ABSTRACT: Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) is the inflammatory disease of the gallbladder in the absence of gallstones. AAC is estimated to represent at least 50% to 70% of all cases of acute cholecystitis during childhood. Although this pathology was originally described in critically ill or post-surgical patients, most pediatric cases have been observed during several infectious diseases. In addition to cases caused by bacterial and parasitic infections, most pediatric reports after 2000 described children developing AAC during viral illnesses (such as Epstein-Barr virus and hepatitis A virus infections). Moreover, some pediatric cases have been associated with several underlying chronic diseases and, in particular, with immune-mediated disorders. Here, we review the epidemiological aspects of pediatric AAC, and we discuss etiology, pathophysiology and clinical management, according to the cases reported in the medical literature.
Project description:Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) is a rare condition occurring in only 5%-10 % of patients with acute cholecystitis. Systemic illness caused, for example, by E coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Vibrio cholera, and Salmonella species can result acute inflammation of gallbladder wall. It is a surgical emergency and if left untreated can lead to high mortality due to gangrene or perforation of gallbladder. We managed a 60-year-old female with clinical presentation of acute cholecystitis caused by Salmonella-induced gastroenteritis. Prompt use of radiological modalities such as computer tomography (CT scan) and ultrasound played an important role in pathologic diagnosis, overall follow up, and management of the patient.
Project description:Diffuse thickening, a layered appearance of the gallbladder wall and the accumulation of surrounding fluid are considered as sensitive and relatively specific imaging findings of gallbladder inflammation. In the absence of gallstones, the diagnosis of acalculous cholecystitis can be further supported by the presence of fever, epigastric pain, right upper abdominal quadrant (RUQ) tenderness on inspiration and elevated markers of inflammation. In this report, we describe a 35-year-old schoolteacher who presented with all of the above clinical, laboratory and imaging findings that were eventually attributed to gallbladder oedema and liver congestion (abdominal imaging and RUQ tenderness) caused by an atrial myxoma interfering, with the atrioventricular circulation of the right heart and causing constitutional manifestations (fever and elevated markers of inflammation).
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>We report an extremely rare case of acute acalculous cholecystitis on a COVID-19 patient. In our knowledge, this is the first report of laparoscopic cholecystectomy performed on a COVID-19 patient.<h4>Presentation of case</h4>A COVID-19 patient was diagnosed with acute acalculous cholecystitis and a multidisciplinary team decided to perform a percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) as the first treatment. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was not found in the bile fluid. Because of deterioration of the patient's clinical conditions, laparoscopic cholecystectomy had to be performed and since the gallbladder was gangrenous, the severe inflammation made surgery difficult to perform.<h4>Discussion</h4>Acalculous cholecystitis was related with mechanical ventilation and prolonged total parenteral nutrition, in this case the gangrenous histopathology pattern and the gallbladder wall ischemia was probably caused by vascular insufficiency secondary to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome of COVID-19 pneumonia. The percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage (PTBD) was performed according to Tokyo Guidelines because of high surgical risk. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was next performed due to no clinical improvement. The absence of viral RNA in the bile highlights that SARS-CoV-2 is not eliminated with the bile while it probably infects small intestinal enterocytes which is responsible of gastrointestinal symptoms such as anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhoea.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Although the lack of evidence and guidelines about the management of patient with acute cholecystitis during COVID-19 pandemic, laparoscopic cholecystectomy, at most preceded by PTGBD on high surgical risk patients, remains the gold standard for the treatment of acute cholecystitis on COVID-19 patients.
Project description:Scrub typhus is a neglected tropical disease predominantly occurring in Asia. The causative agent is a bacterium transmitted by the larval stage of mites found in rural vegetation in endemic regions. Cases of scrub typhus frequently present as acute undifferentiated febrile illness, and without early diagnosis and treatment, the disease can develop fatal complications. We retrospectively reviewed de-identified data from a 23-year-old woman who presented to an emergency department with complaints of worsening abdominal pain. On presentation, she appeared jaundiced and toxic-looking. Other positive findings on abdominal examination were a positive Murphey's sign, abdominal guarding and hepatosplenomegaly. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography demonstrated acalculous cholecystitis. Additional findings included eschar on the medial aspect of the left thigh with inguinal regional lymphadenopathy. Further, positive results were obtained for immunoglobulins M and G, confirming scrub typhus. The workup for other infectious causes of acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) detected antibodies against human herpesvirus 4 (Epstein-Barr virus), suggesting an alternative cause of AAC. Whether that represented re-activation of the Epstein-Barr virus could not be determined. As other reports have described acute acalculous cholecystitis in adult scrub typhus patients, we recommend doxycycline to treat acute acalculous cholecystitis in endemic regions while awaiting serological confirmation.
Project description:<h4>Rationale</h4>Acute retroviral syndrome is the symptomatic presentation of acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, which often manifests as a self-limited infectious mononucleosis-like syndrome and occurs 2 to 6 weeks after exposure to HIV. Atypical manifestations including hepatitis, meningitis, or hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis have been reported. However, manifestations of acute acalculous cholecystitis during acute HIV infection are rarely reported.<h4>Patient concerns</h4>A 30-year-old man with nausea and loose stools, followed by fever and abdominal pain at the right upper quadrant for 10 days.<h4>Diagnosis</h4>Acute retroviral syndrome, complicated with acute acalculous cholecystitis.<h4>Interventions</h4>Percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage was performed and treatment with co-formulated bictegravir/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide was initiated upon HIV diagnosis.<h4>Outcomes</h4>The patient's symptoms improved after the drainage. The levels of liver enzyme including aspartate transaminase alanine aminotransferase decreased to a level within normal limits 1 month after initiation of antiretroviral therapy.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Acalculous cholecystitis in combination with acute hepatitis could be manifestations of acute HIV infection. For individuals at risk of acquiring HIV infection who present with manifestations of acute acalculous cholecystitis, HIV testing should be considered.
Project description:We report herein the first case of acute acalculous cholecystitis caused by Lactococcus garvieae, which is known as a fish pathogen. A 69-year-old fisherman underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy due to severe inflammation in the gallbladder. The isolate obtained from the gallbladder was identified as L. garvieae by 16S rRNA and manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (sodA) gene sequence analysis.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Epstein Barr virus (EBV) is a human herpes virus 4, transmitted through intimate contact between susceptible persons and asymptomatic EBV shedders. It usually presents with fever, pharyngitis and lymphadenopathy. Majority of individuals with primary EBV infection recover uneventfully. Acute Acalculous Cholecystitis (AAC) is usually seen in hospitalized and critically ill patients with major trauma, shock, severe sepsis, total parenteral nutrition and mechanical ventilation.<h4>Case presentation</h4>We report a 25-year- old woman presented with acute Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)infection and hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid (HIDA) scan confirmed presence of Acute Acalculous Cholecystitis (AAC). Conservative management was advised initially, but she had a laparoscopic cholecystectomy due to intolerable abdominal pain.<h4>Conclusion</h4>AAC is a rare complication of acute EBV infection and it is usually managed conservatively, although our patient had laparoscopic cholecystectomy due to intolerable abdominal pain.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>To provide a basis for the diagnosis and treatment of acalculous biliary pancreatitis, this study investigated the impact of serum metabolites on the pancreatic transcriptome in acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC).<h4>Methods</h4>Fourteen rabbits were randomly divided into two groups (a normal control group of 7 rabbits and an AAC group of 7 rabbits), blood was collected from the 14 rabbits, and metabolomic analysis was performed through <sup>1</sup>H NMR. Two pancreatic tissue chips of the AAC group and the normal control group were prepared and sequenced. We utilized the limma package of R software, the DAVID database, the STRING database, Cytoscape software, and the CFinder analysis tool to perform differential expression gene analysis, gene function enrichment analysis, protein interaction network (PPI) construction, and network module mining, and we performed gene enrichment analysis in each module.<h4>Results</h4>Serum metabolism analysis showed that in AAC, the metabolism of sugar, lipids, and protein, that is, the three major nutrients, was affected to varying degrees, and levels of serum trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) increased. Bioinformatic methods were utilized to identify a total of 183 differentially expressed genes and 3 key genes. Enrichment analysis showed that differentially expressed genes were significantly enriched in cation transport, the inflammatory response, the NF-<i>κ</i>B pathway, and the cancer signaling pathway.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Metabolomic analysis and functional analysis of 3 key genes demonstrated that abnormal serum metabolites affected the pancreatic transcriptome and induced a sensitive state of inflammation in the pancreas. These metabolites may represent important targets for future research on the pathogenesis, clinical diagnosis, and treatment of noncalculous biliary pancreatitis.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Novel Coronavirus disease 2019 or COVID-19 has rapidly spread throughout the world and has become an unprecedented pandemic. It has a vast spectrum of clinical presentations and can affect various organs. Rarely, it has been reported to cause acalculous cholecystitis in a non ICU setting patient.<h4>Case presentation</h4>Here we report a rare association of COVID 19 with acalculous cholecystitis in a 40 years old healthy woman. She developed fever, malaise, generalized body weakness, and right hypochondrial pain after fourteen days of COVID 19 infection, raising the possibility of Post COVID dysregulated immune response resulting in acalculous cholecystitis. She was managed conservatively with broad spectrum antibiotics.<h4>Discussion</h4>Acalculous cholecystitis primarily occurs due to the gall bladder's hypomotility and most commonly seen in critically ill patients such as severe burns, mechanically ventilated patients, and prolonged parenteral nutrition. The management depends upon treating the underlying pathology and, in some severe cases, may need surgical intervention as well. Up to our knowledge, COVID 19, causing acalculous cholecystitis, is a rare association described only in a few critically ill patients but not in young, healthy patients. It can be attributed to the body's dysregulated immunological response against the virus resulting in systemic inflammation.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Currently, there is are no clear guidelines for managing acute cholecystitis in COVID-19 patients. It depends on the patient's clinical state and disease severity. We aim to highlight the importance of early diagnosis and management in such clinical scenarios to avoid fatal complications.
Project description:This case report describes the unusual presentation of a previously very well woman with Streptococcus agalactiae endocarditis in the emergency department. History, examination and preliminary laboratory and radiological investigations supported a diagnosis of acalculous cholecystitis, for which she was given intravenous broad spectrum antimicrobial therapy. One day following admission, the patient deteriorated and became unresponsive. Subsequent MRI of the brain revealed multiple bihemispheric cerebral emboli and a large, mobile mitral valve thrombus was visualised on her transoesophageal echocardiogram. S agalactiae was cultured from venous blood samples and her antimicrobial cover was adjusted accordingly. Despite her presumed guarded prognosis, this patient made a remarkable recovery. To our knowledge, the association of S agalactiae endocarditis with acalculous cholecystitis has not been previously described.