The Arabidopsis LDL1/2-HDA6 histone modification complex is functionally associated with CCA1/LHY in regulation of circadian clock genes.
ABSTRACT: In Arabidopsis, the circadian clock central oscillator genes are important cellular components to generate and maintain circadian rhythms. There is a negative feedback loop between the morning expressed CCA1 (CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1)/LHY (LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL) and evening expressed TOC1 (TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1). CCA1 and LHY negatively regulate the expression of TOC1, while TOC1 also binds to the promoters of CCA1 and LHY to repress their expression. Recent studies indicate that histone modifications play an important role in the regulation of the central oscillators. However, the regulatory relationship between histone modifications and the circadian clock genes remains largely unclear. In this study, we found that the Lysine-Specific Demethylase 1 (LSD1)-like histone demethylases, LDL1 and LDL2, can interact with CCA1/LHY to repress the expression of TOC1. ChIP-Seq analysis indicated that LDL1 targets a subset of genes involved in the circadian rhythm regulated by CCA1. Furthermore, LDL1 and LDL2 interact with the histone deacetylase HDA6 and co-regulate TOC1 by histone demetylation and deacetylaion. These results provide new insight into the molecular mechanism of how the circadian clock central oscillator genes are regulated through histone modifications.
Project description:In Arabidopsis, the circadian rhythm is associated with multiple important biological processes and maintained by multiple interconnected loops that generate robust rhythms. The circadian clock central loop is a negative feedback loop composed of the core circadian clock components. TOC1 (TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1) is highly expressed in the evening and negatively regulates the expression of CCA1 (CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1)/LHY (LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL). CCA1/LHY also binds to the promoter of TOC1 and represses the TOC1 expression. Our recent research revealed that the histone modification complex comprising of LYSINE-SPECIFIC DEMETHYLASE 1 (LSD1)-LIKE 1/2 (LDL1/2) and HISTONE DEACETYLASE 6 (HDA6) can be recruited by CCA1/LHY to repress TOC1 expression. In this study, we found that HDA6, LDL1, and LDL2 can interact with TOC1, and the LDL1/2-HDA6 complex is associate with TOC1 to repress the CCA1/LHY expression. Furthermore, LDL1/2-HDA6 and TOC1 co-target a subset of genes involved in the circadian rhythm. Collectively, our results indicate that the LDL1/2-HDA6 histone modification complex is important for the regulation of the core circadian clock components.
Project description:Circadian clocks enable organisms to adapt to a 24 h diurnal cycle and anticipate rhythmic changes in the environment. The Arabidopsis central oscillator contains three genes encoding core clock components. CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1)/LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) and TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1) reciprocally repress genes encoding each other and are critical for the generation of circadian rhythms controlling many clock outputs. A precise regulation of transcriptional events is, therefore, essential for proper circadian function. Here, we investigated histone 3 (H3) tail modifications of CCA1, LHY and TOC1 under various conditions. We found specific association of only H3K4Me3 and H3K9/14Ac with the translational start site of these three genes. These H3 marks were enriched at circadian time points of their increased transcription at different photoperiods and under free-running conditions, suggesting circadian regulation of H3 modifications. Analysis of clock-compromised CCA1-overexpressing lines provided evidence that light/dark photoperiods signal the establishment of these chromatin changes which are gated by the clock.
Project description:Circadian rhythms are generated by endogenous central oscillators that respond to input from the environment and regulate rhythmic outputs. In Arabidopsis, more than a dozen components that affect rhythms have been identified and used to propose models of the central oscillator. However, none has been shown to fulfill one of the expected characteristics of an oscillator component: that a pulse of its expression shifts the phase of circadian rhythms. Here we show that a pulse of the proposed oscillator components CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1) and LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) causes dramatic phase shifts in rhythms of expression of the circadian reporter CAB2::LUC, as well as of the clock-associated genes TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1) and GIGANTEA (GI). These results demonstrate that pulses of either CCA1 or LHY are capable of resetting the circadian clock. In contrast, a pulse of TOC1 expression did not elicit phase shifts. Control of TOC1 protein level is in part posttranscriptional; thus a pulse of TOC1 protein could be induced only at times when it is already high. Our work also shows that the ethanol-inducible system can be useful for achieving relatively short (<8 h) pulses of gene expression in seedlings.
Project description:Circadian rhythms provide organisms with an adaptive advantage, allowing them to regulate physiological and developmental events so that they occur at the most appropriate time of day. In plants, as in other eukaryotes, multiple transcriptional feedback loops are central to clock function. In one such feedback loop, the Myb-like transcription factors CCA1 and LHY directly repress expression of the pseudoresponse regulator TOC1 by binding to an evening element (EE) in the TOC1 promoter. Another key regulatory circuit involves CCA1 and LHY and the TOC1 homologs PRR5, PRR7, and PRR9. Purification of EE-binding proteins from plant extracts followed by mass spectrometry led to the identification of RVE8, a homolog of CCA1 and LHY. Similar to these well-known clock genes, expression of RVE8 is circadian-regulated with a dawn phase of expression, and RVE8 binds specifically to the EE. However, whereas cca1 and lhy mutants have short period phenotypes and overexpression of either gene causes arrhythmia, rve8 mutants have long-period and RVE8-OX plants have short-period phenotypes. Light input to the clock is normal in rve8, but temperature compensation (a hallmark of circadian rhythms) is perturbed. RVE8 binds to the promoters of both TOC1 and PRR5 in the subjective afternoon, but surprisingly only PRR5 expression is perturbed by overexpression of RVE8. Together, our data indicate that RVE8 promotes expression of a subset of EE-containing clock genes towards the end of the subjective day and forms a negative feedback loop with PRR5. Thus RVE8 and its homologs CCA1 and LHY function close to the circadian oscillator but act via distinct molecular mechanisms.
Project description:Segregating hybrids and stable allopolyploids display morphological vigour, and Arabidopsis allotetraploids are larger than the parents Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabidopsis arenosa-the mechanisms for this are unknown. Circadian clocks mediate metabolic pathways and increase fitness in animals and plants. Here we report that epigenetic modifications of the circadian clock genes CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1) and LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) and their reciprocal regulators TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1) and GIGANTEA (GI) mediate expression changes in downstream genes and pathways. During the day, epigenetic repression of CCA1 and LHY induced the expression of TOC1, GI and downstream genes containing evening elements in chlorophyll and starch metabolic pathways in allotetraploids and F(1) hybrids, which produced more chlorophyll and starch than the parents in the same environment. Mutations in cca1 and cca1 lhy and the daily repression of cca1 by RNA interference (RNAi) in TOC1::cca1(RNAi) transgenic plants increased the expression of downstream genes and increased chlorophyll and starch content, whereas constitutively expressing CCA1 or ectopically expressing TOC1::CCA1 had the opposite effect. The causal effects of CCA1 on output traits suggest that hybrids and allopolyploids gain advantages from the control of circadian-mediated physiological and metabolic pathways, leading to growth vigour and increased biomass.
Project description:The first described feedback loop of the Arabidopsis circadian clock is based on reciprocal regulation between Timing of CAB Expression 1 (TOC1) and Circadian Clock-associated 1 (CCA1)/late elongated hypocotyl (LHY). CCA1 and LHY are Myb transcription factors that bind directly to the TOC1 promoter to negatively regulate its expression. Conversely, the activity of TOC1 has remained less well characterized. Genetic data support that TOC1 is necessary for the reactivation of CCA1/LHY, but there is little description of its biochemical function. Here we show that TOC1 occupies specific genomic regions in the CCA1 and LHY promoters. Purified TOC1 binds directly to DNA through its CCT domain, which is similar to known DNA-binding domains. Chemical induction and transient overexpression of TOC1 in Arabidopsis seedlings cause repression of CCA1/LHY expression, demonstrating that TOC1 can repress direct targets, and mutation or deletion of the CCT domain prevents this repression showing that DNA-binding is necessary for TOC1 action. Furthermore, we use the Gal4/UAS system in Arabidopsis to show that TOC1 acts as a general transcriptional repressor, and that repression activity is in the pseudoreceiver domain of the protein. To identify the genes regulated by TOC1 on a genomic scale, we couple TOC1 chemical induction with microarray analysis and identify previously unexplored potential TOC1 targets and output pathways. Taken together, these results define a biochemical action for the core clock protein TOC1 and refine our perspective on how plant clocks function.
Project description:Our computational model of the circadian clock comprised the feedback loop between LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY), CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1) and TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1), and a predicted, interlocking feedback loop involving TOC1 and a hypothetical component Y. Experiments based on model predictions suggested GIGANTEA (GI) as a candidate for Y. We now extend the model to include a recently demonstrated feedback loop between the TOC1 homologues PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR 7 (PRR7), PRR9 and LHY and CCA1. This three-loop network explains the rhythmic phenotype of toc1 mutant alleles. Model predictions fit closely to new data on the gi;lhy;cca1 mutant, which confirm that GI is a major contributor to Y function. Analysis of the three-loop network suggests that the plant clock consists of morning and evening oscillators, coupled intracellularly, which may be analogous to coupled, morning and evening clock cells in Drosophila and the mouse.
Project description:The COP10-DET1-DDB1 (CDD) complex is an evolutionarily conserved protein complex discovered for its role in the repression of photomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis. It is important in many cellular and developmental processes in both plants and animals, but its molecular mode of action remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the CDD component DET1 possesses transcriptional repression activity and physically interacts with two closely related MYB transcription factors, CCA1 and LHY, which are core components of the plant circadian clock. DET1 associates with the promoter of CCA1/LHY target genes, such as TOC1, in a CCA1/LHY-dependent manner and is required for their repression, suggesting a recruitment of DET1 by the central oscillator components to regulate the clock. Our results reveal DET1 as a core transcriptional repression factor important for clock progression. Overall, the CDD complex may function as a transcriptional corepressor in diverse processes through direct interaction with distinct transcription factors.
Project description:Transcriptional feedback loops constitute the molecular circuitry of the plant circadian clock. In Arabidopsis, a core loop is established between CCA1 and TOC1. Although CCA1 directly represses TOC1, the TOC1 protein has no DNA binding domains, which suggests that it cannot directly regulate CCA1. We established a functional genomic strategy that led to the identification of CHE, a TCP transcription factor that binds specifically to the CCA1 promoter. CHE is a clock component partially redundant with LHY in the repression of CCA1. The expression of CHE is regulated by CCA1, thus adding a CCA1/CHE feedback loop to the Arabidopsis circadian network. Because CHE and TOC1 interact, and CHE binds to the CCA1 promoter, a molecular linkage between TOC1 and CCA1 gene regulation is established.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Circadian rhythms modulate growth and development in all organisms through interlocking transcriptional-translational feedback loops. The transcriptional loop involves chromatin modifications of central circadian oscillators in mammals and plants. However, the molecular basis for rhythmic epigenetic modifications and circadian regulation is poorly understood. RESULTS:Here we report a feedback relationship between diurnal regulation of circadian clock genes and histone modifications in Arabidopsis. On one hand, the circadian oscillators CCA1 and LHY regulate diurnal expression of genes coding for the eraser (JMJ14) directly and writer (SDG2) indirectly for H3K4me3 modification, leading to rhythmic H3K4me3 changes in target genes. On the other hand, expression of circadian oscillator genes including CCA1 and LHY is associated with H3K4me3 levels and decreased in the sdg2 mutant but increased in the jmj14 mutant. At the genome-wide level, diurnal rhythms of H3K4me3 and another histone mark H3K9ac are associated with diurnal regulation of 20-30% of the expressed genes. While the majority (86%) of H3K4me3 and H3K9ac target genes overlap, only 13% of morning-phased and 22% of evening-phased genes had both H3K4me3 and H3K9ac peaks, suggesting specific roles of different histone modifications in diurnal gene expression. CONCLUSIONS:Circadian clock genes promote diurnal regulation of SDG2 and JMJ14 expression, which in turn regulate rhythmic histone modification dynamics for the clock and its output genes. This reciprocal regulatory module between chromatin modifiers and circadian clock oscillators orchestrates diurnal gene expression that governs plant growth and development.