Efficacy and Safety of Tofacitinib in Chinese Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.
ABSTRACT: Background:Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study assessed the efficacy and safety of tofacitinib in Chinese patients with RA enrolled in Phase 3 and long-term extension (LTE) studies. Methods:ORAL Sync was a 1-year, randomized, placebo-controlled, Phase 3 trial. Patients received tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg twice daily (BID) or placebo advanced to tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg BID at 3 or 6 months. All patients remained on ?1 background conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug. ORAL Sequel is an open-label LTE study (data-cut: March 2015; data collection and analyses were ongoing, and study database was not locked at the time of analysis; study was closed in 2017). Efficacy outcomes: American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 20/50/70 response rates and Disease Activity Score in 28 joints using erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-4 [ESR]). Patient- and physician-reported outcomes: Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI), Patient and Physician Global Assessment of Arthritis, and pain (visual analog scale). Safety was assessed throughout. Results:ORAL Sync included 218 patients; 192 were subsequently enrolled into ORAL Sequel. In ORAL Sync, more patients achieved ACR20 (tofacitinib 5 mg BID, 67.4%; 10 mg BID, 70.6%; placebo, 34.1%) and DAS28-4 (ESR) <2.6 (tofacitinib 5 mg BID, 7.1%; 10 mg BID, 13.1%; placebo, 2.3%) with tofacitinib versus placebo at Month 6. Mean changes from baseline in HAQ-DI were greater with tofacitinib versus placebo at Month 6. In ORAL Sequel, efficacy was consistent to Month 48. Incidence rates for adverse events of special interest in tofacitinib-treated patients were similar to the global population. Conclusions:Tofacitinib significantly reduced signs/symptoms and improved physical function and quality of life in Chinese patients with moderate-to-severely active RA up to Month 48. The safety profile was consistent with the global population. Clinical Trial Identifier:NCT00856544 and NCT00413699.
Project description:Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We compared patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in patients with RA treated with tofacitinib or placebo in combination with conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs).In a 12-month, phase III randomized controlled trial (ORAL Sync), patients (n?=?795) with active RA and previous inadequate response to therapy with ?1 conventional or biologic DMARD were randomized 4:4:1:1 to tofacitinib 5 mg twice daily (BID), tofacitinib 10 mg BID, placebo advanced to 5 mg BID, or placebo to 10 mg BID, in combination with stable background DMARD therapy. PROs included patient global assessment of arthritis (PtGA), patient assessment of arthritis pain (Pain), physical function (Health Assessment Questionnaire disability index [HAQ DI]), health-related quality of life (Short Form 36 health survey [SF-36]), fatigue (Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue [FACIT-F]), and sleep (Medical Outcomes Study Sleep [MOS Sleep]).At month 3, statistically significant improvements from baseline versus placebo were reported in PtGA, Pain, HAQ DI, all 8 SF-36 domains, FACIT-F, and MOS Sleep with tofacitinib 10 mg BID, and in PtGA, Pain, HAQ DI, 7 SF-36 domains, FACIT-F, and MOS Sleep with tofacitinib 5 mg BID. Improvements were sustained to month 12. Significantly more tofacitinib-treated patients reported improvements of greater than or equal to the minimum clinically important differences at month 3 versus placebo in all PROs, except the SF-36 role-emotional domain (significant for tofacitinib 10 mg BID).Patients with active RA treated with tofacitinib combined with background conventional DMARD therapy reported sustained, significant, and clinically meaningful improvements in PROs versus placebo.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We performed a comprehensive review of phase 3 studies of tofacitinib 5 mg twice daily (BID) (approved dose in many countries) in patients with moderate to severe RA and inadequate response to prior disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. METHODS:A search of PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov identified 5 studies: ORAL Solo (NCT00814307), ORAL Sync (NCT00856544), ORAL Standard (included adalimumab 40 mg once every 2 weeks; NCT00853385), ORAL Scan (NCT00847613), and ORAL Step (NCT00960440). Efficacy and safety data for tofacitinib 5 mg BID, placebo, and adalimumab were analyzed. RESULTS:Across the 5 studies, 1216 patients received tofacitinib 5 mg BID, 681 received placebo, and 204 received adalimumab. At month 3, tofacitinib demonstrated significantly higher 20%, 50%, and 70% improvement in American College of Rheumatology response criteria (ACR20, ACR50, and ACR70, respectively) response rates, greater improvement in Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index, and a higher proportion of Disease Activity Score-defined remission than placebo. Frequencies of adverse events (AEs), serious AEs, and discontinuations due to AEs were similar for tofacitinib and placebo at month 3; serious infection events were more frequent for tofacitinib. In ORAL Standard, although not powered for formal comparisons, tofacitinib and adalimumab had numerically similar efficacy and AEs; serious AEs and serious infection events were more frequent with tofacitinib. CONCLUSIONS:Tofacitinib 5 mg BID reduced RA signs and symptoms and improved physical function versus placebo in patients with inadequate response to prior disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. Tofacitinib 5 mg BID had a consistent, manageable safety profile across studies, with no new safety signals identified.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We characterized tofacitinib efficacy/safety in Indian vs rest of the world (ROW; excluding India) RA patients. METHODS:Efficacy data were pooled for disease-modified antirheumatic drug (DMARD) inadequate responders from Phase (P)3 studies. For Indian patients, ORAL Solo and ORAL Scan; ROW (excluding India), these studies plus ORAL Step, ORAL Sync, and ORAL Standard. Safety data also included ORAL Start (P3; methotrexate-naïve) and ORAL Sequel (long-term extension [LTE] study; data cut-off March 2017) for Indian patients, and these studies plus A3921041 (LTE study; Japanese study) for ROW. Efficacy outcomes at months 3/6: American College of Rheumatology (ACR)20/50/70; Disease Activity Score in 28 joints, erythrocyte sedimentation rate remission/low disease activity; change from baseline in Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index. Incidence rates (IRs; patients with events/100 patient-years) for adverse events of special interest (AESIs) were assessed throughout. Descriptive data underwent no formal comparison. RESULTS:One-hundred-and-ninety-seven Indian and 3879 ROW patients were included. Compared with ROW patients, Indian patients were younger, had lower body mass index, shorter RA duration, and higher baseline disease activity; most Indian patients were non-smokers and all were biologic DMARD (bDMARD)-naïve. Month 3 ACR20 rates with tofacitinib 5 mg twice daily/10 mg twice daily/placebo were 67.4%/82.1%/40.9% (India) and 59.0%/66.1%/28.2% (ROW), and month 6 rates were 76.2%/92.1%/88.9% (India) and 69.0%/74.2%/66.5% (ROW). Month 3/6 improvements in other outcomes were generally numerically greater with tofacitinib vs placebo, and similar in both populations. Compared with ROW, Indian patients had numerically fewer AEs/serious AEs, and similar IRs for discontinuations due to AEs and AESIs, except that tuberculosis (TB) IR was higher in Indian (IR = 1.21; 95% CI 0.49, 2.49) vs ROW patients (IR = 0.17; 95% CI 0.11, 0.25). CONCLUSIONS:Tofacitinib efficacy/safety were similar in both populations, except TB IR, which was higher in Indian patients but in line with those in bDMARD-treated RA patients from high-risk countries (IR = 0.00-2.56; TB IR >0.05 [World Health Organization]). Limitations included the small Indian population and baseline differences between populations.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Final data are presented for the ORAL Sequel long-term extension (LTE) study evaluating the safety and efficacy of tofacitinib 5?mg and 10?mg twice daily (BID) for up to 9.5?years in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS:Eligible patients had previously completed a phase 1, 2, or 3 qualifying index study of tofacitinib and received open-label tofacitinib 5?mg or 10?mg BID. Stable background therapy, including csDMARDs, was continued; adjustments to tofacitinib or background therapy were permitted at investigators' discretion. Assignment to dose groups (5?mg or 10?mg BID) was based on patients' average total daily dose. The primary objective was to determine the long-term safety and tolerability of tofacitinib 5?mg and 10?mg BID; the key secondary objective was to evaluate the long-term persistence of efficacy. RESULTS:Between February 5, 2007, and November 30, 2016, 4481 patients were enrolled. Total tofacitinib exposure was 16,291 patient-years. Safety data are reported up to month 114 for all tofacitinib; efficacy data are reported up to month 96 for tofacitinib 5?mg BID and month 72 for 10?mg BID (with low patient numbers limiting interpretation beyond these time points). Overall, 52% of patients discontinued (24% due to adverse events [AEs] and 4% due to insufficient clinical response); the safety profile remained consistent with that observed in prior phase 1, 2, 3, or LTE studies. The incidence rate (IR; number of patients with events per 100 patient-years) for AEs leading to discontinuation was 6.8. For all-cause AEs of special interest, IRs were 3.4 for herpes zoster, 2.4 for serious infections, 0.8 for malignancies excluding non-melanoma skin cancer, 0.4 for major adverse cardiovascular events, and 0.3 for all-cause mortality. Clinically meaningful improvements in the signs and symptoms of RA and physical functioning, which were observed in the index studies, were maintained. CONCLUSIONS:Tofacitinib 5?mg and 10?mg BID demonstrated a consistent safety profile (as monotherapy or combination therapy) and sustained efficacy in this open-label LTE study of patients with RA. Safety data are reported up to 9.5?years, and efficacy data up to 8?years, based on adequate patient numbers to support conclusions. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT00413699 , funded by Pfizer Inc (date of trial registration: December 20, 2006).
Project description:INTRODUCTION:In Australia, there is an unmet need for improved treatments for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of RA. To provide an overview of key study outcomes for tofacitinib in Australian patients, we analyzed the efficacy and safety of tofacitinib in the Australian subpopulation of global RA phase III and long-term extension (LTE) studies. METHODS:Data were pooled from the Australian subpopulation of four phase III studies and one LTE study (database not locked at cut-off date: January 2016). Patients in the phase III studies received tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg twice daily (BID), placebo (advancing to tofacitinib at months 3 or 6), or adalimumab, with background methotrexate or conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. Patients in the LTE study received tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg BID. Efficacy endpoints were American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 20/50/70 response rates, and change from baseline in the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints, erythrocyte sedimentation rate [DAS28-4(ESR)] and Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI) scores. Safety endpoints included incidence of adverse events (AEs), serious AEs, and discontinuations due to AEs. AEs of special interest and laboratory parameters were analyzed in the LTE study. RESULTS:Across phase III studies (N?=?100), ACR response rates and improvements in DAS28-4(ESR) and HAQ-DI scores were numerically greater with tofacitinib vs. placebo at month 3, and increased until month 12. The results were sustained in the LTE study (N?=?99) after 60 months' observation. In general, the efficacy and safety profiles of tofacitinib were similar to those of the global RA population. CONCLUSIONS:In Australian patients with RA, tofacitinib therapy demonstrated sustained efficacy and consistent safety over???60 months' treatment. FUNDING:Pfizer Inc. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS (ALL CLINICALTRIALS.GOV): NCT00960440; NCT00847613; NCT00856544; NCT00853385; NCT00413699.
Project description:Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This post hoc analysis investigated the effect of methotrexate (MTX) dose on the efficacy of tofacitinib in patients with RA. ORAL Scan (NCT00847613) was a 2-year, randomized, Phase 3 trial evaluating tofacitinib in MTX-inadequate responder (IR) patients with RA. Patients received tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg twice daily (BID), or placebo, with low (?12.5 mg/week), moderate (>12.5 to <17.5 mg/week), or high (?17.5 mg/week) stable background MTX. Efficacy endpoints (at months 3 and 6) included American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 20/50/70 response rates, and mean change from baseline in Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI), Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28)-4(erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR]), Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI), and modified Total Sharp score. 797 patients were treated with tofacitinib 5 mg BID (N = 321), tofacitinib 10 mg BID (N = 316), or placebo (N = 160); 242, 333, and 222 patients received low, moderate, and high MTX doses, respectively. At months 3 and 6, ACR20/50/70 response rates were greater for both tofacitinib doses vs placebo across all MTX doses. At month 3, mean changes from baseline in CDAI and HAQ-DI were significantly greater for both tofacitinib doses vs placebo, irrespective of MTX category; improvements were maintained at month 6. Both tofacitinib doses demonstrated improvements in DAS28-4(ESR), and less structural progression vs placebo, across MTX doses at month 6. Tofacitinib plus MTX showed greater clinical and radiographic efficacy than placebo in MTX-IR patients with RA, regardless of MTX dose.
Project description:Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We assess the effect of tofacitinib + conventional synthetic disease-modifying anti rheumatic drugs (csDMARDs) on patient-reported outcomes in Chinese patients with RA and inadequate response to DMARDs.This analysis of data from the Phase 3 study ORAL Sync included Chinese patients randomized 4 : 4 : 1 : 1 to receive tofacitinib 5 mg twice daily, tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily, placebo→tofacitinib 5 mg twice daily, or placebo→tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily, with csDMARDs. Placebo non-responders switched to tofacitinib at 3 months; the remaining placebo patients switched at 6 months. Least squares mean changes from baseline were reported for Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI), patient assessment of arthritis pain (Pain), patient global assessment of disease activity (PtGA), physician global assessment of disease activity (PGA), Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F) scores, Short Form 36 (SF-36), and Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ), using a mixed-effects model for repeated measures.Overall, 216 patients were included (tofacitinib 5 mg twice daily, n = 86; tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily, n = 86; placebo→tofacitinib 5 mg twice daily, n = 22; placebo→tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily, n = 22). At month 3, tofacitinib elicited significant improvements in HAQ-DI, Pain, PtGA, PGA and SF-36 Physical Component Summary scores. Improvements were generally maintained through 12 months.Tofacitinib 5 and 10 mg twice daily + csDMARDs resulted in improvements in health-related quality of life, physical function and Pain through 12 months in Chinese patients with RA.
Project description:Small increases in mean serum creatinine (SCr) were observed in studies of rheumatoid arthritis patients during tofacitinib treatment. These SCr changes were investigated and potential mechanisms explored.SCr values and renal adverse event data were pooled from five Phase 3 and two long-term extension (LTE) studies. Dose-response relationships and association with inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP)) were explored using Phase 2 data and confirmed with Phase 3 data.In Phase 3, least squares mean SCr differences from placebo at Month 3 were 0.02 and 0.04 mg/dl for tofacitinib 5 and 10 mg twice daily (BID) (P <0.05), respectively. During Months 0 to 3, confirmed SCr ?33% increases over baseline were reported in 17 (1.4%; 5 mg BID) and 23 (1.9%; 10 mg BID) patients. Generally, elevations plateaued and remained within normal limits throughout Phase 3 and LTE studies. Exposure-response modeling demonstrated small, reversible effects of tofacitinib on mean SCr, and significant (P <0.05) effects of CRP on model parameters. Phase 3 data confirmed that patients with higher baseline CRP or greater CRP decreases following tofacitinib treatment had the largest increases in SCr. Across Phase 3 and LTE studies, 22 tofacitinib-treated patients had clinical acute renal failure (ARF), predominantly in the setting of concurrent serious illness.Tofacitinib treatment was associated with small, reversible mean increases in SCr that plateaued early. The mechanism behind these SCr changes remains unknown, but may involve effects of tofacitinib on inflammation. ARF occurred infrequently, was associated with concurrent serious illness, and was unrelated to prior SCr increases.
Project description:Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Efficacy and safety of tofacitinib in Brazilian patients from Phase 2 (P2) and Phase 3 (P3) global studies of up to 24 months' duration were evaluated.Data were pooled from Brazilian patients with RA and an inadequate response to conventional synthetic or biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs enrolled in P2/P3 tofacitinib studies who received tofacitinib 5 or 10?mg twice daily (BID), or placebo, as monotherapy or in combination with methotrexate. Efficacy, safety, and patient-reported outcomes were assessed over 24 months.Patients (226) from Brazil were treated in tofacitinib global P2/P3 studies. At Month 3, there were improvements in American College of Rheumatology 20/50/70 response rates, Disease Activity Score in 28 joints, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index scores with both tofacitinib doses. Improvements from baseline in pain, fatigue, and health-related quality of life with tofacitinib 5 and 10?mg BID were reported. Efficacy improvements were sustained up to Month 24. The most frequent class of adverse events was infections and infestations. No cases of tuberculosis or other opportunistic infections were reported.In a Brazilian subpopulation of patients with RA, tofacitinib reduced disease signs and symptoms and improved physical function up to Month 24, with a safety profile consistent with findings from global studies.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). During the clinical development programme, increases in mean serum creatinine (SCr) of approximately 0.07 mg/dL and 0.08 mg/dL were observed which plateaued early. This study assessed changes in measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) with tofacitinib relative to placebo in patients with active RA. METHODS:This was a randomised, placebo-controlled, Phase 1 study (NCT01484561). Patients were aged ?18 years with active RA. Patients were randomised 2:1 to oral tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily (BID) in Period 1 then placebo BID in Period 2 (tofacitinib???placebo); or oral placebo BID in both Periods (placebo???placebo). Change in mGFR was evaluated by iohexol serum clearance at four time points (run-in, pre-dose in Period 1, Period 1 end, and Period 2 end). The primary endpoint was the change in mGFR from baseline to Period 1 end. Secondary endpoints included: change in mGFR at other time points; change in estimated GFR (eGFR; Cockcroft-Gault equation) and SCr; efficacy; and safety. RESULTS:148 patients were randomised to tofacitinib???placebo (N?=?97) or placebo???placebo (N?=?51). Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. A reduction of 8% (90% confidence interval [CI]: 2%, 14%) from baseline in adjusted geometric mean mGFR was observed during tofacitinib treatment in Period 1 vs placebo. During Period 2, mean mGFR returned towards baseline during placebo treatment, and there was no difference between the two treatment groups at the end of the study--ratio (tofacitinib???placebo/placebo???placebo) of adjusted geometric mean fold change of mGFR was 1.04 (90% CI: 0.97, 1.11). Post-hoc analyses, focussed on mGFR variability in placebo???placebo patients, were consistent with this conclusion. At study end, similar results were observed for eGFR and SCr. Clinical efficacy and safety were consistent with prior studies. CONCLUSION:Increases in mean SCr and decreases in eGFR in tofacitinib-treated patients with RA may occur in parallel with decreases in mean mGFR; mGFR returned towards baseline after tofacitinib discontinuation, with no significant difference vs placebo, even after post-hoc analyses. Safety monitoring will continue in ongoing and future clinical studies and routine pharmacovigilance. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01484561. Registered 30 November 2011.