A prospective analysis of symptom burden for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase treated with frontline second- and third-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is effective but needs to continue for several years, possibly indefinitely. Although generally safe, TKI may have hitherto poorly recognized effects in the quality of life (QoL) of such patients. METHODS:We prospectively measured the symptom burden of patients with chronic phase CML enrolled on frontline TKI trials with dasatinib, nilotinib, or ponatinib. A total of 219 patients were enrolled and filled out the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI)-CML questionnaire before the start of therapy and during follow-up at defined time points of 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months. RESULTS:The median age was 50 years. Longitudinal analysis showed relatively stable symptom severity scores over time. Fatigue was the most common symptom in all three cohorts, both prior to the start of therapy and during therapy, including after achievement of deep molecular remission. Work was the most affected component of daily living. Overall patients tolerated therapy well with improvement of their symptoms from baseline, with few dose reductions related to toxicity or symptomatology. Although 31% of the patients who completed MDASI-CML achieved complete molecular remission by 24 months of treatment, nearly 90% experienced persistent mild symptoms. CONCLUSION:Side effects related to TKIs may impact the quality of life in patients with CML-CP. Further studies should investigate factors (comorbidities, concomitant medications, dose and schedule, etc) associated with these symptoms and interventions that may improve the patients' QoL, including treatment discontinuation when safely feasible.
Project description:We developed a module of the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI) for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). To develop the MDASI-CML, we identified CML-specific symptoms from qualitative interviews with 35 patients. A list of candidate symptoms was reduced by a panel of patients, caregivers, and clinicians to the 13 core MDASI symptom items and 6 CML-specific items; these items were subsequently administered to 30 patients. Cognitive debriefing confirmed that the items were clear, relevant, and easy to use. One additional CML-specific symptom item was added, for a total of 7. The refined MDASI-CML was administered to 152 patients once every 2 weeks for 1 year. The content, concurrent, known-group, and construct validity of the MDASI-CML were evaluated. The internal consistency and test-retest reliabilities of the module were adequate. Longitudinal analysis showed relatively stable symptom severity scores over time. The most severe symptoms were fatigue, drowsiness, disturbed sleep, muscle soreness and cramping, and trouble remembering things. Approximately one-third of the patients who completed the MDASI-CML reported persistent moderate-to-severe symptoms. The MDASI-CML is a valid and reliable symptom assessment instrument that can be used in clinical studies of symptom status in patients with CML.
Project description:During recent years, the therapeutic landscape in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) has changed significantly. Since the clinical introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) approximately 15 years ago, patients' concerns have shifted from reduced life expectancy toward long-term toxicities of TKI, depth of remission, and the probability of successful treatment discontinuation. Patients with newly diagnosed CML in chronic phase (at least with a Sokal score not exceeding intermediate) may now expect an almost normal life expectancy. However, even if almost 30% of all newly diagnosed chronic-phase patients might eventually be facing the prospect of a life without CML-specific treatment, based on current knowledge, most, if not all, patients would have to undergo an expected minimum of 5-8 years of TKI treatment and the majority would face a life-long exposure to the side-effects of TKIs. At present, 5 different TKIs are licensed for the treatment of CML, that is, imatinib, which is a first-generation TKI (including its generic derivatives); nilotinib, dasatinib, and bosutinib, which are second-generation TKIs; as well as ponatinib, which is a so-called third-generation TKI and is supposed to be used for patients harboring the T315I-mutation. One of the important, yet unanswered questions is the choice of the best possible TKI upfront for each individual patient. Bosutinib is currently licensed for patients with CML after failure or intolerance of at least 2 other TKIs. It can also be prescribed according to label if after failure of the first TKI therapy, another option does not seem feasible. This review focuses on the existing data on clinical efficacy, tolerability, and side effects of bosutinib treatment in CML patients with the aim to identify patient characteristics and treatment scenarios most suitable for treatment with bosutinib.
Project description:Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a hematological cancer, characterized by a reciprocal chromosomal translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22 [t(9;22)], producing the Bcr-Abl oncogene. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) represent the standard of care for CML patients and exert a dual mode of action: direct oncokinase inhibition and restoration of effector-mediated immune surveillance, which is rendered dysfunctional in CML patients at diagnosis, prior to TKI therapy. TKIs such as imatinib, and more potent second-generation nilotinib and dasatinib induce a high rate of deep molecular response (DMR, BCR-ABL1???0.01%) in CML patients. As a result, the more recent goal of therapy in CML treatment is to induce a durable DMR as a prelude to successful treatment-free remission (TFR), which occurs in approximately half of all CML patients who cease TKI therapy. The lack of overt relapse in such patients has been attributed to immunological control of CML. In this review, we discuss an immunological timeline to successful TFR, focusing on the immunology of CML during TKI treatment; an initial period of immune suppression, limiting antitumor immune effector responses in newly diagnosed CML patients, linked to an expansion of immature myeloid-derived suppressor cells and regulatory T cells and aberrant expression of immune checkpoint signaling pathways, including programmed death-1/programmed death ligand-1. Commencement of TKI treatment is associated with immune system re-activation and restoration of effector-mediated [natural killer (NK) cell and T cell] immune surveillance in CML patients, albeit with differing frequencies in concert with differing levels of molecular response achieved on TKI. DMR is associated with maximal restoration of immune recovery in CML patients on TKI. Current data suggest a net balance between both the effector and suppressor arms of the immune system, at a minimum involving mature, cytotoxic CD56dim NK cells may be important in mediating TFR success. However, a major goal remains in CML to identify the most effective pathways to target to maximize an advantageous immune response and promote TFR success.
Project description:Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) has become a chronic disease, for which the chronic phase is manageable with tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy. Patients with optimal responses to TKIs have achieved long-term survival, and treatment-free remission (TFR) has since become an additional treatment goal in CML. In this review, we discuss important factors to consider prior to stopping treatment. In addition, published and presented data with the first-generation TKI imatinib, as well as current clinical trials evaluating TFR with the second-generation TKIs dasatinib and nilotinib, are examined. Results obtained outside of clinical trials have been included as well. Because successful TKI discontinuation depends upon accurate BCR-ABL1 monitoring, emerging technologies are also discussed. Clinical data obtained to date indicate that for many patients who achieve deep molecular response (DMR) on TKI therapy, TFR is a safe treatment goal, and, if the response is lost, patients can expect to regain their responses immediately upon reinitiation of TKI. It is also clear that there remains much room for improvement to make TFR a successful reality for most patients. Data from ongoing trials should help refine decisions as to which patients are the best candidates to attempt TKI discontinuation with safe monitoring in place.
Project description:Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have changed the indications for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of TKIs on allo-HSCT in CML.In this quasi-experimental study, we compared patient, disease, and transplantation characteristics as well as allo-HSCT outcomes between the pre-TKI era (before 2002) and the post-TKI era (2002 and later) in patients with CML. A total of 193 allo-HSCTs were performed between 1989 and 2012.Patients in the post-TKI era had more advanced disease (>chronic phase 1) at the time of transplant and more frequently received reduced-intensity conditioning compared to patients in the pre-TKI era. Relapse/progression occurred more frequently in the year ≥2002 group than in the year <2002 group (48% vs. 32% at 5 years, p=0.01); however, overall survival (OS) was similar in these two groups (5-year survival was 50.8% vs. 59.5%, respectively; p=0.3). TKIs (with donor lymphocyte infusions or alone) for treatment of relapse after allo-HSCT were available in the post-TKI era and were associated with improved OS. While the rates of hematologic remission at 3 months after allo-HSCT were similar between TKI eras, patients having remission had better disease-free survival (DFS) [relative risk (RR): 0.15, confidence interval (CI) 95%: 0.09-0.24, p<0.001] and OS (RR: 0.14, CI 95%: 0.09-0.23, p<0.001). Male allo-HSCT recipients had worse DFS (RR: 1.7, CI 95%: 1.2-2.5, p=0.007) and OS (RR: 1.7, CI 95%: 1.1-2.6, p=0.02) than females.TKIs are an effective option for the treatment of relapse after allo-HSCT in CML. Hematologic remission after allo-HSCT is also an important factor for survival in CML patients.
Project description:Although the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has improved overall survival of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), about half of the patients eventually relapse after cessation of TKIs. In contrast, the remainder of the patients maintain molecular remission without TKIs, indicating that the patients' immune system could control proliferation of TKI-resistant leukemic stem cells (LSCs). However, the precise mechanism of immunity against CML-LSCs is not fully understood. We have identified a novel immune target, CXorf48, expressed in LSCs of CML patients. Cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) induced by the epitope peptide derived from CXorf48 recognized CD34+CD38- cells obtained from the bone marrow of CML patients. We detected CXorf48-specific CTLs in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells from CML patients who have discontinued imatinib after maintaining complete molecular remission for more than 2 years. Significantly, the relapse rate of CXorf48-specific CTL-negative patients was 63.6%, compared to 0% in CXorf48-specific CTL-positive patients. These results indicate that CXorf48 could be a promising therapeutic target of LSCs for immunotherapy to obtain durable treatment-free remission in CML patients.
Project description:The BCR-ABL1 fusion gene generating an oncogenic tyrosine kinase is a hallmark of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), which can be successfully targeted by BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, treatment-free remission has been achieved in a minority of patients due to evolving TKI resistance and intolerance. Primary or acquired resistance to the approved TKIs and progression to blast crisis (BC), thus, remain a major clinical challenge that requires alternative therapeutic strategies. Here, we first demonstrate that donor natural killer (NK) cells prepared using a protocol adopted in clinical trials can efficiently eliminate CML-BC blasts, with TKI resistance regardless of BCR-ABL1 mutations, and preferentially target CD34+CD38- leukemic stem cells (LSC), a potential source of disease relapse. Mechanistically, the predominant expression of PVR, a ligand for the NK cell-activating DNAM-1 receptor, in concert with ICAM-1, a ligand for NK cell adhesion, confer this susceptibility to NK cells, despite the lack of ligands for NKG2D, a principal NK cell activating receptor, as an immune evasion mechanism. With these mechanistic insights, our findings provide a proof-of-concept that donor NK cell-based therapy is a viable strategy for overcoming TKI resistance in CML, particularly the advanced, multi-TKI-resistant CML with dismal outcome.
Project description:Therapy with Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKI) aiming stable deep molecular response is the gold standard to treat Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML). NKT-like cells (CD3+CD56+) combine characteristics of T and NK cells. The physiopathological role of these cells remains unknown although the literature refers their association with inflammation, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. Since the information regarding the role of NKT-like cells in CML is rare, we aimed at the characterization of these cells in CML patients treated with TKIs. Peripheral blood NKT-like cells from 48 CML patients and 40 healthy donors were analyzed by multiparametric flow cytometry. Functional tests consisting of co-culture with leukemic target cells (K562 cell line) were used to measure degranulation and cytokine production. Our results revealed that NKT-like cells are decreased in treated CML patients, although they present increased expression of activation markers (CD69 and HLA-DR), increased degranulation (CD107a) and impaired IFN-? production. Significantly alterations on the expression of tumor recognition (NCRs and NKp80), and immune regulation receptors (LAG-3, TIM-3, and CD137) by NKT-like cells were observed in CML patients. Second generation TKIs increased cell activation (CD69) and decreased expression of NKp44 and NKp80 by NKT-like cells from CML patients when compared to Imatinib. CML patients that achieved deep molecular response (MR4.5) presented downregulation of NKp44 and LAG-3. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of these cells as biomarkers of therapy response and also to evaluate their value for discrimination of better candidates for sustained treatment-free remission after TKI discontinuation.
Project description:Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) requires the BCR/ABL tyrosine kinase for disease onset and maintenance. As a result, CML can be successfully treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as imatinib. Most patients are maintained in a disease-suppressed state on daily TKI therapy for several years and in many cases this treatment prevents progression to the blast phase. If the TKI is discontinued, CML redevelops in 95% of patients as a result of persisting leukemia initiating cells (LICs). There are several hypotheses that describe the potential mechanism(s) responsible for LIC persistence in CML, but supporting evidence is limited. Furthermore, of the few patients who discontinue TKI therapy and are "cured" (i.e., in treatment-free remission), most have residual BCR/ABL-expressing cells in their hematopoietic tissues. There are also healthy individuals without a CML diagnosis who express the BCR/ABL mutation in a fraction of their hematopoietic cells. Finally, mice that express BCR/ABL from the Bcr locus as a knockin mutation do not develop CML. These mice have lower BCR/ABL levels than retroviral or transgenic models of BCR/ABL that do develop CML. Understanding why mice with BCR/ABL expressed from the Bcr locus and some people that express BCR/ABL are not afflicted with CML will provide insights into therapies to prevent or cure this disease.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>The aim of this study was to evaluate the variables associated with patient-reported symptoms and the impact of symptoms on health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) receiving tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs).<h4>Methods</h4>Anonymous Chinese-language questionnaires were distributed to adults with chronic-phase CML (CML-CP) receiving TKIs therapy >3 months regarding symptoms' incidence, severity, and HRQoL. The multivariate cumulative logistic regression model was built to identify variables associated with the symptoms. General Linear Model was used to model the relationship between symptoms and HRQoL using stepwise-forward algorithm.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 1142 respondents were included in this study. The top 10 common TKI-related symptoms were fatigue, periorbital and lower limb edema, chest distress and shortness of breath, memory deterioration, skin color change, alopecia, muscle cramp, weight gain and musculoskeletal pain, and itchy skin. One hundred forty-one (50%) females ?50 years reported menstrual disorders. Female, married, therapy duration 1 to 3 years, and foreign generic TKIs were associated with increased symptoms' frequency and severity. In contrast, receiving nilotinib or dasatinib, and achieving a complete cytogenetic response but not complete molecular response were associated with fewer and milder symptoms. Chest distress and shortness of breath and loss of appetite were associated with both lower physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) scores; fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, dizziness and abdominal pain, were associated with lower PCS score; anxiety-depression, was associated with lower MCS score in multivariate analyses.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Demographic and social variables, type of TKI-therapy, therapy duration, and depth of response were associated with patient-reported symptoms in persons with chronic phase CML. Certain symptoms have adverse impact on HRQoL.