Correlates of Suicidal Ideation During Pregnancy and Postpartum Among Women Living with HIV in Rural South Africa.
ABSTRACT: In developing countries, up to 20% of maternal deaths during pregnancy are due to suicide, and being HIV-infected confers additional risk. This manuscript sought to identify perinatal correlates of suicidal ideation among women living with HIV (WLHIV) in rural South Africa. Pregnant WLHIV (N?=?681) were recruited and re-assessed at 12-months postpartum. Mean age was 28.3 (SD?=?5.7) years and 68% were below the poverty line. Prenatal suicidal ideation was 39%; suicidal ideation continued for 7% at 12 months, 13% experienced incident suicidal ideation, and for 19% suicidal ideation had stopped postnatally. Intimate partner violence (AOR?=?1.17) and depression (AOR?=?1.14) predicted sustained suicidal ideation. Increased income (AOR?=?2.25) and greater stigma (AOR?=?1.33) predicted incident suicidal ideation. Younger age (AOR?=?0.94), disclosure of HIV status to partner (AOR?=?0.60), and greater stigma (AOR?=?1.24) predicted postnatal cessation of suicidal ideation. Perinatal care may provide windows of opportunity for identification and treatment of suicidal ideation.
Project description:Efavirenz is used for the management of HIV infection during pregnancy in South Africa (SA), but it is contraindicated in patients with history of depression due to possible suicidal ideation. This study compared suicidal ideation 12-months postpartum among women receiving and not receiving efavirenz in rural SA, where high rates of depression have been identified. Antenatal psychological intimate partner violence (IPV; AOR?=?1.04), depression (AOR?=?1.06) and detection of efavirenz in dried blood spot at 32 weeks predicted suicidal ideation 12-months postnatally (AOR?=?2.29), controlling for antenatal stigma and physical IPV. Findings support using alternative agents for the management of HIV during pregnancy.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Suicidal behaviors cover a range or continuum of acts from suicidal ideations to a series of actions, commonly known as suicidal attempts or deliberate self-harms. Though different mental disorders related studies were conducted among HIV/AIDS patients, there is a scarcity of information about the magnitude and determinants of suicidal thoughts among perinatal women. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation and associated factors among HIV positive perinatal women in the study setting.<h4>Methods</h4>An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted among perinatal women on treatment to the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV/AIDS at Gondar town health facilities. A total of 422 HIV-positive perinatal women were selected systematically and the data collected through medical record review and interview using a Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) toolkit. A binary and multivariable logistic regression model was employed to identify factors associated with suicidal ideation. An Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) with 95% Confidence Interval (CI) was computed to see the strength of association between outcome and independent variables. Characteristics having less than 0.05 p-value had been taken as significant factors associated with the outcome of interest.<h4>Result</h4>The prevalence of suicidal ideation was found to be 8.2% (95% CI; 5.7 to 11.3) and with a standard error of 0.013. Perinatal depression (AOR=4.40, 95%CI: 1.63 11.85), not disclosed HIV status (AOR=3.73, 95%CI: 1.44 9.65), and unplanned pregnancy (AOR=2.75, 95%CI: 1.21 6.21) were significant factors associated with suicidal ideation.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The magnitude of suicidal ideation among HIV positive perinatal women was found to be low. Perinatal depression, non-disclosed HIV status, and unplanned pregnancy were factors significantly associated with suicidal ideation. This finding suggests the integration of mental health services with maternal and HIV support programs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Suicide which is considered a psychiatric emergency, is a serious cause of mortality worldwide. Youth living with HIV/AIDS (YLWHA) have higher rates of suicidal behavior than the general public. This study aimed to assess the magnitude and associated factors of suicide ideation and attempt among the Human Immune deficiency Virus (HIV) positive youth attending anti-retroviral therapy (ART) follow up at St. Paul`s hospital Millennium Medical College and St. Peter`s specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS:In this cross-sectional study, 413 HIV positive youth were recruited for interviews, using the systematic random sampling technique. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was used to assess suicide. PHQ-9, the Oslo social support and HIV perceived stigma scale instruments were used to assess the factors. We computed bivariate and multivariable binary logistic regressions to assess factors associated with suicidal ideation and attempt. Statistical significance was declared at P-value <0.05. RESULT:The magnitude of suicidal ideation and attempts were found to be 27.1% and 16.9%, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, female sex (adjusted odd ratio(AOR) = 3.1, 95% CI, 1.6-6.0), family death (AOR = 2.1, 95%CI 1.15-3.85), WHO clinical stage III of HIV (AOR = 3.1 95% CI 1.3-7.35), WHO clinical stage IV of HIV (AOR = 4.76, 95%CI, 1.3-7.35), co-morbid depression (AOR = 7.14, 95%CI, 3.9-12.9), and perceived HIV stigma (AOR = 4.2, 95%CI, 2.27-8.2) were significantly associated with suicidal ideation, whereas female sex (AOR = 4.12, 95%CI, 1.82-9.78), opportunistic infections (AOR = 3.1, 95%CI, 1.6-6.04), WHO clinical stage III of HIV (AOR = 3.1 95%CI 1.24-7.81), co-morbid depression (AOR = 5.6 95% CI, 2.8-11.1), and poor social support (AOR = 3.4, 95%CI, 1.2-9.4) were statistically significant with suicidal attempt. The result suggests that the magnitude of suicidal ideation and attempts among HIV positive youth were high. We recommend that clinicians consider youth with comorbid depression, perceived HIV stigma and poor social support.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Suicidal behaviors among people with tuberculosis are one of the commonest psychiatric emergencies that need a major public health concern. People with tuberculosis show suicidal ideation and attempt, which are problems to end life. In Ethiopia large numbers of people are affected by tuberculosis. Therefore, assessing suicide among patients with tuberculosis is important in implementing further interventions.<h4>Methods</h4>An institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted among systematic random samples of 415 and face-to-face interview was used. Suicidal ideation and attempt were assessed by using suicidality module World Health Organization (WHO) composite International diagnostic interview (CIDI). Data was analyzed by using SPSS version 20. Bivariate and multivariate binary logistic analyses were done to identify associated factors to both suicidal ideation and attempt. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant and strength of the association was presented by adjusted odds ratio with 95% C.I.<h4>Results</h4>The prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempt among tuberculosis patients was 17.3% (95%CI, 13.7-20.6) and 7.5 %( 95%CI, 4.8-10.4), respectively. Being female (AOR=2.7, 95% CI 1.39, 5.23), no formal education (AOR=3.35, 95%CI 1.26, 9.91), extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (AOR=2.35, 95%CI 1.1, 4.98), depression (AOR=4.9, 95%CI, 2.56, 9.4), and perceived TB stigma (AOR=3.24, 95%CI, 1.64, 6.45) were statistically associated with suicidal ideation. Factors like being female (AOR=4.57, 95%CI, 1.7, 12.27), MDR-TB (AOR=3.06, 95%CI, 1.23, 7.57), comorbid HIV illness (AOR=6.67, 95%CI, 2.24, 19.94), and depression (AOR=4.75, 95%CI, 1.89, 11.91) were associated with suicidal attempt.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Developing guidelines and training of health workers in TB clinics is important to screen and treat suicide among patients with tuberculosis.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To describe associations of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+) in women living with HIV (WLHIV) in Burkina Faso (BF) and South Africa (SA). METHODS:Prospective cohort of WLHIV attending HIV outpatient clinics and treatment centres. Recruitment was stratified by ART status. Cervical HPV genotyping using INNO-LiPA and histological assessment of 4-quadrant cervical biopsies at enrolment and 16 months later. RESULTS:Among women with CIN2+ at baseline, the prevalence of any HR-HPV genotypes included in the bi/quadrivalent (HPV16/18) or nonavalent (HPV16/18/31/35/45/52/58) HPV vaccines ranged from 37% to 90%. HPV58 was most strongly associated with CIN2+ (aOR = 5.40, 95%CI: 2.77-10.53). At 16-months follow-up, persistence of any HR-HPV was strongly associated with incident CIN2+ (aOR = 7.90, 95%CI: 3.11-20.07), as was persistence of HPV16/18 (aOR = 5.25, 95%CI: 2.14-12.91) and the additional HR types in the nonavalent vaccine (aOR = 3.23, 95%CI: 1.23-8.54). CONCLUSION:HR-HPV persistence is very common among African WLHIV and is linked to incident CIN2+. HPV vaccines could prevent between 37-90% of CIN2+ among African WLHIV.
Project description:Food insecurity, internalized HIV stigma, and depressive symptoms are independently associated with poor HIV outcomes. Food insecurity, stigma, and depression may be interrelated among women living with HIV (WLHIV). We hypothesized that food insecurity would be independently associated with internalized stigma and depressive symptoms among WLHIV in the United States (US), and would partially account for associations between stigma and depressive symptoms. We tested hypotheses using regression models and partial correlation analysis with cross-sectional data among 1317 WLHIV from the Women's Interagency HIV Study. In adjusted models, greater food insecurity was associated with internalized HIV stigma and depressive symptoms (all p?<?0.05), exhibiting dose-response relationships. Food insecurity accounted for 23.2% of the total shared variance between depressive symptoms and internalized stigma. Food insecurity is associated with depressive symptoms and internalized HIV stigma among US WLHIV, and may play a role in the negative cycle of depression and internalized stigma.
Project description:The sudden death of a friend or relative, particularly by suicide, is a risk factor for suicide. People who experience sudden bereavement report feeling highly stigmatised by the loss, potentially influencing access to support. We assessed whether perceived stigma following sudden bereavement is associated with suicidal thoughts and suicide attempt. We analysed cross-sectional survey data on 3387 young adults bereaved by the sudden death of a close contact. We tested the association of high versus low perceived stigma (on the stigma sub-scale of the Grief Experience Questionnaire) with post-bereavement suicidal ideation and suicide attempt, using random effects logistic regression, adjusting for socio-demographic factors, pre-bereavement psychopathology, and mode of sudden bereavement (natural causes/unnatural causes/suicide). Subjects with high perceived stigma scores were significantly more likely to report post-bereavement suicidal thoughts (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.74; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.93-3.89) and suicide attempt (AOR = 2.73; 95% CI = 2.33-3.18) than those with low stigma scores. People who feel highly stigmatised by a sudden bereavement are at increased risk of suicidal thoughts and suicide attempt, even taking into account prior suicidal behaviour. General practitioners, bereavement counsellors, and others who support people bereaved suddenly, should consider inquiring about perceived stigma, mental wellbeing, and suicidal thoughts, and directing them to appropriate sources of support.
Project description:Suicide is a serious cause of mortality worldwide and is considered as a psychiatric emergency. People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) have higher rates of suicidal behavior than the general population. This study assessed the prevalence and verified the syndemic effect of psychosocial health conditions on suicidal ideation among PLWHA in China.An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted from July to August 2016 in Nanjing, China, using a self-report questionnaire. Sociodemographic characteristics, infection status, psychosocial variables and suicide ideation reports of participants were collected. Logistic regressions were used to identify potential factors associated with suicidal ideation and to verify the syndemic effect of psychosocial factors. Additionally, odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were computed.In total, four hundred sixty-five PLWHA participated, 31.6% (n = 147) of whom had suicidal ideation. The results from univariate analysis showed that older age, low education level, being married, having children, and psychosocial variables (high perceived stigma, depression, low self-esteem, social support and resilience) were significantly associated with increased suicidal ideation. Multiple logistic regression models revealed that depression (OR = 2.70, 95%CI = 1.62-4.51), perceived stigma (OR = 1.97, 95%CI = 1.17-3.32), and low social support (OR = 1.85, 95%CI = 1.08-3.20) and self-esteem (OR = 4.11, 95%CI = 2.06-8.16) were statistically significant. PLWHA with at least two psychosocial health problems were nearly 5 times more likely (OR = 4.72, 95% CI 3.11-7.17) to have had suicidal ideation.Suicidal ideation is frequent among PLWHA in China and is consistent with prevalence estimates from abroad. Psychosocial health problems were the determining factors associated with suicidal ideation, and a syndemic effect of psychosocial health conditions was confirmed in predicting suicidal ideation. Therefore, early screening of high-risk groups for suicidal ideation and more psychosocial health care among PLWHA are needed.
Project description:<b>Objective: </b>To report the prevalence and incidence of low-risk human papillomavirus infection (LR-HPV) and anogenital warts (AGW) among women living with HIV (WLHIV) in Burkina Faso (BF) and South Africa (SA), and to explore HIV-related factors associated with these outcomes.<br><br><b>Methods: </b>We enrolled 1238 WLHIV (BF = 615; SA = 623) aged 25-50 years and followed them at three time points (6, 12 and 16 months) after enrolment. Presence of AGW was assessed during gynaecological examination. Cervico-vaginal swabs for enrolment and month 16 follow-up visits were tested for HPV infection by Inno-LiPA® genotyping. Logistic regression was used to assess risk factors for prevalent infection or AGW. Cox regression was used to assess risk factors for incident AGW.<br><br><b>Results: </b>Women in SA were more likely than those in BF to have prevalent LR-HPV infection (BF: 27.1% vs. SA: 40.9%; p<0.001) and incident LR-HPV infection (BF: 25.8% vs. SA: 31.6%, p = 0.05). Prevalence of persistent LR-HPV was similar in the two countries (BF: 33.3% vs. SA: 30.4%; p = 0.54), as were prevalence and incidence of AGW (Prevalence: BF: 7.5% vs. SA: 5.7%; p = 0.21; Incidence: BF: 2.47 vs. SA: 2.33 per 100 person-years; p = 0.41). HPV6 was associated with incident AGW (BF: adjusted Hazard Ratio (aHR) = 4.88; 95%CI: 1.36-17.45; SA: aHR = 5.02; 95%CI: 1.40-17.99). Prevalent LR-HPV (BF: adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR = 1.86]; 95%CI: 1.01-3.41; SA: aOR = 1.75; 95%CI: 0.88-3.48); persistent LR-HPV (BF: aOR = 1.92; 95%CI: 0.44-8.44; SA: aOR = 2.81; 95%CI: 1.07-7.41) and prevalent AGW (BF: aOR = 1.53; 95%CI: 0.61-3.87; SA: aOR = 4.11; 95%CI: 1.20-14.10) were each associated with low CD4+ counts (i.e. <200 vs. >500 cells/?L). Duration of ART and HIV plasma viral load were not associated with any LR-HPV infection or AGW outcomes.<br><br><b>Conclusion: </b>LR-HPV infection and AGW are common in WLHIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Type-specific HPV vaccines and effective ART with immunological reconstitution could reduce the burden of AGW in this population.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>This study aimed to assess magnitude and associated factors of suicidal ideation and attempt among people with epilepsy attending outpatient treatment at primary public hospitals, northwest Ethiopia using suicide module of World Mental Health Survey initiative version of the WHO, composite international diagnostic interview.<h4>Design</h4>Multicentre-based cross-sectional study was used.<h4>Setting</h4>Data were collected using face to face interview from patients with epilepsy who attended outpatient treatment at primary public hospitals at northwest Ethiopia.<h4>Participants</h4>Adult patients with epilepsy (n=563) who came to attend outpatient treatment during the study period were included in the study using systematic random sampling technique.<h4>Outcome measures</h4>Suicidal ideation, suicidal attempt and factors associated with suicidal ideation and attempt.<h4>Results</h4>The overall magnitude of suicidal ideation and attempt was 26.5% and 12.6%, respectively. Being woman adjusted OR ((AOR)=1.68, 95% CI 1.09 to 3.23), living alone (AOR=2.4, 95%?CI 1.47 to 3.92), divorced/widowed/(AOR=2.2, 95%?CI 1.09 to 7.8), family history of suicidal attempt (AOR=2.53, 95% CI 1.34 to 4.79), depression (AOR=3.18, 95% CI 1.85 to 5.45), anxiety (AOR=2.92, 95%?CI 1.68 to 5.09), comorbid medical illness (AOR=2.60, 95% CI 1.17 to 5.82) and poor social support (AOR=2.35, 95% CI 1.26 to 4.40) were statistically associated with suicidal ideation. Depression (AOR=4.87, 95% CI 2.56 to 9.28) living alone (AOR=2.66, 95% CI 1.62 to 5.41), family history of committed suicide (AOR=2.80, 95% CI 1.24 to 6.39), taking medication for mental illness (AOR=2.17, 95% CI 1.06 to 4.46), hazardous alcohol use (AOR=2.10, 95% CI 1.05 to 4.23) were statistically associated with suicidal attempts at a p value <0.05.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This study showed that the magnitude of suicidal ideation and attempt was high among people with epilepsy. Being woman, living alone, having depression and anxiety, single, divorced/widowed in marital status, family history of suicidal attempt and poor social support were statistically associated with suicidal ideation. Having depression, living alone, family history of suicide attempt, hazardous alcohol use and drug taking for mental illness were statistically associated with suicidal attempt. Based on the findings of this study early screening, detection and management of suicide were recommended in people with epilepsy.