Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia patients with multiple genetic variants in the PACES CPVT Registry.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is often a life-threatening arrhythmia disorder with variable penetrance and expressivity. Little is known about the incidence or outcomes of CPVT patients with ?2 variants. METHODS:The phenotypes, genotypes and outcomes of patients in the Pediatric and Congenital Electrophysiology Society CPVT Registry with ?2 variants in genes linked to CPVT were ascertained. The American College of Medical Genetics & Genomics (ACMG) criteria and structural mapping were used to predict the pathogenicity of variants (3D model of pig RyR2 in open-state). RESULTS:Among 237 CPVT subjects, 193 (81%) had genetic testing. Fifteen patients (8%) with a median age of 9 years (IQR 5-12) had ?2 variants. Sudden cardiac arrest occurred in 11 children (73%), although none died during a median follow-up of 4.3 years (IQR 2.5-6.1). Thirteen patients (80%) had at least two RYR2 variants, while the remaining two patients had RYR2 variants plus variants in other CPVT-linked genes. Among all variants identified, re-classification of the commercial laboratory interpretation using ACMG criteria led to the upgrade from variant of unknown significance (VUS) to pathogenic/likely pathogenic (P/LP) for 5 variants, and downgrade from P/LP to VUS for 6 variants. For RYR2 variants, 3D mapping using the RyR2 model suggested that 2 VUS by ACMG criteria were P/LP, while 2 variants were downgraded to likely benign. CONCLUSIONS:This severely affected cohort demonstrates that a minority of CPVT cases are related to ?2 variants, which may have implications on family-based genetic counselling. While multi-variant CPVT patients were at high-risk for sudden cardiac arrest, there are insufficient data to conclude that this genetic phenomenon has prognostic implications at present. Further research is needed to determine the significance and generalizability of this observation. This study also shows that a rigorous approach to variant re-classification using the ACMG criteria and 3D mapping is important in reaching an accurate diagnosis, especially in the multi-variant population.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Prior research has established that the prevalence of pathogenic/likely pathogenic (P/LP) variants across all of the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) Secondary Findings (SF) genes is approximately 0.8-5%. We investigated the prevalence of P/LP variants in the 24 ACMG SF v2.0 cancer genes in a family-based cancer research cohort (n?=?1173) and in cancer-free ethnicity-matched controls (n?=?982). METHODS:We used InterVar to classify variants and subsequently conducted a manual review to further examine variants of unknown significance (VUS). RESULTS:In the 24 genes on the ACMG SF v2.0 list associated with a cancer phenotype, we observed 8 P/LP unique variants (8 individuals; 0.8%) in controls and 11 P/LP unique variants (14 individuals; 1.2%) in cases, a non-significant difference. We reviewed 115 VUS. The median estimated per-variant review time required was 30?min; the first variant within a gene took significantly (p?=?0.0009) longer to review (median = 60?min) compared with subsequent variants (median = 30?min). The concordance rate was 83.3% for the variants examined by two reviewers. CONCLUSION:The 115 VUS required database and literature review, a time- and labor-intensive process hampered by the difficulty in interpreting conflicting P/LP determinations. By rigorously investigating the 24 ACMG SF v2.0 cancer genes, our work establishes a benchmark P/LP variant prevalence rate in a familial cancer cohort and controls.
Project description:Sequencing tests assaying panels of genes or whole exomes are widely available for cancer risk evaluation. However, methods for classification of variants resulting from this testing are not well studied. We evaluated the ability of a variant-classification methodology based on American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) guidelines to define the rate of mutations and variants of uncertain significance (VUS) in 180 medically relevant genes, including all ACMG-designated reportable cancer and non-cancer-associated genes, in individuals who met guidelines for hereditary cancer risk evaluation. We performed whole-exome sequencing in 404 individuals in 253 families and classified 1,640 variants. Potentially clinically actionable (likely pathogenic [LP] or pathogenic [P]) versus nonactionable (VUS, likely benign, or benign) calls were 95% concordant with locus-specific databases and Clinvar. LP or P mutations were identified in 12 of 25 breast cancer susceptibility genes in 26 families without identified BRCA1/2 mutations (11%). Evaluation of 84 additional genes associated with autosomal-dominant cancer susceptibility identified LP or P mutations in only two additional families (0.8%). However, individuals from 10 of 253 families (3.9%) had incidental LP or P mutations in 32 non-cancer-associated genes, and 9% of individuals were monoallelic carriers of a rare LP or P mutation in 39 genes associated with autosomal-recessive cancer susceptibility. Furthermore, 95% of individuals had at least one VUS. In summary, these data support the clinical utility of ACMG variant-classification guidelines. Additionally, evaluation of extended panels of cancer-associated genes in breast/ovarian cancer families leads to only an incremental clinical benefit but substantially increases the complexity of the results.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a severe inherited cardiac disorder caused by mutations predominantly in the ryanodine receptor (RyR2) gene. We sought to identify mutations in genes affecting cardiac calcium cycling in patients with CPVT and in less typical familial exercise-related ventricular arrhythmias. METHODS AND RESULTS: We recruited 33 consecutive patients with frequent ventricular premature complexes (VPCs) without structural heart disease and often history of syncope or sudden death in family. Sixteen of the patients featured a phenotype typical of CPVT. In 17 patients, VPCs emerged also at rest. Exercise stress test and echocardiography were performed to each patient and 232 family members. Familial background was evident in 42% of cases (n = 14). We sequenced all the coding exons of the RyR2, FKBP1B, ATP2A2 and SLC8A1 genes from the index patients. Single channel recordings of a mutant RyR2 were performed in planar lipid bilayers. Two novel RyR2 missense mutations (R1051P and S616L) and two RyR2 exon 3 deletions were identified, explaining 25% of the CPVT phenotypes. A rare variant (N3308S) with open probabilities similar to the wild type channels in vitro, was evident in a patient with resting VPCs. No disease-causing variants were detectable in the FKBP1B, ATP2A2 or SLC8A1 genes. CONCLUSION: We report two novel CPVT-causing RyR2 mutations and a novel RyR2 variant of uncertain clinical significance in a patient with abundant resting VPCs. Our data also strengthen the previous assumption that exon 3 deletions of RyR2 should screened for in CPVT and related phenotypes.
Project description:Aims:Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is an ion channelopathy characterized by ventricular arrhythmia during exertion or stress. Mutations in RYR2-coded Ryanodine Receptor-2 (RyR2) and CASQ2-coded Calsequestrin-2 (CASQ2) genes underlie CPVT1 and CPVT2, respectively. However, prognostic markers are scarce. We sought to better characterize the phenotypic and genotypic spectrum of CPVT, and utilize molecular modelling to help account for clinical phenotypes. Methods and results:This is a Pediatric and Congenital Electrophysiology Society multicentre, retrospective cohort study of CPVT patients diagnosed at?<19 years of age and their first-degree relatives. Genetic testing was undertaken in 194 of 236 subjects (82%) during 3.5 (1.4-5.3) years of follow-up. The majority (60%) had RyR2-associated CPVT1. Variant locations were predicted based on a 3D structural model of RyR2. Specific residues appear to have key structural importance, supported by an association between cardiac arrest and mutations in the intersubunit interface of the N-terminus, and the S4-S5 linker and helices S5 and S6 of the RyR2 C-terminus. In approximately one quarter of symptomatic patients, cardiac events were precipitated by only normal wakeful activities. Conclusion:This large, multicentre study identifies contemporary challenges related to the diagnosis and prognostication of CPVT patients. Structural modelling of RyR2 can improve our understanding severe CPVT phenotypes. Wakeful rest, rather than exertion, often precipitated life-threatening cardiac events.
Project description:The ClinGen PTEN Expert Panel was organized by the ClinGen Hereditary Cancer Clinical Domain Working Group to assemble clinicians, researchers, and molecular diagnosticians with PTEN expertise to develop specifications to the 2015 ACMG/AMP Sequence Variant Interpretation Guidelines for PTEN variant interpretation. We describe finalized PTEN-specific variant classification criteria and outcomes from pilot testing of 42 variants with benign/likely benign (BEN/LBEN), pathogenic/likely pathogenic (PATH/LPATH), uncertain significance (VUS), and conflicting (CONF) ClinVar assertions. Utilizing these rules, classifications concordant with ClinVar assertions were achieved for 14/15 (93.3%) BEN/LBEN and 16/16 (100%) PATH/LPATH ClinVar consensus variants for an overall concordance of 96.8% (30/31). The variant where agreement was not reached was a synonymous variant near a splice donor with noncanonical sequence for which in silico models cannot predict the native site. Applying these rules to six VUS and five CONF variants, adding shared internal laboratory data enabled one VUS to be classified as LBEN and two CONF variants to be as classified as PATH and LPATH. This study highlights the benefit of gene-specific criteria and the value of sharing internal laboratory data for variant interpretation. Our PTEN-specific criteria and expertly reviewed assertions should prove helpful for laboratories and others curating PTEN variants.
Project description:Objective Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a lethal inherited disease characterized by ventricular arrhythmias induced by physical exercise or emotional stress. The major cause of CPVT is mutations in RYR2, which encodes the cardiac ryanodine receptor channel. Recent advances in sequencing technology have yielded incidental findings of RYR2 variants in other cardiac diseases. Analyzing the characteristics of RYR2 variants related to CPVT will be useful for differentiation from those related to other cardiac diseases. We examined the phenotypic characteristics of patients with RYR2 variants. Methods Seventy-nine probands carrying RYR2 variants whose diagnoses were either CPVT (n=68) or long QT syndrome (LQTS; n=11) were enrolled. We compared the characteristics of the electrocardiogram (ECG) and the location of the RYR2 mutations-N-terminal (NT), central region (CR) or C-terminal (CT)-between the two patient groups. Results Using the ECGs available from 53 probands before ?-blocker therapies, we analyzed the heart rates (HRs). CPVT probands showed bradycardia more frequently (25/44; 57%) than LQTS probands (1/9; 11%; p=0.024). In CPVT patients, 20 mutations were located in NT, 25 in CR and 23 in CT. In LQTS patients, 5 mutations were located in NT, 2 in CR and 4 in CT. There were no significant differences in the locations of the RYR2 mutations between the phenotypes. Conclusion Bradycardia was highly correlated with the phenotype of CPVT. When a clinically-diagnosed LQTS patient with bradycardia carries an RYR2 mutation, we should be careful to avoid making a misdiagnosis, as the patient may actually have CPVT.
Project description:Channelopathies, caused by disturbed potassium or calcium ion management in cardiac myocytes are a major cause of heart failure and sudden cardiac death worldwide. The human ryanodine receptor 2 (RYR2) is one of the key players tightly regulating calcium efflux from the sarcoplasmic reticulum to the cytosol and found frequently mutated (<60%) in context of catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT1). We tested 35 Kazakhstani patients with episodes of ventricular arrhythmia, two of those with classical CPVT characteristics and 33 patients with monomorphic idiopathic ventricular arrhythmia, for variants in the hot-spot regions of the RYR2 gene. This approach revealed two novel variants; one de-novo RYR2 mutation (c13892A>T; p.D4631V) in a CPVT patient and a novel rare variant (c5428G>C; p.V1810L) of uncertain significance in a patient with VT of idiopathic origin which we suggest represents a low-penetrance or susceptibility variant. In addition we identified a known variant previously associated with arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia type2 (ARVD2). Combining sets of prediction scores and reference databases appeared fundamental to predict the pathogenic potential of novel and rare missense variants in populations where genotype data are rare.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Genes encoding cardiac ion channels or regulating proteins have been associated with the inherited form of long QT syndrome (LQTS). Complex pathophysiology and missing functional studies, however, often bedevil variant interpretation and classification. We aimed to evaluate the rate of change in variant classification based on current interpretation standards and dependent on clinical findings. METHODS:Medical charts of children with a molecular genetic diagnosis of LQTS presenting at our centers were retrospectively reviewed. Reinterpretation of originally reported variants in genes associated with LQTS was performed based on current knowledge (March 2019) and according to the "Standards and Guidelines for the Interpretation of Sequence Variants" by the ACMG 2015. RESULTS:About 84 distinct (likely) pathogenic variants identified in 127 patients were reinterpreted. In 12 variants (12/84, 14.3%), classification changed from (likely) pathogenic to variant of unknown significance (VUS). One of these variants was a hypomorphic allele escaping the standard variant classification. Individuals with variants that downgraded to VUS after reevaluation showed significantly lower Schwartz scores and QTc intervals compared to individuals with unchanged variant characterization. CONCLUSION:This finding confirms genetic variant interpretation as a dynamic process and underlines the importance of ongoing genetic counseling, especially in LQTS patients with minor clinical criteria.
Project description:PURPOSE:We evaluated the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics/Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG/AMP) variant pathogenicity guidelines for internal consistency and compatibility with Bayesian statistical reasoning. METHODS:The ACMG/AMP criteria were translated into a naive Bayesian classifier, assuming four levels of evidence and exponentially scaled odds of pathogenicity. We tested this framework with a range of prior probabilities and odds of pathogenicity. RESULTS:We modeled the ACMG/AMP guidelines using biologically plausible assumptions. Most ACMG/AMP combining criteria were compatible. One ACMG/AMP likely pathogenic combination was mathematically equivalent to pathogenic and one ACMG/AMP pathogenic combination was actually likely pathogenic. We modeled combinations that include evidence for and against pathogenicity, showing that our approach scored some combinations as pathogenic or likely pathogenic that ACMG/AMP would designate as variant of uncertain significance (VUS). CONCLUSION:By transforming the ACMG/AMP guidelines into a Bayesian framework, we provide a mathematical foundation for what was a qualitative heuristic. Only 2 of the 18 existing ACMG/AMP evidence combinations were mathematically inconsistent with the overall framework. Mixed combinations of pathogenic and benign evidence could yield a likely pathogenic, likely benign, or VUS result. This quantitative framework validates the approach adopted by the ACMG/AMP, provides opportunities to further refine evidence categories and combining rules, and supports efforts to automate components of variant pathogenicity assessments.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a rare inherited arrhythmia syndrome characterized by adrenergically driven ventricular arrhythmia predominantly caused by pathogenic variants in the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2). We describe a novel variant associated with cardiac arrest in a mother and daughter. METHODS:Initial sequencing of the RYR2 gene identified a novel variant (c.527G > T, p.R176L) in the index case (the mother), and her daughter. Structural analysis demonstrated the variant was located within the N-terminal domain of RyR2, likely leading to a gain-of-function effect facilitating enhanced calcium ion release. Four generation cascade genetic and clinical screening was carried out. RESULTS:Thirty-eight p.R176L variant carriers were identified of 94 family members with genetic testing, and 108 family members had clinical evaluations. Twelve carriers were symptomatic with previous syncope and 2 additional survivors of cardiac arrest were identified. Thirty-two had clinical features suggestive of CPVT. Of 52 noncarriers, 11 had experienced previous syncope with none exhibiting any clinical features of CPVT. A documented arrhythmic event rate of 2.89/1000 person-years across all carriers was calculated. CONCLUSION:The substantial variability in phenotype and the lower than previously reported penetrance is illustrative of the importance of exploring family variants beyond first-degree relatives.