A Minimal Functional Complex of Cytochrome P450 and FBD of Cytochrome P450 Reductase in Nanodiscs.
ABSTRACT: Structural interactions that enable electron transfer to cytochrome-P450 (CYP450) from its redox partner CYP450-reductase (CPR) are a vital prerequisite for its catalytic mechanism. The first structural model for the membrane-bound functional complex to reveal interactions between the full-length CYP450 and a minimal domain of CPR is now reported. The results suggest that anchorage of the proteins in a lipid bilayer is a minimal requirement for CYP450 catalytic function. Akin to cytochrome-b5 (cyt-b5 ), Arg 125 on the C-helix of CYP450s is found to be important for effective electron transfer, thus supporting the competitive behavior of redox partners for CYP450s. A general approach is presented to study protein-protein interactions combining the use of nanodiscs with NMR spectroscopy and SAXS. Linking structural details to the mechanism will help unravel the xenobiotic metabolism of diverse microsomal CYP450s in their native environment and facilitate the design of new drug entities.
Project description:Investigating the interplay between cytochrome-P450 and its redox partners (CPR and cytochrome-b5) is vital for understanding the metabolism of most hydrophobic drugs. Dynamic structural interactions with the ternary complex, with and without substrates, captured by NMR reveal a gating mechanism for redox partners to promote P450 function.
Project description:Investigating the interplay in a minimal redox complex of cytochrome-P450 and its reductase is crucial for understanding cytochrome-P450's enzymatic activity. Probing the hotspots of dynamic structural interactions using NMR revealed the engagement of loop residues from P450-reductase to be responsible for the enhanced affinity of CYP450 towards its obligate redox partner.
Project description:This symposium summary, sponsored by the ASPET, was held at Experimental Biology 2015 on March 29, 2015, in Boston, Massachusetts. The symposium focused on: 1) the interactions of cytochrome P450s (P450s) with their redox partners; and 2) the role of the lipid membrane in their orientation and stabilization. Two presentations discussed the interactions of P450s with NADPH-P450 reductase (CPR) and cytochrome b5. First, solution nuclear magnetic resonance was used to compare the protein interactions that facilitated either the hydroxylase or lyase activities of CYP17A1. The lyase interaction was stimulated by the presence of b5 and 17?-hydroxypregnenolone, whereas the hydroxylase reaction was predominant in the absence of b5. The role of b5 was also shown in vivo by selective hepatic knockout of b5 from mice expressing CYP3A4 and CYP2D6; the lack of b5 caused a decrease in the clearance of several substrates. The role of the membrane on P450 orientation was examined using computational methods, showing that the proximal region of the P450 molecule faced the aqueous phase. The distal region, containing the substrate-access channel, was associated with the membrane. The interaction of NADPH-P450 reductase (CPR) with the membrane was also described, showing the ability of CPR to "helicopter" above the membrane. Finally, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was shown to be heterogeneous, having ordered membrane regions containing cholesterol and more disordered regions. Interestingly, two closely related P450s, CYP1A1 and CYP1A2, resided in different regions of the ER. The structural characteristics of their localization were examined. These studies emphasize the importance of P450 protein organization to their function.
Project description:Genetic polymorphisms in CYP2C8 can influence the metabolism of important therapeutic agents and cause interindividual variation in drug response and toxicity. The significance of the variant CYP2C8*3 has been controversial with reports of higher in vivo but lower in vitro activity compared to CYP2C8*1. In this study, the contribution of the redox partners cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) and cytochrome b5 to the substrate dependent activity of CYP2C8.3 (R139K, K399R) was investigated in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and Escherichia coli expressed recombinant CYP2C8 proteins using amodiaquine, paclitaxel, rosiglitazone and cerivastatin as probe substrates. For recombinant CYP2C8.3, clearance values were two- to five-fold higher compared to CYP2C8.1. CYP2C8.3's higher k(cat) seems to be dominated by a higher, but substrate specific affinity, towards cytochrome b5 and CPR (K(D) and K(m,red)) which resulted in increased reaction coupling. A stronger binding affinity of ligands to CYP2C8.3, based on a two site binding model, in conjunction with a five fold increase in amplitude of heme spin change during binding of ligands and redox partners could potentially contribute to a higher k(cat). In HLMs, carriers of the CYP2C8*1/*3 genotype were as active as CYP2C8*1/*1 towards the CYP2C8 specific reaction amodiaquine N-deethylation. Large excess of cytochrome b5 compared to CYP2C8 in recombinant systems and HLMs inhibited metabolic clearance, diminishing the difference in k(cat) between the two enzymes, and may provide an explanation for the discrepancy to in vivo data. In silico studies illustrate the genetic differences between wild type and variant on the molecular level.
Project description:NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) is the unique redox partner of microsomal cytochrome P450s (CYPs). CPR exists in a conformational equilibrium between open and closed conformations throughout its electron transfer (ET) function. Previously, we have shown that electrostatic and flexibility properties of the hinge segment of CPR are critical for ET. Three mutants of human CPR were studied (S243P, I245P and R246A) and combined with representative human drug-metabolizing CYPs (isoforms 1A2, 2A6 and 3A4). To probe the effect of these hinge mutations different experimental approaches were employed: CYP bioactivation capacity of pre-carcinogens, enzyme kinetic analysis, and effect of the ionic strength and cytochrome b? (CYB5) on CYP activity. The hinge mutations influenced the bioactivation of pre-carcinogens, which seemed CYP isoform and substrate dependent. The deviations of Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters uncovered tend to confirm this discrepancy, which was confirmed by CYP and hinge mutant specific salt/activity profiles. CPR/CYB5 competition experiments indicated a less important role of affinity in CPR/CYP interaction. Overall, our data suggest that the highly flexible hinge of CPR is responsible for the existence of a conformational aggregate of different open CPR conformers enabling ET-interaction with structural varied redox partners.
Project description:Cytochrome P450 (CYP or P450)-mediated drug metabolism requires the interaction of P450s with their redox partner, cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR). In this work, we have investigated the role of P450 hydrophobic residues in complex formation with CPR and uncovered novel roles for the surface-exposed residues V267 and L270 of CYP2B4 in mediating CYP2B4--CPR interactions. Using a combination of fluorescence labeling and stopped-flow spectroscopy, we have investigated the basis for these interactions. Specifically, in order to study P450--CPR interactions, a single reactive cysteine was introduced in to a genetically engineered variant of CYP2B4 (C79SC152S) at each of seven strategically selected surface-exposed positions. Each of these cysteine residues was modified by reaction with fluorescein-5-maleimide (FM), and the CYP2B4-FM variants were then used to determine the K(d) of the complex by monitoring fluorescence enhancement in the presence of CPR. Furthermore, the intrinsic K(m) values of the CYP2B4 variants for CPR were measured, and stopped-flow spectroscopy was used to determine the intrinsic kinetics and the extent of reduction of the ferric P450 mutants to the ferrous P450--CO adduct by CPR. A comparison of the results from these three approaches reveals that the sites on P450 exhibiting the greatest changes in fluorescence intensity upon binding CPR are associated with the greatest increases in the K(m) values of the P450 variants for CPR and with the greatest decreases in the rates and extents of reduced P450--CO formation.
Project description:Microsomal NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) is one of only two mammalian enzymes known to contain both FAD and FMN, the other being nitric-oxide synthase. CPR is a membrane-bound protein and catalyzes electron transfer from NADPH to all known microsomal cytochromes P450. The structure of rat liver CPR, expressed in Escherichia coli and solubilized by limited trypsinolysis, has been determined by x-ray crystallography at 2.6 A resolution. The molecule is composed of four structural domains: (from the N- to C- termini) the FMN-binding domain, the connecting domain, and the FAD- and NADPH-binding domains. The FMN-binding domain is similar to the structure of flavodoxin, whereas the two C-terminal dinucleotide-binding domains are similar to those of ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase (FNR). The connecting domain, situated between the FMN-binding and FNR-like domains, is responsible for the relative orientation of the other domains, ensuring the proper alignment of the two flavins necessary for efficient electron transfer. The two flavin isoalloxazine rings are juxtaposed, with the closest distance between them being about 4 A. The bowl-shaped surface near the FMN-binding site is likely the docking site of cytochrome c and the physiological redox partners, including cytochromes P450 and b5 and heme oxygenase.
Project description:Microsomal monoxygenase enzymes of the cytochrome-P450 family are found in all biological kingdoms, and play a central role in the breakdown of metabolic as well as xenobiotic, toxic and 70% of the drugs in clinical use. Full-length cytochrome-b5 has been shown to be important for the catalytic activity of cytochrome-P450. Despite the significance in understanding the interactions between these two membrane-associated proteins, only limited high-resolution structural information on the full-length cytochrome-P450 and the cytochromes-b5-P450 complex is available. Here, we report a structural study on a functional ~72-kDa cytochromes-b5-P450 complex embedded in magnetically-aligned bicelles without having to freeze the sample. Functional and solid-state NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) data reveal interactions between the proteins in fluid lamellar phase bilayers. In addition, our data infer that the backbone structure and geometry of the transmembrane domain of cytochrome-b5 is not significantly altered due to its interaction with cytochrome-P450, whereas the mobility of cytochrome-b5 is considerably reduced.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The cytochrome P450s (CYP450s) as the largest enzyme family of plant metabolism participate in various physiological processes, whereas no study has demonstrated interest in comprehensive comparison of the genes in wheat and maize. Genome-wide survey, characterization and comparison of wheat and maize CYP450 gene superfamily are useful for genetic manipulation of the Gramineae crops. RESULTS:In total, 1285 and 263 full-length CYP450s were identified in wheat and maize, respectively. According to standard nomenclature, wheat CYP450s (TaCYP450s) were categorized into 45 families, while maize CYP450s (ZmCYP450s) into 43 families. A comprehensive analysis of wheat and maize CYP450s, involved in functional domains, conserved motifs, phylogeny, gene structures, chromosome locations and duplicated events was performed. The result showed that each family/subfamily in both species exhibited characteristic features, suggesting their phylogenetic relationship and the potential divergence in their functions. Functional divergence analysis at the amino acid level of representative clans CYP51, CYP74 and CYP97 in wheat, maize and rice identified some critical amino acid sites that are responsible for functional divergence of a gene family. Expression profiles of Ta-, ZmCYP450s were investigated using RNA-seq data, which contribute to infer the potential functions of the genes during development and stress responses. We found in both species CYP450s had preferential expression in specific tissues, and many tissue-specific genes were identified. Under water-deficit condition, 82 and 39 significantly differentially expressed CYP450s were respectively detected in wheat and maize. These genes may have some roles in protecting plants against drought damage. Thereinto, fourteen CYP450s were selected to validate their expression level through qRT-PCR. To further elucidating molecular mechanisms of CYP450 action, gene co-expression network was constructed. In total, 477 TaCYP450s were distributed in 22 co-expression modules, and some co-expressed genes that likely take part in the same biochemical pathway were identified. For instance, the expression of TaCYP74A98_4D was highly correlated with TaLOX9, TaLOX36, TaLOX39, TaLOX44 and TaOPR8, and all of them may be involved in jasmonate (JA) biosynthesis. TaCYP73A201_3A showed coexpression with TaPAL1.25, TaCCoAOMT1.2, TaCOMT.1, TaCCR1.6 and TaLAC5, which probably act in the wheat stem and/or root lignin synthesis pathway. CONCLUSION:Our study first established systematic information about evolutionary relationship, expression pattern and function characterization of CYP450s in wheat and maize.
Project description:The membrane heme protein cytochrome b5 (b5) can enhance, inhibit, or have no effect on cytochrome P450 (P450) catalysis, depending on the specific P450, substrate, and reaction conditions, but the structural basis remains unclear. Here the interactions between the soluble domain of microsomal b5 and the catalytic domain of the bifunctional steroidogenic cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1) were investigated. CYP17A1 performs both steroid hydroxylation, which is unaffected by b5, and an androgen-forming lyase reaction that is facilitated 10-fold by b5. NMR chemical shift mapping of b5 titrations with CYP17A1 indicates that the interaction occurs in an intermediate exchange regime and identifies charged surface residues involved in the protein/protein interface. The role of these residues is confirmed by disruption of the complex upon mutagenesis of either the anionic b5 residues (Glu-48 or Glu-49) or the corresponding cationic CYP17A1 residues (Arg-347, Arg-358, or Arg-449). Cytochrome b5 binding to CYP17A1 is also mutually exclusive with binding of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. To probe the differential effects of b5 on the two CYP17A1-mediated reactions and, thus, communication between the superficial b5 binding site and the buried CYP17A1 active site, CYP17A1/b5 complex formation was characterized with either hydroxylase or lyase substrates bound to CYP17A1. Significantly, the CYP17A1/b5 interaction is stronger when the hydroxylase substrate pregnenolone is present in the CYP17A1 active site than when the lyase substrate 17?-hydroxypregnenolone is in the active site. These findings form the basis for a clearer understanding of this important interaction by directly measuring the reversible binding of the two proteins, providing evidence of communication between the CYP17A1 active site and the superficial proximal b5 binding site.