Mild Pulmonary Hypertension Is Associated With Increased Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
ABSTRACT: Background Recent studies have demonstrated a continuum in clinical risk related to mean pulmonary artery pressure that begins at >19 mm Hg, which is below the traditional threshold used to define pulmonary hypertension ( PH ) of 25 mm Hg. Because of the implications on patient diagnosis and prognosis, the generalizability and validity of these data need further confirmation. Methods and Results Databases were searched from inception through January 31, 2018, to identify studies comparing all-cause mortality between patients with mildly elevated mean pulmonary artery pressure near but <25 mm Hg versus the referent group. The meta-analysis included 15 nonrandomized studies and 16 482 patients (7451 [45.2%] with measured or calculated mean pulmonary artery pressure of 19-24 mm Hg by right heart catheterization [n=6037] and echocardiography [n=1414] [mild PH ]). The mean duration of follow-up was 5.2 years. Compared with the referent group, mild PH was associated with an increased risk of mortality (risk ratio, 1.52; 95% confidence interval, 1.32-1.74; P<0.001; I2=47%). Secondary analysis using risk-adjusted time-to-event estimates showed a similar result (hazard ratio, 1.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-1.31; P<0.001; I2=42%). The findings were consistent between subgroups of right heart catheterization and echocardiography studies ( Pinteraction>0.05). There was evidence of publication bias; however, this did not influence the risk estimate (Duval and Tweedie's trim and fill adjusted risk ratio, 1.34; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-1.56). Conclusions The risk of mortality is increased in patients with mild PH , defined as measured or calculated mean pulmonary artery pressure >19 mm Hg. These data emphasize a need for diagnosing patients with mild PH with consideration to enrollment in PH clinical studies investigating pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions to attenuate clinical risk and improve outcomes.
Project description:Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with increased morbidity across the cardiopulmonary disease spectrum. Based primarily on expert consensus opinion, PH is defined by a mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) ?25 mm Hg. Although mPAP levels below this threshold are common among populations at risk for PH, the relevance of mPAP <25 mm Hg to clinical outcome is unknown.We analyzed retrospectively all US veterans undergoing right heart catheterization (2007-2012) in the Veterans Affairs healthcare system (n=21,727; 908-day median follow-up). Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the association between mPAP and outcomes of all-cause mortality and hospitalization, adjusted for clinical covariates. When treating mPAP as a continuous variable, the mortality hazard increased beginning at 19 mm Hg (hazard ratio [HR]=1.183; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.004-1.393) relative to 10 mm Hg. Therefore, patients were stratified into 3 groups: (1) referent (?18 mm Hg; n=4,207); (2) borderline PH (19-24 mm Hg; n=5,030); and (3) PH (?25 mm Hg; n=12,490). The adjusted mortality hazard was increased for borderline PH (HR=1.23; 95% CI, 1.12-1.36; P<0.0001) and PH (HR=2.16; 95% CI, 1.96-2.38; P<0.0001) compared with the referent group. The adjusted hazard for hospitalization was also increased in borderline PH (HR=1.07; 95% CI, 1.01-1.12; P=0.0149) and PH (HR=1.15; 95% CI, 1.09-1.22; P<0.0001). The borderline PH cohort remained at increased risk for mortality after excluding the following high-risk subgroups: (1) patients with pulmonary artery wedge pressure >15 mm Hg; (2) pulmonary vascular resistance ?3.0 Wood units; or (3) inpatient status at the time of right heart catheterization.These data illustrate a continuum of risk according to mPAP level and that borderline PH is associated with increased mortality and hospitalization. Future investigations are needed to test the generalizability of our findings to other populations and study the effect of treatment on outcome in borderline PH.
Project description:Background Preoperative pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with excess mortality among patients with severe mitral regurgitation undergoing mitral valve surgery (MVS). However, the links between PH phenotype, pulmonary vascular remodeling, and persistent postoperative PH are not well understood. We aimed to describe the associations between components of pulmonary hemodynamics as well as postoperative residual PH with longitudinal mortality in patients with severe mitral regurgitation who received MVS. Methods and Results Patients undergoing MVS for severe mitral regurgitation from 2011 to 2016 were retrospectively identified within our health system (n=488). Mean pulmonary artery pressure and other hemodynamic variables were determined by presurgical right-heart catheterization. Postoperative pulmonary artery systolic pressure was assessed on echocardiogram 42 to 365 days post-MVS. Longitudinal survival over a mean 3.9 years of follow-up was evaluated using Cox proportional hazards modeling to compare survival after adjustment for demographics, surgical characteristics, and comorbidities. Pre-MVS prevalence of PH was high at 85%. After adjustment, each 10-mm Hg increase in preoperative mean pulmonary artery pressure was associated with a 1.38-fold increase in risk of death (95% CI, 1.13-1.68). Elevated preoperative pulmonary vascular resistance, transpulmonary gradient, and right atrial pressure were similarly associated with increased mortality. Among 231 patients with postoperative echocardiogram, evidence of PH on echocardiogram (pulmonary artery systolic pressure ≥35 mm Hg) was associated with increased risk of death (hazard ratio [HR], 2.02 [95% CI, 1.17-3.47]); however, this was no longer statistically significant after adjustment (HR, 1.55 [95% CI, 0.85-2.85]). Conclusions In patients undergoing MVS for mitral regurgitation, preoperative PH, and postoperative PH were associated with increased mortality.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pulmonary hypertension (PH) in adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with early mortality, but no prior studies have evaluated quantitative relationships of mortality to physiological measures of pre- and postcapillary PH. OBJECTIVES:To identify risk factors associated with mortality and to estimate the expected survival in a cohort of patients with SCD with PH documented by right heart catheterization. METHODS:Nine-year follow-up data (median, 4.7 yr) from the National Institutes of Health SCD PH screening study are reported. A total of 529 adults with SCD were screened by echocardiography between 2001 and 2010 with no exclusion criteria. Hemodynamic data were collected from 84 patients. PH was defined as mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) ? 25 mm Hg. Survival rates were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and mortality risk factors were analyzed by the Cox proportional hazards regression. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Specific hemodynamic variables were independently related to mortality: mean PAP (hazard ratio [HR], 1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-2.45 per 10 mm Hg increase; P = 0.027), diastolic PAP (HR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.09-3.08 per 10 mm Hg increase; P = 0.022), diastolic PAP - pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (HR, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.23-3.89 per 10 mm Hg increase; P = 0.008), transpulmonary gradient (HR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.14-2.79 per 10 mm Hg increase; P = 0.011), and pulmonary vascular resistance (HR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.09-1.89 per Wood unit increase; P = 0.009) as risk factors for mortality. CONCLUSIONS:Mortality in adults with SCD and PH is proportional to the physiological severity of precapillary PH, demonstrating its prognostic and clinical relevance despite anemia-induced high cardiac output and less severely elevated pulmonary vascular resistance.
Project description:The dyad of hypertension and coronary artery disease is prevalent; however, data on systolic blood pressure (SBP) control and long-term all-cause mortality are lacking. Using extended follow-up data from the US cohort of the International Verapamil (SR)/Trandolapril Study (mean 11.6 years), subjects were categorized by age at enrollment (50 to <60 and ?60 years). Cox proportional adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were constructed for time to all-cause mortality according to achieved mean SBP. In those 50 to <60 years and using a referent SBP of <130 mm?Hg, an achieved SBP of 130 to 140 mm?Hg was associated with a similar risk of mortality (HR, 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.87-1.23), whereas an achieved SBP of ?140 mm?Hg was associated with an increased risk of mortality (HR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.53-2.11). Among subjects aged ?60 years and using a referent SBP of <130 mm?Hg, an achieved SBP 130 to 140 mm?Hg was associated with a lower mortality risk (HR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.85-0.98). There was an increased risk of mortality with an achieved SBP ?150 mm?Hg (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.23-1.45), but not with an achieved SBP 140 to 150 mm?Hg (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.94-1.11). In hypertensive patients with coronary artery disease, achieving a SBP of 130 to 140 mm?Hg seems to be associated with lower all-cause mortality after ?11.6 years of follow-up.URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00133692.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to determine the predictors of mortality in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) associated with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF).PH is commonly associated with HFpEF. The predictors of mortality for patients with these conditions are not well characterized.In a prospective cohort of patients with right heart catheterization, we identified 73 adult patients who had pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease (PH-LHD) associated with HFpEF (left ventricular ejection fraction ?50% by echocardiography); hemodynamically defined as a mean pulmonary artery pressure ?25 mm Hg and pulmonary artery wedge pressure >15 mm Hg. PH severity was classified according to the diastolic pressure gradient (DPG). Cox proportional hazards ratios were used to estimate the associations between clinical variables and mortality. Receiver-operating characteristic curves were used to evaluate the ability of hemodynamic measurements to predict mortality.The mean age for study subjects was 69 ± 12 years and 74% were female. Patients classified as having combined post-capillary PH and pre-capillary PH (DPG ?7) were not at increased risk of death as compared to patients with isolated post-capillary PH (DPG <7). A baseline pulmonary arterial capacitance (PAC) of <1.1 ml/mm Hg was 91% sensitive in predicting mortality, with better discriminatory ability than DPG, transpulmonary gradient, or pulmonary vascular resistance (area under the curve of 0.73, 0.50, 0.45, and 0.37, respectively). Fifty-seven subjects underwent acute vasoreactivity testing with inhaled nitric oxide. Acute vasodilator response by the Rich or Sitbon criteria was not associated with improved survival.PAC is the best predictor of mortality in our cohort and may be useful in describing phenotypic subgroups among those with PH-LHD associated with HFpEF. Acute vasodilator testing did not predict outcome in our cohort but needs to be further investigated.
Project description:Importance:Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is highly prevalent, yet there are no specific therapies, possibly due to phenotypic heterogeneity. The development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in patients with HFpEF is considered a high-risk phenotype in need of targeted therapies, but there have been limited hemodynamic and outcomes data. Objective:To identify the hemodynamic characteristics and outcomes of PH-HFpEF. Design, Setting, and Participants:Cohort study of participants who had a right heart catheterization from January 2005 to September 2012 (median [interquartile range] follow-up time, 1578 [554-2513] days) were analyzed. Hemodynamic catheterization data was linked to the clinical data repository of all inpatient and outpatient encounters across a health system. Single tertiary referral center for heart failure and PH within a large health care network using a common clinical data repository was studied. There were 19 262 procedures in 10 023 participants. Exposures:Participants were classified as having no PH, precapillary PH, or PH in the setting of left heart disease (reduced or preserved ejection fraction). Pulmonary hypertension associated with HFpEF was defined as mean pulmonary artery pressure of 25 mm Hg or more, pulmonary artery wedge pressure of 15 mm Hg or more, and left ventricular ejection fraction of 45% or more. Pulmonary hypertension severity was quantified by the hemodynamic parameters transpulmonary gradient, pulmonary vascular resistance, and diastolic pulmonary gradient. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary outcome was time to all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes were time to acute hospitalization and cardiovascular hospitalization. Results:The mean (SD) of all study individuals was 65 (38) years. Of 10 023 individuals, 2587 (25.8%) had PH-HFpEF. Mortality was 23.6% at 1 year and 48.2% at 5 years. Cardiac hospitalizations occurred in 28.1% at 1 year and 47.4% at 5 years. The frequency of precapillary PH using clinically defined cut-offs for transpulmonary gradient (>12 mm Hg), pulmonary vascular resistance (3 Woods units), and diastolic pulmonary gradient (≥7 mm Hg) were 12.6%, 8.8%, and 3.5%, respectively. Transpulmonary gradient, pulmonary vascular resistance, and diastolic pressure gradient were predictive of mortality and cardiac hospitalizations. Conclusions and Relevance:In a large cohort referred for invasive hemodynamic assessment, PH-HFpEF was common. Transpulmonary gradient, pulmonary vascular resistance, and diastolic pulmonary gradient are all associated with mortality and cardiac hospitalizations.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Although the transpulmonary gradient (TPG) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) are commonly used to differentiate heart failure patients with pulmonary vascular disease from those with passive pulmonary hypertension (PH), elevations in TPG and PVR may not always reflect pre-capillary PH. Recently, it has been suggested an elevated diastolic pulmonary artery pressure-to-pulmonary capillary wedge pressure gradient (DPG) may be a better indicator of pulmonary vascular remodeling, and therefore, may be of added prognostic value in patients with PH being considered for cardiac transplantation. METHODS:Using the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) database, we retrospectively reviewed all primary adult (age > 17 years) orthotropic heart transplant recipients between 1998 and 2011. All patients with available pre-transplant hemodynamic data and PH (mean pulmonary artery pressure ? 25 mm Hg) were included (n = 16,811). We assessed the prognostic value of DPG on post-transplant survival in patients with PH and an elevated TPG and PVR. RESULTS:In patients with PH and a TPG > 12 mm Hg (n = 5,827), there was no difference in survival at up to 5 years post-transplant between high DPG (defined as ?3, ?5, ?7, or ?10 mm Hg) and low DPG (<3, <5, <7, or <10 mm Hg) groups. Similarly, there was no difference in survival between high and low DPG groups in those with a PVR > 3 Wood units (n = 6,270). Defining an elevated TPG as > 15 mm Hg (n = 3,065) or an elevated PVR > 5 (n = 1,783) yielded similar results. CONCLUSIONS:This large analysis investigating the prognostic value of DPG found an elevated DPG had no effect on post-transplant survival in patients with PH and an elevated TPG and PVR.
Project description:There are limited data on the prevalence, pathophysiology, and management implications of pulmonary hypertension in patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and advanced heart failure.To assess the clinical significance of measured cardiopulmonary hemodynamics in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients with heart failure, we retrospectively assessed right heart catheterization data in 162 consecutive patients with outflow tract gradients (median [interquartile range], 90 mm?Hg [70-110 mm?Hg]), 59±11 years old, and 49% men, predominately New York Heart Association class III/IV status. Pulmonary hypertension (mean pulmonary artery pressure, ?25 mm?Hg) was present in 82 patients (51%), including 29 (18%) regarded as moderate-severe (mean pulmonary artery pressure, ?35 mm?Hg) and 28 (34%) also had increased pulmonary vascular resistance >3.0 WU. The pulmonary artery wedge pressure was ?15 mm?Hg in 54%, indicating that left atrial hypertension was absent in a majority of patients. Notably, 9 patients (11%) met hemodynamic criteria for precapillary pulmonary hypertension (mean pulmonary artery pressure, ?25 mm?Hg; pulmonary vascular resistance, >3.0 WU; pulmonary artery wedge pressure, ?15 mm?Hg). Over a median follow-up of 327 days (90-743 days) after surgical myectomy (or alcohol septal ablation), 92% and 95% of patients with or without preoperative pulmonary hypertension, respectively, were asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic. One postoperative death occurred in a 59-year-old woman with acute respiratory failure and mean pulmonary artery pressure of 65 mm?Hg.Pulmonary hypertension was common in obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients with advanced heart failure. Although possibly a contributor to preoperative heart failure, pulmonary hypertension did not significantly influence clinical and surgical outcome. Notably, a novel patient subgroup was identified with resting invasive hemodynamics consistent with pulmonary vascular disease.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The impact of pulmonary hypertension (PH) on outcomes after surgical tricuspid valve replacement (TVR) and repair (TVr) is unclear. We sought to characterize PH in patients undergoing TVR/TVr, based on invasive hemodynamics and evaluate the effect of PH on mortality.<h4>Methods</h4>We identified 86 consecutive patients who underwent TVR/TVr with invasive hemodynamic measurements within 3 months before surgery. We used Kaplan-Meier survival and restricted mean survival time (RMST) analyses to quantify the effects of PH on survival.<h4>Results</h4>The mean age was 63 ± 13 years, 59% were female, 45% had TVR, 55% had TVr, 39.5% had isolated TVR/TVr, and 60.5% had TVR/TVr concomitant with other cardiac surgeries). Eighty-six percent of these patients had PH with a mean pulmonary artery pressure of 30 ± 10 mm Hg, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) of 2.5 (interquartile range: 1.5-3.9) Wood units (WU), pulmonary arterial compliance of 2.3 (1.6-3.6) mL/mm Hg, and pulmonary arterial elastance of 0.8 (0.6-1.2) mm Hg/mL. Cardiac output was mildly reduced at 4.0 ± 1.4 L/min, with elevated right-atrial pressure (14 ± 12 mm Hg) and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (19 ± 7 mm Hg). Over a median follow-up of 6.3 years, 22% of patients died. Patients with PVR ≥ 2.5 WU had lower RMST over 5 years compared with patients with PVR < 2.5 WU.<h4>Conclusion</h4>PH is common in patients undergoing TVR/TVr, with combined pre- and postcapillary being the most common type. PVR ≥ 2.5 WU is associated with lower survival at 5-year follow-up.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Differentiation between precapillary and postcapillary pulmonary hypertension (PH) classically relies on mean pulmonary artery wedge pressure (mPAWP). The left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) is proposed as an equivalent alternative. However, mPAWP and LVEDP may differ substantially. We compared the impact of the choice of using the mPAWP vs the LVEDP on PH classification and mortality prediction in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) undergoing valve replacement.<h4>Methods</h4>In 335 patients with severe AS , both mPAWP and LVEDP were measured. A mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥ 25 mm Hg was used to define PH, and either mPAWP or LVEDP was used to differentiate between precapillary and postcapillary PH (≤ 15 vs > 15 mm Hg). Mortality after a median follow-up of 1484 days after aortic valve replacement was assessed.<h4>Results</h4>Overall, mPAWP was lower than LVEDP (16 ± 8 mm Hg vs 21 ± 8 mm Hg; <i>P</i> < 0.001). Among 140 patients (42%) with PH, the PAWP-based classification revealed 76 (54% of those with PH) with isolated postcapillary PH, 48 (34%) with combined pre- and postcapillary PH, and 16 (12%) with precapillary PH. When the LVEDP was used, 59 patients (42%) were differently classified. These patients had higher mortality than those who were not differently classified [hazard ratio 2.79 (95% confidence interval, 1.17-6.65); <i>P</i> = 0.02]. Higher mPAWP was associated with increased mortality [hazard ratio 1.07 (95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.11) per 1 mm Hg; <i>P</i> = 0.001], whereas higher LVEDP was not.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Use of LVEDP rather than mPAWP results in a divergent PH classification in nearly every second patient with severe AS. These patients have higher mortality after aortic valve replacement. The mPAWP, but not the LVEDP, predicts mortality.