GDF15 Regulates Malat-1 Circular RNA and Inactivates NF?B Signaling Leading to Immune Tolerogenic DCs for Preventing Alloimmune Rejection in Heart Transplantation.
ABSTRACT: Recombinant human growth differentiation factor 15 (rhGDF15) affects dendritic cell (DC) maturation. However, whether GDF15 is expressed in DCs and its roles and signaling in DCs remain largely unknown. It is unclear whether GDF15-DCs can induce immune tolerance in heart transplantation (HT). This study aims to understand the impact of endogenous GDF15 on DC's development, function, underlying molecular mechanism including circular RNA (circRNA). This study will also explore GDF15-DC-mediated immune modulation in HT. Bone marrow (BM) derived DCs were cultured and treated to up- or down regulate GDF15 expression. Phenotype and function of DCs were detected. Expression of genes and circRNAs was determined by qRT-PCR. The signaling pathways activated by GDF15 were examined. The impact of GDF15 treated DCs on preventing allograft immune rejection was assessed in a MHC full mismatch mouse HT model. Our results showed that GDF15 was expressed in DCs. Knockout of GDF15 promoted DC maturation, enhanced immune responsive functions, up-regulated malat-1 circular RNA (circ_Malat 1), and activated the nuclear factor kappa B (NF?B) pathway. Overexpression of GDF15 in DCs increased immunosuppressive/inhibitory molecules, enhanced DCs to induce T cell exhaustion, and promoted Treg generation through IDO signaling. GDF15 utilized transforming growth factor (TGF) ? receptors I and II, not GFAL. Administration of GDF15 treated DCs prevented allograft rejection and induced immune tolerance in transplantation. In conclusion, GDF15 induces tolerogenic DCs (Tol-DCs) through inhibition of circ_Malat-1 and the NF?B signaling pathway and up-regulation of IDO. GDF15-DCs can prevent alloimmune rejection in HT.
Project description:Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM, CD166) is a cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily and has been implicated in diverse pathophysiological processes including T cell activation, leukocyte trafficking, and (lymph)angiogenesis. However, exploring the therapeutic potential of ALCAM blockade in immune-mediated inflammatory disorders has been difficult due to the lack of antibodies with blocking activity toward murine ALCAM. In this study, we identified and characterized a monoclonal antibody with high affinity and specificity for murine ALCAM. This antibody reduced in vitro T cell activation induced by antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) as well as (trans)migration of murine DCs across lymphatic endothelial monolayers. Moreover, it reduced emigration of DCs from in vitro-cultured human skin biopsies. Similarly, antibody-based blockade of ALCAM reduced (lymph)angiogenic processes in vitro and decreased developmental lymphangiogenesis in vivo to levels observed in ALCAM-deficient mice. Since corneal allograft rejection is an important medical condition that also involves (lymph)angiogenesis, DC migration and T cell activation, we investigated the therapeutic potential of ALCAM blockade in murine corneal disease. Blocking ALCAM lead to DC retention in corneas and effectively prevented corneal allograft rejection. Considering that we also detected ALCAM expression in human corneal DCs and lymphatics, our findings identify ALCAM as a potential novel therapeutic target in human corneal allograft rejection.
Project description:The ?-catenin signaling pathway has been demonstrated to promote the development of a tolerogenic dendritic cell (DC) population capable of driving regulatory T-cell (Treg) differentiation. Further studies have implicated tolerogenic DCs in promoting carcinogenesis in preclinical models. The molecular mechanisms underlying the establishment of immune tolerance by this DC population are poorly understood, and the methods by which developing cancers can co-opt this pathway to subvert immune surveillance are currently unknown. This work demonstrates that melanoma-derived Wnt5a ligand upregulates the durable expression and activity of the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO) enzyme by local DCs in a manner that depends upon the ?-catenin signaling pathway. These data indicate that Wnt5a-conditioned DCs promote the differentiation of Tregs in an IDO-dependent manner, and that this process serves to suppress melanoma immune surveillance. We further show that the genetic silencing of the PORCN membrane-bound O-acyl transferase, which is necessary for melanoma Wnt ligand secretion, enhances antitumor T-cell immunity, and that the pharmacologic inhibition of this enzyme synergistically suppresses melanoma progression when combined with anti-CTLA-4 antibody therapy. Finally, our data suggest that ?-catenin signaling activity, based on a target gene expression profile that includes IDO in human sentinel lymph node-derived DCs, is associated with melanoma disease burden and diminished progression-free survival. This work implicates the Wnt-?-catenin signaling pathway as a novel therapeutic target in the melanoma immune microenvironment and demonstrates the potential impact of manipulating DC function as a strategy for optimizing tumor immunotherapy.
Project description:Dendritic cells (DCs), the most important professional antigen-presenting cells (APC), play crucial role in both immunity and tolerance. It is well known that DCs are able to mount immune responses against foreign antigens and simultaneously tolerate self-antigens. Since DCs can be modulated depending on the surrounding microenvironment, they can act as a bridge between innate and adaptive immunity. However, the mechanisms that support this dual role are not entirely clear. Recent studies have shown that DCs can be manipulated ex vivo in order to trigger their tolerogenic profile, what can be a tool to be used in clinical trials aiming the treatment of various diseases and the prevention of transplant rejection. In this sense, the blockage of costimulatory molecules on DC, in the attempt of inhibiting the second signal in the immunological synapse, can be considered as one of the main strategies under development. This review brings an update on current therapies using tolerogenic dendritic cells modulated with costimulatory blockers with the aim of reducing transplant rejection. However, although there are current clinical trials using tolerogenic DC to treat allograft rejection, the actual challenge is to modulate these cells in order to maintain a permanent tolerogenic profile.
Project description:Dendritic cells (DCs) as highly efficient antigen-presenting cells are at the interface of innate and adaptive immunity. As such, they are key mediators of immunity and antigen-specific immune tolerance. Due to their functional specialization, research efforts have focused on the characterization of DCs subsets involved in the initiation of immunogenic responses and in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Tolerogenic DCs (tolDCs)-based therapies have been designed as promising strategies to prevent and control autoimmune diseases as well as allograft rejection after solid organ transplantation (SOT). Despite successful experimental studies and ongoing phase I/II clinical trials using autologous tolDCs in patients with type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and in SOT recipients, additional basic research will be required to determine the optimal DC subset(s) and conditioning regimens for tolDCs-based treatments in vivo. In this review, we discuss the characteristics of human DCs and recent advances in their classification, as well as the role of DCs in immune regulation and their susceptibility to in vitro or in vivo manipulation for the development of tolerogenic therapies, with a focus on the potential of tolDCs for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and the prevention of allograft rejection after SOT.
Project description:Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are antitumor agents that also have antiinflammatory properties. However, the mechanisms of their immunomodulatory functions are not known. We investigated the mechanisms of action of 2 HDAC inhibitors, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and ITF 2357, on mouse DC responses. Pretreatment of DCs with HDAC inhibitors significantly reduced TLR-induced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, suppressed the expression of CD40 and CD80, and reduced the in vitro and in vivo allostimulatory responses induced by the DCs. In addition, injection of DCs treated ex vivo with HDAC inhibitors reduced experimental graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in a murine allogeneic BM transplantation model. Exposure of DCs to HDAC inhibitors increased expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), a suppressor of DC function. Blockade of IDO in WT DCs with siRNA and with DCs from IDO-deficient animals caused substantial reversal of HDAC inhibition-induced in vitro suppression of DC-stimulated responses. Direct injection of HDAC inhibitors early after allogeneic BM transplantation to chimeric animals whose BM-derived cells lacked IDO failed to protect from GVHD, demonstrating an in vivo functional role for IDO. Together, these data show that HDAC inhibitors regulate multiple DC functions through the induction of IDO and suggest that they may represent a novel class of agents to treat immune-mediated diseases.
Project description:Over a half century, organ transplantation has become an effective method for the treatment of end-stage visceral diseases. Although the application of immunosuppressants (IS) minimizes the rate of allograft rejection, the common use of IS bring many adverse effects to transplant patients. Moreover, true transplant tolerance is very rare in clinical practice. Dendritic cells (DCs) are thought to be the most potent antigen-presenting cells, which makes a bridge between innate and adaptive immunity. Among their subsets, a small portion of DCs with immunoregulatory function was known as tolerogenic DC (Tol-DC). Previous reports demonstrated the ability of adoptively transferred Tol-DC to approach transplant tolerance in animal models. In this study, we summarized the properties, ex vivo generation, metabolism, and clinical attempts of Tol-DC. Tol-DC is expected to become a substitute for IS to enable patients to achieve immune tolerance in the future.
Project description:Pirfenidone (PFD) is an antifibrotic agent with beneficial effects on proinflammatory disorders. In this study, we further investigated PFD and long-acting form, "deuterated PFD," immune-modulating properties by evaluating their effects on mouse dendritic cells (DCs).The effects of PFD on DCs were examined in vivo using an orthotopic mouse lung transplant model and in vitro using isolated bone marrow-derived DCs in response to lipopolysaccharide and allogeneic stimulation.In mouse lung transplants, PFD and deuterated PFD treatment improved allograft lung function based on peak airway pressure, less infiltrates/consolidation on micro-computed tomography scan imaging, and reduced lung rejection/injury. DC activation from lung allografts was suppressed with PFD, and there seemed to be a greater effect of PFD on CD11c(+)CD11b(-)CD103(+) lung DCs. In addition, PFD reduced the expression of several proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines from lung allografts. In vitro, DCs treated with PFD showed decreased expression of major histocompatibility complex class II and costimulatory molecules and the capacity of these DCs to stimulate T-cell activation was impaired, although antigen uptake was preserved. PFD directly inhibited the release of inflammatory cytokines from isolated DCs, was associated with a reduction of stress protein kinases, and attenuated lipopolysaccharide-dependent mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 phosphorylation.PFD has lung allograft protective properties, and in addition to its known effects on T-cell biology, PFD immune-modulating activities encompass inhibitory effects on DC activation and function.
Project description:Dendritic cells (DC) play a pivotal role in regulating immunity, establishing immunologically privileged tissue microenvironments and maintaining homoeostasis. It is becoming increasingly clear that one key mechanism that mediates many DC functions is production of the immunomodulatory enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). For pathogens that cause chronic infection, exploitation of host DCs is a solution to establish and persist within a host. Leishmania parasites cause a range of clinical manifestations, all involving chronic infection, and are proficient at avoiding immune responses. We demonstrate here that infection of human myeloid-derived DC with L. major and L. donovani induces IDO expression using a mechanism that involves autocrine or paracrine stimulation with a DC-secreted factor. Leishmania-induced IDO suppresses allogeneic and tetanus toxoid-specific lymphocyte proliferation, an inhibition that is reversed with the IDO inhibitor, 1-methyl tryptophan (1-MT). Furthermore, IDO expression by human DC does not require live Leishmania infection, as parasite lysates also up-regulate IDO mRNA production. Our data suggest that one mechanism Leishmania parasites utilize to circumvent immune clearance may be to promote the induction of IDO among host DC within the infection microenvironment.
Project description:Adaptive immunity is triggered at the immune synapse, where peptide-major histocompatibility complexes and costimulatory molecules expressed by dendritic cells (DCs) are physically presented to T cells. Here we describe transmission of the inflammatory monoamine serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) between these cells. DCs take up 5-HT from the microenvironment and from activated T cells (that synthesize 5-HT) and this uptake is inhibited by the antidepressant, fluoxetine. Expression of 5-HT transporters (SERTs) is regulated by DC maturation, exposure to microbial stimuli, and physical interactions with T cells. Significantly, 5-HT sequestered by DCs is stored within LAMP-1+ vesicles and subsequently released via Ca2+-dependent exocytosis, which was confirmed by amperometric recordings. In turn, extracellular 5-HT can reduce T-cell levels of cAMP, a modulator of T-cell activation. Thus, through the uptake of 5-HT at sites of inflammation, and from activated T cells, DCs may shuttle 5-HT to naive T cells and thereby modulate T-cell proliferation and differentiation. These data constitute the first direct measurement of triggered exocytosis by DCs and reveal a new and rapid type of signaling that may be optimized by the intimate synaptic environment between DCs and T cells. Moreover, these results highlight an important role for 5-HT signaling in immune function and the potential consequences of commonly used drugs that target 5-HT uptake and release.
Project description:In vitro data and transgenic mouse models suggest a role for TGF-? signaling in dendritic cells (DCs) to prevent autoimmunity primarily through maintenance of DCs in their immature and tolerogenic state characterized by low expression of MHC class II (MHCII) and costimulatory molecules and increased expression of IDO, among others. To test whether a complete lack of TGF-? signaling in DCs predisposes mice to spontaneous autoimmunity and to verify the mechanisms implicated previously in vitro, we generated conditional knockout (KO) mice with Cre-mediated DC-specific deletion of Tgfbr2 (DC-Tgfbr2 KO). DC-Tgfbr2 KO mice die before 15 wk of age with multiorgan autoimmune inflammation and spontaneous activation of T and B cells. Interestingly, there were no significant differences in the expression of MHCII, costimulatory molecules, or IDO in secondary lymphoid organ DCs, although Tgfbr2-deficient DCs were more proinflammatory in vitro and in vivo. DC-Tgfbr2 KO showed attenuated Foxp3 expression in regulatory T cells (Tregs) and abnormal expansion of CD25(-)Foxp3(+) Tregs in vivo. Tgfbr2-deficient DCs secreted elevated levels of IFN-? and were not capable of directing Ag-specific Treg conversion unless in the presence of anti-IFN-? blocking Ab. Adoptive transfer of induced Tregs into DC-Tgfbr2 KO mice partially rescued the phenotype. Therefore, in vivo, TGF-? signaling in DCs is critical in the control of autoimmunity through both Treg-dependent and -independent mechanisms, but it does not affect MHCII and costimulatory molecule expression.