Cyclin B2 can compensate for Cyclin B1 in oocyte meiosis I.
ABSTRACT: Mammalian oocytes are arrested at the prophase of the first meiotic division for months and even years, depending on species. Meiotic resumption of fully grown oocytes requires activation of M-phase-promoting factor (MPF), which is composed of Cyclin B1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1). It has long been believed that Cyclin B1 synthesis/accumulation and its interaction with CDK1 is a prerequisite for MPF activation in oocytes. In this study, we revealed that oocyte meiotic resumption occurred in the absence of Cyclin B1. Ccnb1-null oocytes resumed meiosis and extruded the first polar body. Without Cyclin B1, CDK1 could be activated by up-regulated Cyclin B2. Ccnb1 and Ccnb2 double knockout permanently arrested the oocytes at the prophase of the first meiotic division. Oocyte-specific Ccnb1-null female mice were infertile due to failed MPF activity elevation and thus premature interphase-like stage entry in the second meiotic division. These results have revealed a hidden compensatory mechanism between Cyclin B1 and Cyclin B2 in regulating MPF and oocyte meiotic resumption.
Project description:In mammalian species, both the maturation promoting factor (MPF) and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade play critical roles in modulating oocyte meiotic cell-cycle progression. MPF is a critical heterodimer composed of CDK1 and cyclin B1. Activation of MPF and ERK1/2 requires the activation of maternal <i>Ccnb1</i> and <i>Mos</i> mRNAs translation, respectively. The phosphorylation and degradation of CPEB1 that triggered by ERK1/2 is a principal mechanism of activating maternal mRNA translation. However, the interplay of these two key kinases in mediating mammalian translational activation of cytoplasmic mRNAs during oocyte maturation is unclear. We prove evidence that the translational activation of <i>Ccnb1</i> transcripts containing a long 3'-UTR during meiotic resumption works in an ERK1/2-dependent way. A low level of ERK1/2 activation was detected prior to meiotic resumption. Precocious activation of MAPK signaling in germinal vesicle stage oocytes promotes the translation of <i>Ccnb1</i> mRNA and meiotic maturation. Inhibition or precocious activation of CDK1 activity has an appreciable effect on the translation of <i>Ccnb1</i> mRNA, suggesting that both kinases are required for <i>Ccnb1</i> mRNA translational activation. CDK1 triggers phosphorylation, but not degradation, of CPEB1 in oocytes; the degradation of CPEB1 was only triggered by ERK1/2. Moreover, the translational activation of <i>Mos</i> mRNA is regulated by ERK1/2 and cytoplasmic polyadenylation elements too. Taken together, the cooperation and positive feedback activation of ERK1/2 and CDK1 lead to the fine-tuning of mRNA translation and cell-cycle progression during mouse oocyte maturation.
Project description:Psychological stress, which exerts detrimental effects on human reproduction, may compromise the meiotic competence of oocytes. Meiotic resumption, germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), is the first milestone to confer meiotic competence to oocytes. In the practice of assisted reproductive technology (ART), the timing for GVBD is associated with the rates of cleavage and blastocyst formation. However, whether chronic stress compromises oocyte competence by influencing GVBD and the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In the present study, a chronic restraint stress (CRS) mouse model was used to investigate the effects of stress on oocyte meiotic resumption, as well as the mechanisms. Following a 4-week chronic restraint stress in female mice, the percentage of abnormal bipolar spindles increased and indicated compromised oocyte competence in the CRS group. Furthermore, we identified a decreased percentage of GVBD and prolonged time of GVBD in the CRS mouse oocytes compared with the control group. CRS simultaneously reduced the expression of cyclin B1 (CCNB1), which represents a regulatory subunit of M-phase/mature promoting factor (MPF). However, MG132, an inhibitor of anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), could rescue the prolonged time of GVBD and increase the expression level of CCNB1 of oocytes from the CRS mice. Collectively, our results demonstrated that stress disturbed meiotic resumption through APC/C-mediated CCNB1 degradation, thus providing a novel understanding for stress-related oocyte quality decline; moreover, it may provide a non-invasive approach to select high-quality gametes and novel targets for molecular therapy to treat stress-related female infertility.
Project description:Control of protein turnover is critical for meiotic progression. Using RiboTag immunoprecipitation, RNA binding protein immunoprecipitation, and luciferase reporter assay, we investigated how rates of mRNA translation, protein synthesis and degradation contribute to the steady state level of Cyclin B1 and B2 in mouse oocytes. Ribosome loading onto Ccnb1 and Mos mRNAs increases during cell cycle reentry, well after germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD). This is followed by the translation of reporters containing 3' untranslated region of Mos or Ccnb1 and the accumulation of Mos and Cyclin B1 proteins. Conversely, ribosome loading onto Ccnb2 mRNA and Cyclin B2 protein level undergo minimal changes during meiotic reentry. Degradation rates of Cyclin B1 or B2 protein at the GV stage are comparable. The translational activation of Mos and Ccnb1, but not Ccnb2, mRNAs is dependent on the RNA binding protein CPEB1. Inhibition of Cdk1 activity, but not Aurora A kinase activity, prevents the translation of Mos or Ccnb1 reporters, suggesting that MPF is required for their translation in mouse oocytes. Conversely, Ccnb2 translation is insensitive to Cdk1 inhibition. Thus, the poised state that allows rapid meiotic reentry in mouse GV oocytes may be determined by the differential translational control of two Cyclins.
Project description:Cyclins associate with cyclin-dependent serine/threonine kinase 1 (CDK1) to generate the M phase-promoting factor (MPF) activity essential for progression through mitosis and meiosis. Although cyclin B1 (CCNB1) is required for embryo development, previous studies concluded that CCNB2 is dispensable for cell cycle progression. Given previous findings of high <i>Ccnb2</i> mRNA translation rates in prophase-arrested oocytes, we re-evaluated the role of this cyclin during meiosis. <i>Ccnb2</i> <sup>-/-</sup> oocytes underwent delayed germinal vesicle breakdown and showed defects during the metaphase-to-anaphase transition. This defective maturation was associated with compromised <i>Ccnb1</i> and Moloney sarcoma oncogene (<i>Mos</i>) mRNA translation, delayed spindle assembly and increased errors in chromosome segregation. Given these defects, a significant percentage of oocytes failed to complete meiosis I because the spindle assembly checkpoint remained active and anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome function was inhibited. <i>In vivo</i>, CCNB2 depletion caused ovulation of immature oocytes, premature ovarian failure, and compromised female fecundity. These findings demonstrate that CCNB2 is required to assemble sufficient pre-MPF for timely meiosis re-entry and progression. Although endogenous cyclins cannot compensate, overexpression of CCNB1/2 rescues the meiotic phenotypes, indicating similar molecular properties but divergent modes of regulation of these cyclins.
Project description:Meiotic maturation in oocytes is a prolonged process that is unique because of cell cycle arrests at prophase of meiosis I (MI) and at metaphase of meiosis II (MII). Fluctuations in cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1/CDC2A) activity govern meiotic progression, yet little is known about how these fluctuations are achieved. CDC14 is a highly conserved dual-specificity phosphatase that counteracts the function of proteins phosphorylated by CDK. Mammals contain two CDC14 homologs, CDC14A and CDC14B. We report that CDC14B localizes with the meiotic spindle in mouse oocytes, and (unlike somatic cells) it does not localize in the nucleolus. Oocytes that overexpress CDC14B are significantly delayed in resuming meiosis and fail to progress to MII, whereas oocytes depleted of CDC14B spontaneously resume meiosis under conditions that normally inhibit meiotic resumption. Depletion of FZR1 (CDH1), a regulatory subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome that targets cyclin B1 (CCNB1) for ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, partially restores normal timing of meiotic resumption in oocytes with excess CDC14B. These studies also reveal that experimentally altering CDC14B levels generates eggs with abnormal spindles and with chromosome alignment perturbations. Our data indicate that CDC14B is a negative regulator of meiotic resumption and may regulate MI in mouse oocytes.
Project description:Xenopus oocytes were used as cellular and molecular sentinels to assess the effects of a new class of organometallic compounds called ferrocenyl dihydroquinolines that have been developed as potential anti-cancer agents. One ferrocenyl dihydroquinoline compound exerted deleterious effects on oocyte survival after 48 h of incubation at 100 ?M. Two ferrocenyl dihydroquinoline compounds had an inhibitory effect on the resumption of progesterone induced oocyte meiosis, compared to controls without ferrocenyl groups. In these inhibited oocytes, no MPF (Cdk1/cyclin B) activity was detected by western blot analysis as shown by the lack of phosphorylation of histone H3. The dephosphorylation of the inhibitory Y15 residue of Cdk1 occurred but cyclin B was degraded. Moreover, two apoptotic death markers, the active caspase 3 and the phosphorylated histone H2, were detected. Only 7-chloro-1-ferrocenylmethyl-4-(phenylylimino)-1,4-dihydroquinoline (8) did not show any toxicity and allowed the assembly of a histologically normal metaphase II meiotic spindle while inhibiting the proliferation of cancer cell lines with a low IC50, suggesting that this compound appears suitable as an antimitotic agent.
Project description:Entry into mitosis or meiosis relies on the coordinated action of kinases and phosphatases that ultimately leads to the activation of Cyclin-B-Cdk1, also known as MPF for M-phase promoting factor. Vertebrate oocytes are blocked in prophase of the first meiotic division, an arrest that is tightly controlled by high PKA activity. Re-entry into meiosis depends on activation of Cdk1, which obeys a two-step mechanism: a catalytic amount of Cdk1 is generated in a PKA and protein-synthesis-dependent manner; then a regulatory network known as the MPF auto-amplification loop is initiated. This second step is independent of PKA and protein synthesis. However, none of the molecular components of the auto-amplification loop identified so far act independently of PKA. Therefore, the protein rendering this process independent of PKA in oocytes remains unknown. Using a physiologically intact cell system, the Xenopus oocyte, we show that the phosphorylation of ARPP19 at S67 by the Greatwall kinase promotes its binding to the PP2A-B55? phosphatase, thus inhibiting its activity. This process is controlled by Cdk1 and has an essential role within the Cdk1 auto-amplification loop for entry into the first meiotic division. Moreover, once phosphorylated by Greatwall, ARPP19 escapes the negative regulation exerted by PKA. It also promotes activation of MPF independently of protein synthesis, provided that a small amount of Mos is present. Taken together, these findings reveal that PP2A-B55?, Greatwall and ARPP19 are not only required for entry into meiotic divisions, but are also pivotal effectors within the Cdk1 auto-regulatory loop responsible for its independence with respect to the PKA-negative control.
Project description:The role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is addressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Three enzymes involved in H2S metabolism, cystathionine ?-synthase, cystathionine ?-lyase, and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase, were detected in prophase I and metaphase II-arrested oocytes and drove an acceleration of oocyte meiosis resumption when inhibited. Moreover, meiosis resumption is associated with a significant decrease in endogenous H2S. On another hand, a dose-dependent inhibition was obtained using the H2S donor, NaHS (1 and 5 mM). NaHS impaired translation. NaHS did not induce the dissociation of the components of the M-phase promoting factor (MPF), cyclin B and Cdk1, nor directly impacted the MPF activity. However, the M-phase entry induced by microinjection of metaphase II MPF-containing cytoplasm was diminished, suggesting upstream components of the MPF auto-amplification loop were sensitive to H2S. Superoxide dismutase and catalase hindered the effects of NaHS, and this sensitivity was partially dependent on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In contrast to other species, no apoptosis was promoted. These results suggest a contribution of H2S signaling in the timing of amphibian oocytes meiosis resumption.
Project description:There are two important events in oocyte meiotic maturation, the G2/M transition and metaphase I progression. Thousands of proteins participate in regulating oocyte maturation, which highlights the importance of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) in regulating protein synthesis and degradation. Skp1-Cullin-F-box (SCF) complexes, as the best characterized ubiquitin E3 ligases in the UPS, specifically recognize their substrates. F-box proteins, as the variable adaptors of SCF, can bind substrates specifically. Little is known about the functions of the F-box proteins in oocyte maturation. In this study, we found that depletion of FBXO34, an F-box protein, led to failure of oocyte meiotic resumption due to a low activity of MPF, and this phenotype could be rescued by exogenous overexpression of CCNB1. Strikingly, overexpression of FBXO34 promoted germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), but caused continuous activation of spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) and MI arrest of oocytes. Here, we demonstrated that FBXO34 regulated both the G2/M transition and anaphase entry in meiotic oocytes.
Project description:M-phase Promoting Factor (MPF; the cyclin B-cdk 1 complex) is activated at M-phase onset by removal of inhibitory phosphorylation of cdk1 at thr-14 and tyr-15. At M-phase exit, MPF is destroyed by ubiquitin-dependent cyclin proteolysis. Thus, control of MPF activity via inhibitory phosphorylation is believed to be particularly crucial in regulating transition into, rather than out of, M-phase. Using the in vitro cell cycle system derived form Xenopus eggs, here we show, however, that inhibitory phosphorylation of cdk1 contributes to control MPF activity during M-phase exit. By sampling extracts at very short intervals during both meiotic and mitotic exit, we found that cyclin B1-associated cdk1 underwent transient inhibitory phosphorylation at tyr-15 and that cyclin B1-cdk1 activity fell more rapidly than the cyclin B1 content. Inhibitory phosphorylation of MPF correlated with phosphorylation changes of cdc25C, the MPF phosphatase, and physical interaction of cdk1 with wee1, the MPF kinase, during M-phase exit. MPF down-regulation required Ca(++)/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activities at meiosis and mitosis exit, respectively. Treatment of M-phase extracts with a mutant cyclin B1-cdk1AF complex, refractory to inhibition by phosphorylation, impaired binding of the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) to its co-activator Cdc20 and altered M-phase exit. Thus, timely M-phase exit requires a tight coupling of proteolysis-dependent and proteolysis-independent mechanisms of MPF inactivation.