Bile Acid G Protein-Coupled Membrane Receptor TGR5 Modulates Aquaporin 2-Mediated Water Homeostasis.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The bile acid-activated receptors, including the membrane G protein-coupled receptor TGR5 and nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR), have roles in kidney diseases. In this study, we investigated the role of TGR5 in renal water handling and the underlying molecular mechanisms. METHODS:We used tubule suspensions of inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells from rat kidneys to investigate the effect of TGR5 signaling on aquaporin-2 (AQP2) expression, and examined the in vivo effects of TGR5 in mice with lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) and Tgr5 knockout (Tgr5 -/-) mice. RESULTS:Activation of TGR5 by lithocholic acid (LCA), an endogenous TGR5 ligand, or INT-777, a synthetic TGR5-specific agonist, induced AQP2 expression and intracellular trafficking in rat IMCD cells via a cAMP-protein kinase A signaling pathway. In mice with NDI, dietary supplementation with LCA markedly decreased urine output and increased urine osmolality, which was associated with significantly upregulated AQP2 expression in the kidney inner medulla. Supplementation with endogenous FXR agonist had no effect. In primary IMCD suspensions from lithium-treated rats, treatment with INT-767 (FXR and TGR5 dual agonist) or INT-777, but not INT-747 (FXR agonist), increased AQP2 expression. Tgr5 -/- mice exhibited an attenuated ability to concentrate urine in response to dehydration, which was associated with decreased AQP2 expression in the kidney inner medulla. In lithium-treated Tgr5 -/- mice, LCA treatment failed to prevent reduction of AQP2 expression. CONCLUSIONS:TGR5 stimulation increases renal AQP2 expression and improves impaired urinary concentration in lithium-induced NDI. TGR5 is thus involved in regulating water metabolism in the kidney.
Project description:Bile acids are ligands for the nuclear hormone receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and the G protein-coupled receptor TGR5. We have shown that FXR and TGR5 have renoprotective roles in diabetes- and obesity-related kidney disease. Here, we determined whether these effects are mediated through differential or synergistic signaling pathways. We administered the FXR/TGR5 dual agonist INT-767 to DBA/2J mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes, db/db mice with type 2 diabetes, and C57BL/6J mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity. We also examined the individual effects of the selective FXR agonist obeticholic acid (OCA) and the TGR5 agonist INT-777 in diabetic mice. The FXR agonist OCA and the TGR5 agonist INT-777 modulated distinct renal signaling pathways involved in the pathogenesis and treatment of diabetic nephropathy. Treatment of diabetic DBA/2J and db/db mice with the dual FXR/TGR5 agonist INT-767 improved proteinuria and prevented podocyte injury, mesangial expansion, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. INT-767 exerted coordinated effects on multiple pathways, including stimulation of a signaling cascade involving AMP-activated protein kinase, sirtuin 1, PGC-1?, sirtuin 3, estrogen-related receptor-?, and Nrf-1; inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress; and inhibition of enhanced renal fatty acid and cholesterol metabolism. Additionally, in mice with diet-induced obesity, INT-767 prevented mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress determined by fluorescence lifetime imaging of NADH and kidney fibrosis determined by second harmonic imaging microscopy. These results identify the renal signaling pathways regulated by FXR and TGR5, which may be promising targets for the treatment of nephropathy in diabetes and obesity.
Project description:Even in healthy individuals, renal function gradually declines during aging. However, an observed variation in the rate of this decline has raised the possibility of slowing or delaying age-related kidney disease. One of the most successful interventional measures that slows down and delays age-related kidney disease is caloric restriction. We undertook the present studies to search for potential factors that are regulated by caloric restriction and act as caloric restriction mimetics. Based on our prior studies with the bile acid-activated nuclear hormone receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and G protein-coupled membrane receptor TGR5 that demonstrated beneficial effects of FXR and TGR5 activation in the kidney, we reasoned that FXR and TGR5 could be excellent candidates. We therefore determined the effects of aging and caloric restriction on the expression of FXR and TGR5 in the kidney. We found that FXR and TGR5 expression levels are decreased in the aging kidney and that caloric restriction prevents these age-related decreases. Interestingly, in long-lived Ames dwarf mice, renal FXR and TGR5 expression levels were also increased. A 2-month treatment of 22-month-old C57BL/6J mice with the FXR-TGR5 dual agonist INT-767 induced caloric restriction-like effects and reversed age-related increases in proteinuria, podocyte injury, fibronectin accumulation, TGF-? expression, and, most notably, age-related impairments in mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial function. Furthermore, in podocytes cultured in serum obtained from old mice, INT-767 prevented the increases in the proinflammatory markers TNF-?, toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), and TLR4. In summary, our results indicate that FXR and TGR5 may play an important role in modulation of age-related kidney disease.
Project description:Activation of the bile acid (BA) receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR) or G protein-coupled bile acid receptor (GPBAR1; TGR5) improves metabolic homeostasis. In this study, we aim to determine the impact of pharmacological activation of bile acid receptors by INT-767 on reversal of diet-induced metabolic disorders, and the relative contribution of FXR vs. TGR5 to INT-767's effects on metabolic parameters.Wild-type (WT), Tgr5-/-, Fxr-/-, Apoe-/- and Shp-/- mice were used to investigate whether and how BA receptor activation by INT-767, a semisynthetic agonist for both FXR and TGR5, could reverse diet-induced metabolic disorders.INT-767 reversed HFD-induced obesity dependent on activation of both TGR5 and FXR and also reversed the development of atherosclerosis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Mechanistically, INT-767 improved hypercholesterolemia by activation of FXR and induced thermogenic genes via activation of TGR5 and/or FXR. Furthermore, INT-767 inhibited several lipogenic genes and de novo lipogenesis in the liver via activation of FXR. We identified peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? (CEBP?) as novel FXR-regulated genes. FXR inhibited PPAR? expression by inducing small heterodimer partner (SHP) whereas the inhibition of CEBP? by FXR was SHP-independent.BA receptor activation can reverse obesity, NAFLD, and atherosclerosis by specific activation of FXR or TGR5. Our data suggest that, compared to activation of FXR or TGR5 only, dual activation of both FXR and TGR5 is a more attractive strategy for treatment of common metabolic disorders.
Project description:The bile acid-activated receptors, nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and the membrane Takeda G-protein receptor 5 (TGR5), are known to improve glucose and insulin sensitivity in obese and diabetic mice. However, the metabolic roles of these two receptors and the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here, we studied the effects of the dual FXR and TGR5 agonist INT-767 on hepatic bile acid synthesis and intestinal secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in wild-type, Fxr-/-, and Tgr5-/- mice. INT-767 efficaciously stimulated intracellular Ca2+ levels, cAMP activity, and GLP-1 secretion and improved glucose and lipid metabolism more than did the FXR-selective obeticholic acid and TGR5-selective INT-777 agonists. Interestingly, INT-767 reduced expression of the genes in the classic bile acid synthesis pathway but induced those in the alternative pathway, which is consistent with decreased taurocholic acid and increased tauromuricholic acids in bile. Furthermore, FXR activation induced expression of FXR target genes, including fibroblast growth factor 15, and unexpectedly Tgr5 and prohormone convertase 1/3 gene expression in the ileum. We identified an FXR-responsive element on the Tgr5 gene promoter. Fxr-/- and Tgr5-/- mice exhibited reduced GLP-1 secretion, which was stimulated by INT-767 in the Tgr5-/- mice but not in the Fxr-/- mice. Our findings uncovered a novel mechanism in which INT-767 activation of FXR induces Tgr5 gene expression and increases Ca2+ levels and cAMP activity to stimulate GLP-1 secretion and improve hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Activation of both FXR and TGR5 may therefore represent an effective therapy for managing hepatic steatosis, obesity, and diabetes.
Project description:Two dedicated receptors for bile acids (BAs) have been identified, the nuclear hormone receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and the G protein-coupled receptor TGR5, which represent attractive targets for the treatment of metabolic and chronic liver diseases. Previous work characterized 6?-ethyl-3?,7?-dihydroxy-5?-cholan-24-oic acid (INT-747), a potent and selective FXR agonist, as well as 6?-ethyl-23(S)-methyl-3?,7?,12?-trihydroxy-5?-cholan-24-oic acid (INT-777), a potent and selective TGR5 agonist. Here we characterize 6?-ethyl-3?,7?,23-trihydroxy-24-nor-5?-cholan-23-sulfate sodium salt (INT-767), a novel semisynthetic 23-sulfate derivative of INT-747. INT-767 is a potent agonist for both FXR (mean EC(50), 30 nM by PerkinElmer AlphaScreen assay) and TGR5 (mean EC(50), 630 nM by time resolved-fluorescence resonance energy transfer), the first compound described so far to potently and selectively activate both BA receptors. INT-767 does not show cytotoxic effects in HepG2 cells, does not inhibit cytochrome P450 enzymes, is highly stable to phase I and II enzymatic modifications, and does not inhibit the human ether-a-go-go-related gene potassium channel. In line with its dual activity, INT-767 induces FXR-dependent lipid uptake by adipocytes, with the beneficial effect of shuttling lipids from central hepatic to peripheral fat storage, and promotes TGR5-dependent glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion by enteroendocrine cells, a validated target in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Moreover, INT-767 treatment markedly decreases cholesterol and triglyceride levels in diabetic db/db mice and in mice rendered diabetic by streptozotocin administration. Collectively, these preclinical results indicate that INT-767 is a safe and effective modulator of FXR and TGR5-dependent pathways, suggesting potential clinical applications in the treatment of liver and metabolic diseases.
Project description:Bile acids (BAs) activate various dedicated receptors, including the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and the Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5 (TGR5). The FXR agonist obeticholic acid (OCA) is licensed for the treatment of primary biliary cholangitis and has shown promising results in NASH patients, whereas TGR5 agonists target inflammation and metabolism. We hypothesized that FXR and/or TGR5 agonists may be therapeutic in early alcoholic liver disease (ALD) in mice, in which hepatic inflammation plays a major role. OCA, INT-777, and INT-767 are BA derivatives with selective agonist properties for FXR, TGR5, or both, respectively. These compounds were tested in two mouse models (3-day binge model and prolonged Lieber DeCarli diet for 12 days) of early ALD. Serum alanine aminotransferase and liver histology were used to assess liver injury, Oil Red O staining of liver sections to assess steatosis, and real-time polymerase chain reaction to assess changes in gene expression. In the ethanol binge model, treatment with OCA and INT-777 decreased hepatic macrovesicular steatosis and protected from ethanol-induced liver injury. After prolonged ethanol administration, mice treated with OCA, INT-767, or INT-777 showed decreased hepatic steatosis, associated with reduced liver fatty acid synthase protein expression, and protection from liver injury. Treatment with BA receptor agonists in both models of ethanol administration modulated lipogenic gene expression, and decreased liver interleukin-1? mRNA expression associated with increased ubiquitination of NLRP3 inflammasome through cyclic adenosine monophosphate-induced activation of protein kinase A. Conclusion: OCA, INT-767, or INT-777 administration is effective in reducing acute and chronic ethanol-induced steatosis and inflammation in mice, with varying degrees of efficacy depending on the duration of ethanol administration, indicating that both FXR and TGR5 activation can protect from liver injury in ALD models.
Project description:Bile acid signaling is a critical regulator of glucose and energy metabolism, mainly through the nuclear receptor FXR and the G protein-coupled receptor TGR. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether dual activation of FXR and TGR5 plays a significant role in the prevention of atherosclerosis progression. To evaluate the effects of bile acid signaling in atherogenesis, ApoE-/- mice and LDLR-/- mice were treated with an FXR/TGR5 dual agonist (INT-767). INT-767 treatment drastically reduced serum cholesterol levels. INT-767 treatment significantly reduced atherosclerotic plaque formation in both ApoE-/- and LDLR-/- mice. INT-767 decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the aortas of ApoE-/- mice through the inactivation of NF-?B. In addition, J774 macrophages treated with INT-767 had significantly lower levels of active NF-?B, resulting in cytokine production in response to LPS through a PKA dependent mechanism. This study demonstrates that concurrent activation of FXR and TGR5 attenuates atherosclerosis by reducing both circulating lipids and inflammation.
Project description:Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) has become a particularly attractive target for the discovery of drugs for the treatment of liver and metabolic diseases. Obeticholic acid (INT-747), a FXR agonist, has advanced into clinical phase III trials in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), but adverse effects (e.g., pruritus, LDL increase) were observed. Pruritus might be induced by Takeda G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (TGR5, GPBAR1), and there are chances to develop FXR agonists with higher selectivity over TGR5. In this letter, novel bile acids bearing different modifications on ring A and side chain of INT-747 are reported and discussed. Our results indicated that the side chain of INT-747 is amenable to a variety of chemical modifications with good FXR potency in vitro. Especially, compound 18 not only showed promising FXR potency and excellent pharmacokinetic properties, but also proved superior pharmacological efficacy in the HFD + CCl4 model.
Project description:Hypokalemia (low serum potassium level) is a common electrolyte imbalance that can cause a defect in urinary concentrating ability, i.e., nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), but the molecular mechanism is unknown. We employed proteomic analysis of inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD) from rats fed with a potassium-free diet for 1 day. IMCD protein quantification was performed by mass spectrometry using a label-free methodology. A total of 131 proteins, including the water channel AQP2, exhibited significant changes in abundance, most of which were decreased. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that many of the down-regulated proteins were associated with the biological processes of generation of precursor metabolites and energy, actin cytoskeleton organization, and cell-cell adhesion. Targeted LC-MS/MS and immunoblotting studies further confirmed the down regulation of 18 selected proteins. Electron microscopy showed autophagosomes/autophagolysosomes in the IMCD cells of rats deprived of potassium for only 1 day. An increased number of autophagosomes was also confirmed by immunofluorescence, demonstrating co-localization of LC3 and Lamp1 with AQP2 and several other down-regulated proteins in IMCD cells. AQP2 was also detected in autophagosomes in IMCD cells of potassium-deprived rats by immunogold electron microscopy. Thus, enhanced autophagic degradation of proteins, most notably including AQP2, is an early event in hypokalemia-induced NDI.
Project description:P2Y12 receptor (P2Y12-R) signaling is mediated through Gi, ultimately reducing cellular cAMP levels. Because cAMP is a central modulator of arginine vasopressin (AVP)-induced water transport in the renal collecting duct (CD), we hypothesized that if expressed in the CD, P2Y12-R may play a role in renal handling of water in health and in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. We found P2Y12-R mRNA expression in rat kidney, and immunolocalized its protein and aquaporin-2 (AQP2) in CD principal cells. Administration of clopidogrel bisulfate, an irreversible inhibitor of P2Y12-R, significantly increased urine concentration and AQP2 protein in the kidneys of Sprague-Dawley rats. Notably, clopidogrel did not alter urine concentration in Brattleboro rats that lack AVP. Clopidogrel administration also significantly ameliorated lithium-induced polyuria, improved urine concentrating ability and AQP2 protein abundance, and reversed the lithium-induced increase in free-water excretion, without decreasing blood or kidney tissue lithium levels. Clopidogrel administration also augmented the lithium-induced increase in urinary AVP excretion and suppressed the lithium-induced increase in urinary nitrates/nitrites (nitric oxide production) and 8-isoprostane (oxidative stress). Furthermore, selective blockade of P2Y12-R by the reversible antagonist PSB-0739 in primary cultures of rat inner medullary CD cells potentiated the expression of AQP2 and AQP3 mRNA, and cAMP production induced by dDAVP (desmopressin). In conclusion, pharmacologic blockade of renal P2Y12-R increases urinary concentrating ability by augmenting the effect of AVP on the kidney and ameliorates lithium-induced NDI by potentiating the action of AVP on the CD. This strategy may offer a novel and effective therapy for lithium-induced NDI.