have discussed dissolution of zerovalent metals, the resulting oxidation states of coordination complexes have proved difficult to interpret through X-ray crystallographic analysis alone. This report describes the X-ray crystallographic analysis combined with computational modelling of the ATF ligand and metal complexes to deconvolute the metal and ligand oxidation state of metal-ATF complexes. Metal(ATF)2 complexes that originated from zerovalent metals were found to exist as dicationic metal centers containing two singly reduced ATF ligands. When employing Cu(I) salts instead of Cu(0) to generate copper-ATF complexes, the resulting complexes remained Cu(I) and the ATF ligand remained "innocent", existing in its neutral state. Although the use of CuX (where X = Br or I) or [Cu(NCMe)4]Y (where Y = BF4 or PF6) generated species of the type: [(ATF)Cu(?-X)]2 and [Cu(ATF)2]Y, respectively, the ATF ligand remained in its neutral state for each species type.
Project description:Metal and ligand-based reductions have been modeled in octahedral ruthenium complexes revealing metal-ligand interactions as the profound driving force for the redox-active behaviour of orthoquinoid-type ligands. Through an extensive investigation of redox-active ligands we revealed the most critical factors that facilitate or suppress redox-activity of ligands in metal complexes, from which basic rules for designing non-innocent/redox-active ligands can be put forward. These rules also allow rational redox-leveling, i.e. the moderation of redox potentials of ligand-centred electron transfer processes, potentially leading to catalysts with low overpotential in multielectron activation processes.
Project description:The title compound, [Cu(C(4)H(10)NO)I(C(4)H(11)NO)], was obtained unintentionally as the product of an attempted synthesis of a Cu/Zn mixed-metal complex using zerovalent copper, zinc(II) oxide and ammonium iodide in pure 2-(dimethyl-amino)-ethanol, in air. The mol-ecular complex has no crystallographically imposed symmetry. The coordination geometry around the metal atom is distorted square-pyramidal. The equatorial coordination around copper involves donor atoms of the bidentate chelating 2-(dimethyl-amino)-ethanol ligand and the 2-(dimethyl-amino)-ethano-late group, which are mutually trans to each other, with four approximately equal short Cu-O/N bond distances. The axial Cu-I bond is substanti-ally elongated. Inter-molecular hydrogen-bonding inter-actions involving the -OH group of the neutral 2-(dimethyl-amino)-ethanol ligand to the O atom of the monodeprotonated 2-(dimethyl-amino)-ethano-late group of the mol-ecule related by the n-glide plane, as indicated by the O?O distance of 2.482?(12)?Å, form chains of mol-ecules propagating along .
Project description:Transition-metal-based molecular complexes are a class of catalyst materials for electrochemical CO2 reduction to CO that can be rationally designed to deliver high catalytic performance. One common mechanistic feature of these electrocatalysts developed thus far is an electrogenerated reduced metal center associated with catalytic CO2 reduction. Here we report a heterogenized zinc-porphyrin complex (zinc(II) 5,10,15,20-tetramesitylporphyrin) as an electrocatalyst that delivers a turnover frequency as high as 14.4 site-1 s-1 and a Faradaic efficiency as high as 95% for CO2 electroreduction to CO at -1.7 V vs the standard hydrogen electrode in an organic/water mixed electrolyte. While the Zn center is critical to the observed catalysis, in situ and operando X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies reveal that it is redox-innocent throughout the potential range. Cyclic voltammetry indicates that the porphyrin ligand may act as a redox mediator. Chemical reduction of the zinc-porphyrin complex further confirms that the reduction is ligand-based and the reduced species can react with CO2. This represents the first example of a transition-metal complex for CO2 electroreduction catalysis with its metal center being redox-innocent under working conditions.
Project description:The pyrrolyldipyrrin motif is found in several naturally occurring prodigiosin pigments. The potential roles of the interactions of prodigiosins with transition metals and the properties of metal-bound pyrrolyldipyrrins, however, have been difficult to assess because of the very limited number of well-characterized stable complexes. Here, we show that the introduction of a meso-aryl substituent and an ethyl ester group during the sequential assembly of the three heterocycles affords a pyrrolyldipyrrin of enhanced coordinating abilities when compared to that of natural prodigiosins. UV-visible absorption studies indicate that this ligand promptly binds Zn(II) ions with 2:1 ligand-to-metal stoichiometry and Cu(II) ions with 1:1 stoichiometry. Notably, no addition of base is required for the formation of the resulting stable complexes. The crystal structures reveal that whereas the tetrahedral zinc center engages two nitrogen donors on each ligand, the pseudosquare planar copper complex features coordination of all three pyrrolic nitrogen atoms and employs the ester group as a neutral ligand. This first example of coordination of a redox-active transition metal within a fully conjugated pyrrolyldipyrrin framework was investigated spectroscopically by electron paramagnetic resonance to show that the 1:1 metal-to-ligand ratio found in the crystal structure is also maintained in solution.
Project description:Mono-copper enzymes play an important role in biology and their functionality is based on Cu(II)/Cu(I) redox processes. Modeling a mono-nuclear site remains a challenge for a better understanding of its intrinsic reactivity. The first member of a third generation of calixarene-based mono-copper "funnel" complexes is described. The ligand is a calixarene capped by a tren unit, hence presenting a N(4) coordination site confined in a cavity. Its Cu(II) complexes were characterized by electronic and EPR spectroscopies. The x-ray structure of one of them shows a five-coordinated metal ion in a slightly distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry thanks to its coordination to a guest ligand L (ethanol). The latter sits in the heart of the hydrophobic calixarene cone that mimics the active site chamber and the hydrophobic access channel of enzymes. Competitive binding experiments showed a preference order dimethylformamide > ethanol > MeCN for L binding at the single exchangeable metal site. Cyclic voltammetry studies showed irreversible redox processes in CH(2)Cl(2) when L is an oxygen donor caused by the redox-driven ejection of the guest at the Cu(I) level. In the presence of MeCN, a pseudoreversible process was obtained, owing to a fast equilibrium between a four and a five-coordinate Cu(I) species. Finally, a redox-driven ligand interchange of dimethylformamide for MeCN at the Cu(I) state allowed the trapping of the thermodynamically less stable Cu(II)-MeCN adduct. Hence, this work represents an important step toward the elaboration of a functional supramolecular model for redox mono-copper enzymes, named redox calix-zymes.
Project description:The design of molecular complexes of earth-abundant first-row transition metals that can catalyze multi-electron C-H bond activation processes is of interest for achieving efficient, low-cost syntheses of target molecules. To overcome the propensity of these metals to perform single-electron processes, redox-active ligands have been utilized to provide additional electron equivalents. Herein, we report the synthesis of a novel redox active ligand, [ibaps]3-, which binds to transition metals such as FeII and CoII in a meridional fashion through the three anionic nitrogen atoms and provides additional coordination sites for other ligands. In this study, the neutral bidentate ligand 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) was used to complete the coordination spheres of the metal ions and form NEt4[MII(ibaps)bpy] (M = Fe (1) or Co (1-Co)) salts. The FeII salt exhibited rich electrochemical properties and could be chemically oxidized by 1 and 2 equiv. of ferrocenium to form singly and doubly oxidized species, respectively. The reactivity of 1 towards intramolecular C-H bond amination of aryl azides at benzylic and aliphatic carbon centers was explored, and moderate to good yields of the resulting indoline products were obtained.
Project description:Methoxy and tert-butyl substituted carboxamide, carboxylic acid and hydrazone Schiff base groups have been assembled into our newly designed fluorenone based ligands and prepared coordination compounds of some first row transition metals and characterized thoroughly with spectroscopic (1H and 13C NMR, IR, GC-MS, UV-Vis), analytical, TGA and molar conductance measurements. The stoichiometry of all the metal complexes is found to be 1: 2 (M: L2) with the general formula, [M(L)2], where L is a singly deprotonated ligand and the geometry of all the metal complexes is found to be octahedral. Ligands and their metal complexes successfully cleaved the pBR322 plasmid DNA and in case of anticancer activity against MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma) cell line, the synthesized compounds found to exhibit excellent activity with prominent apoptotic effect which is characterized by cell shrinkage, cell breakage and turgidity and results were compared with the standard drug cisplatin. Very significant anticancer activity was observed for compounds L1H, Cu(L1)2, Cu(L2)2, Ni(L1)2 and Ni(L2)2 with IC50 value of <10 ?gmL-1. Molecular docking studies were performed to assess the bonding mode of synthesized compounds. In case of antioxidant activity study, the compounds L1H, Ni(L1)2, Ni(L2)2, Cu(L1)2 and Cu(L2)2 exhibited significant scavenging activity with good percentage when compared with remaining tested compounds.
Project description:The title compound, [Cu(C(5)H(10)NO(3))(2)], was obtained unintentionally as the product of an attempted synthesis of a Cu/Cd mixed-metal mixed-anion complex using zerovalent copper, cadmium(II) oxide and two ammonium salts in the presence of 2-dimethyl-amino-ethanol in acetonitrile, in air. The mol-ecule is centrosymmetric with two monodeprotonated N-(2-hydroxy-ethyl)-N-methyl-glycines coordinated to the metal in a tridentate mode, giving a bicyclic chelate with two distorted five-membered rings. The Cu(II) ion possesses a distorted octa-hedral geometry, with the N and the O atoms from the carboxyl-ate groups in the equatorial plane. In the crystal structure, inter-molecular O-H?O hydrogen-bonding inter-actions from the alkoxide functions of the ligand through the inversion centre form columns of mol-ecules propagated along the a axis.
Project description:Neutral complexes of zinc with N,N'-diisopropylpiperazine-2,3-dithione ( i Pr2Dt0) and N,N'-dimethylpiperazine-2,3-dithione (Me2Dt0) with chloride or maleonitriledithiolate (mnt2-) as coligands have been synthesized and characterized. The molecular structures of these zinc complexes have been determined using single crystal X-ray diffractometry. Complexes recrystallize in monoclinic P type systems with zinc adopting a distorted tetrahedral geometry. Two zinc complexes with mixed-valent dithiolene ligands exhibit ligand-to-ligand charge transfer bands. Optimized geometries, molecular vibrations and electronic structures of charge-transfer complexes were calculated using density functional theory (B3LYP/6-311G+(d,p) level). Redox orbitals are shown to be almost exclusively ligand in nature, with a HOMO based heavily on the electron-rich maleonitriledithiolate ligand, and a LUMO comprised mostly of the electron-deficient dithione ligand. Charge transfer is thus believed to proceed from dithiolate HOMO to dithione LUMO, showing ligand-to-ligand redox interplay across a d10 metal.
Project description:To intimately combine a chelating ligand function with the numerous properties of a viologen-like redox-active centre would offer a rare possibility to design controllable multi-redox states, whose properties arise from strongly correlated phenomena between the organic ligand as well as with any metalloid coordinated centres. Such a concept previously proved to be feasible, however is not widely applicable owing to challenges in terms of synthesis, isolation, and aerial sensitivity of both the ligand and its metal complexes. Here we report the first stable example of such a redox-active molecule, N,N'-dimethyl-3,3'-biquinoxalinium2+/?+/0 "methylbiquinoxen, MBqn2+/?+/0", which shows a rich redox chemistry and chelates a metal ion in the case of the metal complex [CdCl2(MBqn0)]. This goes beyond what is possible to achieve using viologens, which are limited by not providing chelation as well as having no accessible biradicaloid state, corresponding to the neutral direduced MBqn0 open-shell behaviour we observe here.