Menopausal Hormone Therapy use and breast cancer risk by receptor subtypes: Results from the New South Wales Cancer Lifestyle and EvaluAtion of Risk (CLEAR) study.
ABSTRACT: Breast cancer risk is increased with current Menopausal Hormone Therapy (MHT) use, with higher risks reported for ER+ (Estrogen Receptor positive), and ER+/PR+ (Estrogen and Progesterone Receptor positive) breast cancers than those of ER- and ER-/PR- status, respectively. There is limited evidence to suggest MHT use is associated with the specific subtype characterised as ER+/PR+/HER2- (Estrogen and Progesterone Receptor positive and Human Epidermal growth factor Receptor2 negative) status. This study aims to investigate the MHT-breast cancer relationship for breast cancer tumor receptor subtypes defined by ER expression alone, by ER and PR expression only and by joint expression of ER, PR, and HER2. Analyses compared 399 cancer registry-verified breast cancer cases with receptor status information and 324 cancer-free controls. We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) for current and past versus never MHT use, for subgroups defined by tumor receptor expression. Current, but not past, use of MHT was associated with an elevated risk of ER+ breast cancer (aOR = 2.04, 95%CI: 1.28-3.24) and ER+/PR+ breast cancer (aOR = 2.29, 1.41-3.72). Current MHT use was also associated with an elevated risk of the ER+/PR+/HER2- subtype (aOR = 2.30, 1.42-3.73). None of the other subtypes based on ER, ER/PR or ER/PR/HER2 expression were significantly associated with current MHT use in this analysis. Current, but not past, use of MHT increases the risk of breast cancer, with consistently higher risks reported for ER+ and ER+/PR+ subtypes and mounting evidence regarding the specific ER+/PR+/HER2- subtype. Our findings contribute to quantification of the effects of MHT, and support efforts to articulate the receptor-mediated mechanisms by which MHT increases the risk of breast cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Type II diabetes and certain diabetes treatments have been observed to impact breast cancer risk. However, their associations with different breast cancer molecular subtype defined by estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR)/HER2 status are unclear. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective multi-center population-based case-case study consisting of 4,557 breast cancer cases to evaluate the impact of type II diabetes and diabetes medications on the risk of different breast cancer molecular subtypes [ER+/HER2-, ER+/HER2+, triple negative (ER-/PR-/HER2-), and HER2 overexpressing (H2E, ER-/PR-/HER2+)]. Using ER+/HER2- cases as the reference group, we estimated ORs and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each subtype using polytomous logistic regression. RESULTS:Compared with those without a diabetes history, women with type II diabetes had a 38% (95% CI, 1.01-1.89) increased odds of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Current and longer term recent metformin use (13-24 months of treatment within the 24-month period prior to breast cancer diagnosis) was associated with elevated odds of TNBC (OR = 1.54; 95% CI, 1.07-2.22 and OR = 1.80; 95% CI, 1.13-2.85, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:The odds of having a triple-negative rather than ER+/HER2- breast cancer is greater for women with type II diabetes, and particularly for those who were users of metformin. This finding is supported by some preclinical data suggesting that diabetes may be more strongly associated with risk of triple-negative disease. IMPACT:Our study provides novel evidence regarding potential differential effects of type II diabetes and metformin use on risk of different molecular subtypes of breast cancer.
Project description:We evaluated discordance in expression measurements for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2 between primary and recurrent tumors in patients with recurrent breast cancer and its effect on prognosis.A total of 789 patients with recurrent breast cancer were studied. ER, PR, and HER2 status were determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and/or FISH. Repeat markers for ER, PR, and HER2 were available in 28.9%, 27.6%, and 70.0%, respectively. Primary and recurrent tumors were classified as triple receptor-negative breast cancer (TNBC) or receptor-positive breast cancer (RPBC, i.e. expressing at least one receptor). Discordance was correlated with clinical/pathological parameters.Discordance for ER, PR, and HER2 was 18.4%, 40.3%, and 13.6%, respectively. Patients with concordant RPBC had significantly better post-recurrence survival (PRS) than discordant cases; patients with discordant receptor status had similarly unfavorable survival as patients with concordant TNBC. IHC scores for ER and PR showed weak concordance between primary and recurrent tumors. Concordance of HER2-FISH scores was higher.Concordance of quantitative hormone receptor measurements between primary and recurrent tumors is modest consistent with suboptimal reproducibility of measurement methods, particularly for IHC. Discordant cases have poor survival probably due to inappropriate use of targeted therapies. However, biological change in clinical phenotype cannot be completely excluded.
Project description:Epidemiologic studies suggest that some hormone-related risk factors in breast cancer differentially influence risk for disease subtypes classified by the status of the estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER/PR). However, it remains unclear whether human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) or p53 expression status further differentiates these exposure-risk group associations. We evaluated the associations of oral contraceptive (OC) use and reproductive factors with incident invasive breast cancer subtypes among 1,197 population-based cases and 2,015 controls from the Los Angeles County or Detroit components of the Women's Contraceptive and Reproductive Experiences Study. Case-control comparisons by ER/PR/HER2/p53 status were conducted by multivariable polychotomous unconditional logistic regression methods. We found that OC use was not associated with any breast cancer subtype as defined by ER/PR/HER2/p53 status, except for a 2.9-fold increased risk of so-called triple-negative tumors (ER(-)/PR(-)/HER2(-)) among women of 45 to 64 years of age who started OC use before age 18. Parity was associated with a decreased risk of luminal A (ER(+) or PR(+), HER2(-)), luminal B (ER(+) or PR(+)/HER2(+)), and ER(-)/PR(-)/HER2(+) tumors. Age at first full-term pregnancy was positively associated with luminal A tumors among older women. Neither of these reproductive factors was associated with triple-negative tumors. Long duration of breast-feeding lowered the risk of triple-negative and luminal A tumors. p53 status did not define further differential risk patterns. Our findings offer evidence of differences in the hormone-related risk factors between triple-negative cancers and other ER/PR/HER2-defined subtypes of breast cancer.
Project description:The calcium-activated chloride channel Ano1 (TMEM16A) is overexpressed in many tumors. However, conflicting data exist regarding the role of Ano1 in cell proliferation. Here, we performed immunohistochemistry to investigate the expression of Ano1 and Ki67 in 403 patients with breast cancer, and analyzed the association between the expression of Ano1 and Ki67 in breast cancer subtypes categorized according to estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Ano1 expression was negatively correlated with Ki67 expression. Ano1 overexpression more frequently occurred in ER-positive or HER2-negative patients with the low expression of Ki67. Ano1 overexpression was associated with longer overall survival (OS) in breast cancer with the low expression of Ki67, especially in ER-positive, PR-positive, and HER2-negative breast cancer. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that Ano1 overexpression was a prognostic factor for longer overall survival in ER-positive, PR-positive, or HER2-negative patients with the low expression of Ki67. Furthermore, Ano1 promoted cell proliferation in ER-positive, PR-positive, and HER2-negative MCF7 cells, but inhibited cell proliferation in ER-negative, PR-negative, and HER2-negative MDA-MB-435S cells. Our findings suggest that Ano1 may differentially regulate cell proliferation in a subtype of breast cancer defined by ER, PR, and HER2. Combined expression of Ano1 and Ki67 may be used for predicting clinical outcomes of breast cancer patients with different subtypes of ER, PR, and HER2.
Project description:Estrogen receptor-positive, progesterone receptor-negative, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative (ER+PR-HER2-) breast cancer comprise a special type of breast cancer that constitutes ~10% of all breast cancer patients. ER+PR-HER2- tumor benefits less from endocrine therapy, while its genomic features remain elusive. In this study, we systematically assessed the multiomic landscape and endocrine responsiveness of ER+PR-HER2- breast cancer. <b>Methods:</b> This study incorporated five cohorts. The first and second cohorts were from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (n=130,856) and Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium (n=1,055) for analyzing survival outcomes and endocrine responsiveness. The third cohort was from The Cancer Genome Atlas (n=630) for multiomic analysis and endocrine-resistant subgroup exploration. The fourth cohort, from the MD Anderson database (n=92), was employed to assist gene selection. The fifth cohort was a prospective observational cohort from Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (n=245) that was utilized to validate the gene-defined subgroup by immunohistochemistry (IHC). <b>Results:</b> Clinically, ER+PR-HER2- tumors showed lower endocrine responsiveness than did ER+PR+HER2- tumors. Genomically, copy number loss or promoter methylation of PR genes occurred in 75% of ER+PR-HER2- tumors, collectively explaining PR loss. ER+PR-HER2- tumors had higher <i>TP53</i> (30.3% vs. 17.0%) and lower <i>PIK3CA</i> mutation rates (25.8% vs. 42.7%) and exhibited more <i>ZNF703</i> (21.5% vs. 13.6%) and <i>RPS6KB1</i> (18.5% vs. 7.8%) amplification events than ER+PR+HER2- tumors. Among ER+PR-HER2- tumors, nearly 20% were of the PAM50-defined non-luminal-like subgroup and manifested lower endocrine sensitivity scores and enriched biosynthesis, metabolism and DNA replication pathways. We further identified the non-luminal-like subgroup using three IHC markers, GATA3, CK5, and EGFR. These IHC-defined non-luminal-like (GATA3-negative, CK5-positive and/or EGFR-positive) tumors received limited benefit from adjuvant endocrine therapy. <b>Conclusion:</b> ER+PR-HER2- breast cancer consists of clinically and genomically distinct groups that may require different treatment strategies. The non-luminal-like subgroup was associated with reduced benefit from endocrine therapy.
Project description:In clinical practice, breast cancers with lymph node positive, ER/PR-negative and overexpressed human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (LN+ER/PR-Her2+) have high risk of recurrence, but the effective biomarkers of prognostic for this type tumor are still lacking. Since breast cancers with LN+ER/PR-Her2+ is at higher risk of recurrence than those with LN-ER/PR+Her2-. The differential proteins between those two groups could be related to the risk of recurrence. Herein, we report that serum soluble CD14 (sCD14) was revealed as the stable differential protein between LN+ER/PR-Her2+ (n=50) and LN-ER/PR+Her2- (n=50) breast cancer patients by proteomics analysis. To validate sCD14 as a biomarker for predicting recurrence of breast cancer, 90 breast cancer patients with LN+ER/PR-Her2+ and 93 patients with LN-ER/PR+Her2- were recruited. The patients with higher level of serum sCD14 at primary surgery showed to be at significantly lower risk of relapse in 3 years follow-up than those with lower level of serum sCD14 at primary surgery. The levels of serum sCD14 at primary surgery were significantly correlated to the risk of 3-year recurrence of LN+ER/PR-Her2+ breast cancer and the corresponding AUC of the ROC curve was 0.833 (95% CI, and 0.742 to 0.920). Therefore, we surmise that serum sCD14 could be a potential biomarker for predicting the prognosis of breast invasive ductal carcinoma with LN+ER/PR-Her2+.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Breast cancer incidence is higher among black women than white women before age 40 years, but higher among white women than black women after age 40 years (black-white crossover). We used newly available population-based data to examine whether the age-specific incidences of breast cancer subtypes vary by race and ethnicity.<h4>Methods</h4>We classified 91908 invasive breast cancers diagnosed in California between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2009, by subtype based on tumor expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR)-together referred to as hormone receptor (HR)-and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Breast cancer subtypes were classified as ER or PR positive and HER2 negative (HR(+)/HER2(-)), ER or PR positive and HER2 positive (HR(+)/HER2(+)), ER and PR negative and HER2 positive (HR(-)/HER2(+)), and ER, PR, and HER2 negative (triple-negative). We calculated and compared age-specific incidence rates, incidence rate ratios, and 95% confidence intervals by subtype and race (black, white, Hispanic, and Asian). All P values are two-sided.<h4>Results</h4>We did not observe an age-related black-white crossover in incidence for any molecular subtype of breast cancer. Compared with white women, black women had statistically significantly higher rates of triple-negative breast cancer at all ages but statistically significantly lower rates of HR(+)/HER2(-) breast cancers after age 35 years (all P < .05). The age-specific incidence of HR(+)/HER2(+) and HR(-)/HER2(+) subtypes did not vary markedly between white and black women.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The black-white crossover in breast cancer incidence occurs only when all breast cancer subtypes are combined and relates largely to higher rates of triple-negative breast cancers and lower rates of HR(+)/HER2(-) breast cancers in black vs white women.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Invasive lobular breast tumors display unique reproductive risk factor profiles. Lobular tumors are predominantly Luminal A subtype, and it is unclear whether reported risk factor associations are independent of molecular subtype. METHODS:Polytomous logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the associations between risk factors and histologic subtype [ductal (n?=?2,856), lobular (n?=?326), and mixed ductal-lobular (n?=?473)] in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (1993-2013). Three-marker immunohistochemical clinical subtypes were defined as Luminal A (ER+ or PR+/HER2-), Luminal B (ER+?or PR+/HER2+), Triple Negative (ER-/PR-/HER2-), and HER2+ (ER-/PR-/HER2+). RESULTS:In case-case analyses compared to ductal, lobular tumors were significantly associated with lactation duration?>?12 months [OR 1.86, 95% CI (1.33-2.60)], age at first birth???26 years [OR: 1.35, 95% CI: (1.03-1.78)], and current oral contraceptive use [OR: 1.86, 95% CI: (1.08-3.20)]. Differences in risk factor associations between ductal and lobular tumors persisted after restricting to Luminal A subtype. CONCLUSIONS:Lobular tumors were associated with older age at first birth, increased lactation duration, and current oral contraceptive use. Etiologic heterogeneity by histology persisted after restricting to Luminal A subtype, suggesting both tumor histology and intrinsic subtype play integral parts in breast cancer risk.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Breast cancer comprises clinically distinct subtypes, but most risk statistics consider breast cancer only as a single entity. To estimate subtype-specific lifetime breast cancer risks, we took advantage of population-based data for which information regarding tumor expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2/neu (HER2) was newly available.<h4>Methods</h4>We included women whose breast cancer was diagnosed in the state of California from 2006 to 2007 and was reported to the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (N = 40,936). We calculated absolute lifetime and age-specific probabilities (percent, 95% confidence interval) of developing breast cancer subtypes defined by ER, PR, and HER2 status - luminal (ER and/or PR-positive, HER2-negative), HER2-positive (ER and PR-positive or negative, HER2-positive), and triple-negative (ER-negative, PR-negative, and HER2-negative) - separately for white, black, Hispanic, and Asian women.<h4>Results</h4>The luminal breast cancer subtype predominates across racial/ethnic groups, with lifetime risk lowest in Hispanic women (4.60%, 4.41-4.80%) and highest in white women (8.10%, 7.94-8.20%). HER2-positive breast cancer varies less by race (1.56-1.91%). Lifetime risk of triple-negative breast cancer is highest in black women (1.98%, 1.80-2.17%), compared to 0.77% (0.67-0.88%) for Asians, 1.04% (0.96-1.13%) for Hispanics and 1.25% (1.20-1.30%) for whites. Across racial/ethnic groups, nearly half of all luminal breast cancers occur after age 70.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These absolute risk estimates may inform health policy and resource planning across diverse populations, and can help patients and physicians weigh the probabilities of developing specific breast cancer subtypes against competing health risks.
Project description:The calcium-activated chloride channel Ano1 (TMEM16A) is overexpressed in many tumors. Although Ano1 overexpression is found in breast cancer due to 11q13 amplification, it remains unclear whether signaling pathways are involved in Ano1 overexpression during breast cancer tumorigenesis in vivo. Estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) have been known to contribute to breast cancer progression. It is unclear whether Ano1 is associated with clinical outcomes in breast cancer patients with different ER, PR and HER2 status. In the present study, we investigated the Ano1 expression in 431 patients with invasive ductal breast carcinoma and 46 patients with fibroadenoma, using immunohistochemistry, and analyzed the association between Ano1 expression and clinical characteristics and outcomes of breast cancer patients with different ER, PR, and HER2 status. Ano1 was overexpressed in breast cancer compared with fibroadenoma. Ano1 was significantly more associated with breast cancer with the lower clinical stage (stage I or II), or triple-negative status. Mostly importantly, Ano1 overexpression was associated with good prognosis in patients with the PR-positive or HER2-negative status, and in patients following tamoxifen treatment. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that Ano1 overexpression was a prognostic factor for longer overall survival in PR-positive or HER2-negative patients, and a predictive factor for longer overall survival in patients following tamoxifen treatment. Our findings suggest that Ano1 may be a potential marker for good prognosis in PR-positive or HER2-negative patients following tamoxifen treatment. The PR and HER2 status defines a subtype of breast cancer in which Ano1 overexpression is associated with good prognosis following tamoxifen treatment.