Immune Marker Profiling and Programmed Death Ligand 1 Expression Across NSCLC Mutations.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:Programmed death 1/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) axis inhibitors have been proven effective, especially in patients with tumors expressing PD-L1. Their clinical efficacy in patients with EGFR-activating mutations is still unclear, whereas KRAS mutations seem to be associated with good response. METHODS:We used multiplexed quantitative immunofluorescence to investigate PD-L1 expression and to characterize tumor infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) populations and their activation status in more than 150 NSCLC patients with known mutation status. RESULTS:PD-L1 expression was significantly lower in EGFR-mutant compared to KRAS-mutant, and EGFR/KRAS wild-type (WT) tumors. KRAS mutant tumors were more inflamed with higher CD4+, CD8+ and CD20+ TILs. Subgroup analysis by TIL activation status revealed that EGFR mutants had a high frequency of inactive TILs even though lymphocytes were present in the tumor microenvironment. In contrast, in KRAS mutants, when TILs were present they were almost always active. Additionally, we found differences between EGFR mutation sites in CD8+ expression and the TIL activation profile. Finally, activated EGFR correlated with increased PD-L1 expression in EGFR mutants but not in EGFR WT, whereas TIL activation was associated with higher PD-L1 only in EGFR/KRAS WT. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings show the unique immune profile of EGFR-mutant tumors. The high frequency of inactive TILs could explain the low immunotherapy response rates in these patients, whereas PD-L1 as a predictive biomarker may reflect the constitutive oncogenic signaling rather than immune signaling, which would be associated with high PD-L1 levels and TILs activation.
Project description:Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate how the tumor immune microenvironment differs regarding tumor genomics, as well as its impact on prognoses and responses to immunotherapy in East Asian patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: We performed an integrated analysis using publicly available data to identify associations between anti-programmed death 1 (PD-1)/ programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) immunotherapy efficacy and classic driver oncogene mutations in East Asian NSCLC patients. Four pooled and clinical cohort analyses were used to correlate driver oncogene mutation status and tumor microenvironment based on PD-L1 and CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). Immune infiltrating patterns were also established for genomic NSCLC subgroups using the CIBERSORT algorithm. Results: Based on East Asian NSCLC patients, TIDE analyses revealed that for anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-rearranged tumors yielded inferior responses; however, although Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS)-mutant tumors responded better, the difference was not statistically significant (EGFR: P = 0.037; ALK: P < 0.001; KRAS: P = 0.701). Pooled and clinical cohort analyses demonstrated tumor immune microenvironment heterogeneities correlated with oncogenic patterns. The results showed remarkably higher PD-L1- and TIL-positive KRAS-mutant tumors, suggesting KRAS mutations may drive an inflammatory phenotype with adaptive immune resistance. However, the EGFR-mutant or ALK-rearranged groups showed a remarkably higher proportion of PD-L1-/TIL-tumors, suggesting an uninflamed phenotype with immunological ignorance. Notably, similar to triple wild-type NSCLC tumors, EGFR L858R-mutant tumors positively correlated with an inflammatory phenotype, suggesting responsiveness to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the CIBERSORT algorithm results revealed that EGFR-mutant and ALK-rearranged tumors were characterized by an enriched resting memory CD4+ T cell population (P < 0.001), as well as a lack of CD8+ T cells (P < 0.01), and activated memory CD4+ T cells (P = 0.001). Conclusions: Our study highlighted the complex relationships between immune heterogeneity and immunotherapeutic responses in East Asian NSCLC patients regarding oncogenic dependence.
Project description:EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that developed acquired resistance to EGFR-tyrosine kinase (TKI) are potential candidates for programmed death 1 (PD1) inhibitor.TPS?1% for PD-L1 and low CD8 + TIL in post-TKI tumor showed a trend for a lower PFS of EGFR-TKIs (14.2 vs 9.9 months; P = 0.060) (cohort A). Only 2 of 22 specimens (9.1%) with an acquired EGFR exon 20 T790M mutation exhibited in post-TKI TPS?50% for PD-L1. The degree in post-TKI tumor of PD-L1 expression was varied in 19 patients (40.5%), with 10 (21.2%) showing higher levels in the resistant biopsy (cohort B). Among the post-TKI high TPS groups, median PFS with low post- TKI CD8 + TIL scores treated with EGFR-TKIs (6.6 months) was significantly lower than that for the other patients (14.2 months; P = 0.015).The change of PD-L1 expression was accompanied by dynamic change in CD8 + TILs and might reflect diverse mechanism of resistance to EGFR-TKI therapy.We identified 69 patients (cohort A) with sufficient post-TKI tumor tissues and 47 patients (cohort B) with paired tumor tissues available. TPS for PD-L1 expression of tumor cells and CD8 + TILs score in tumor specimens were determined by immunohistochemistry.
Project description:Cholangiocarcinoma is a malignancy arising from the biliary tract epithelial cells with poor prognosis. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL)s and programmed cell death receptor ligand 1 (PD-L1) have a prognostic impact in various solid tumors. We aimed to investigate TILs and PD-L1 expression and their clinical relevance in cholangiocarcinoma. Tumor samples from 44 patients with resected and histologically verified extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma were evaluated for CD8, CD45RO and PD-L1 expression, and their correlations with clinicopathological data and survival data were analyzed. Total 44 extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma tissues were evaluated. CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL)s were observed in 30 (68%) tumors. Among them, 14 had CD8+CD45RO+ TILs. PD-L1 was expressed on cancer cells in 10 (22.7%) tumors in 34 evaluable extrahepatic cholangiocarciniomas. The presence of CD8+ TILs or CD8+CD45RO+ TILs was not associated with clinical staging or tumor differentiation. Extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with CD8+CD45RO+ TILs had longer overall survival (OS) on univariate (P = 0.013) and multivariate (P = 0.012) analysis. Neither CD8+TIL nor PD-L1 expression on cancer cells correlated significantly with OS. These results add to the understanding of the clinical features associated with CD8 TILs and PD-L1 expression in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and they support the potential rationale of using PD-1 blockade immunotherapy in cholangiocarcinoma.
Project description:Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is suggested to be a predictive biomarker in non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). However, the differential expression of PD-L1 in primary lung tumor vs. synchronous metastases, especially brain metastasis (BM), remains unclear. This study assessed the concordance of PD-L1 expression on tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and CD8+ TIL intensity between primary lung tumors and synchronous BMs from 24 NSCLC patients. PD-L1, CD3, and CD8 positivity was determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC). PD-L1 scoring was based on the proportion of tumor cells with membranous expression of PD-L1 and the cutoff values <1%, 1-49%, and ?50%. CD3 and CD8 positivity in TILs was evaluated semi-quantitatively and the proportion of CD3+/CD8+ TILs was determined. PD-L1 expression on tumor cells and TILs was evaluated in relation to CD3+/CD8+ TIL proportions and the intensity of CD8+ TILs between the paired primary lung and BM tissues. In the primary lung tumors, PD-L1 positivity was observed in 25%, 37.5%, and 37.5% cases for the cutoff values <1%, 1-49%, and ?50%, respectively. PD-L1 expression on tumor cells was strongly correlated between the paired primary lung and BM tissues, in all cutoff groups. However, PD-L1 expression on TILs and the proportion of CD3+/CD8+ TILs were not strongly correlated in all three groups between the paired primary lung tumors and BMs. The intensity of CD8+ TILs was concordant in only 54.16% of the paired primary lung tumors and BMs. This study showed a high concordance of PD-L1 expression in neoplastic cells between primary NSCLC and synchronous BMs.
Project description:Background:Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) are targets of immune checkpoint inhibitors. Methods:Forty-three World Health Organization (WHO) grade II/III gliomas (39 IDH-mutant [mut], 4 IDH-wildtype [wt]) and 14 IDH-mut glioblastomas (GBM) were analyzed for TIL (CD3+; PD1+) infiltration and PD-L1 expression. Results were compared with the data of a previously published series of 117 IDH-wt glioblastomas. PD-L1 gene expression levels were evaluated in 677 diffuse gliomas grades II-IV from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Results:TIL and PD-L1 expression were observed in approximately half of WHO grade II/III gliomas. IDH-wt status was associated with significantly higher TIL infiltration and PD-L1 expression among all (grades II-IV) cases (n = 174, P < 0.001) and within the cohort of glioblastomas (n = 131, P < 0.001). In low-grade glioma (LGG) and glioblastoma cohorts of TCGA, significantly higher PD-L1 gene expression levels were evident in IDH-wt compared with IDH-mut samples (LGG: N = 516; P = 1.933e-11, GBM: N = 161; P < 0.009). Lower PD-L1 gene expression was associated with increased promoter methylation (Spearman correlation coefficient -0.36; P < 0.01) in the LGG cohort of TCGA. IDH-mut gliomas had higher PD-L1 gene promoter methylation levels than IDH-wt gliomas (P < 0.01). Conclusions:The immunological tumor microenvironment of diffuse gliomas differs in association with IDH mutation status. IDH-wt gliomas display a more prominent TIL infiltration and higher PD-L1 expression than IDH-mut cases. Mechanistically this may be at least in part due to differential PD-L1 gene promoter methylation levels. Our findings may be relevant for immune modulatory treatment strategies in glioma patients.
Project description:One histopathological characteristic of intracranial germinoma is abundant tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) showing a two-cell pattern with large undifferentiated tumor cells. The programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death 1 ligand (PD-L) axis has recently been recognized as an anti-tumor immune system. To evaluate intratumor immune status in intracranial germinoma, we examined expressions of PD-1 and PD-L1 (clone 28-8) and subtypes of TILs. Expressions of PD-1 and PD-L1 were detected immunohistochemically in 25 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor specimens from 24 patients with intracranial germinoma consisting of 22 primary and 3 recurrent tumors. To evaluate subtypes of TILs, quantification of lymphocytes with CD3, CD8, CD4, and Foxp3 was performed. Statistical analyses were performed among PD-1, PD-L1 and subtypes of TILs. In 25 tumor tissue, expressions of PD-1 in TILs and PD-L1 in tumor cells were identified in 96% (24/25) and 92% (23/25), respectively. Expression of PD-1 was associated with CD3+ TIL density. Expression of PD-1 correlated with Foxp3+ TIL density and CD8+ TIL density, but not with CD4+ TIL density. Furthermore, expression of PD-1 correlated strongly with Foxp3+/CD4+ ratio. Taken together, increase of PD-1+ expression is associated with accumulation of Foxp3+ and CD8+ TILs. These findings intimate that PD-1/PD-L1 axis might shape the immune infiltration suggesting a modulation of the immune response and subsequent tumor growth in intracranial germinoma. Anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 are potential immune therapeutic strategies in intracranial germinoma.
Project description:Purpose: To determine whether distinct tissue immune microenvironments differentially impact on clinical outcome in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), an extended analysis of PD-1/PD-L1 and Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes (TILs) was performed. Materials and Methods: 1016 NSCLC mRNA-sequence samples from The Genome Data Analysis Center (TCGA) and 275 NSCLC mRNA-microarray samples from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) were included as testing cohort and validation cohort respectively. Enrichment scores of CD8+ T cells' metagene were used for quantifying its infiltrating density. Based on the median values of CD8+ T cell density and PD-1/PD-L1 mRNA expression, the samples were classified into four Tumor Immune Microenvironment types (TIMTs). Overall survival, as well as clinicopathological features, mutational profiles, mismatch repair score etc. were compared across the four types. Results: Neither PD-1 expression nor PD-L1 expression was associated with outcome in the overall NSCLC. Classification of TIMT based on PD-1/PD-L1 and CD8+ TIL could efficiently classify patients of different survival in ADC but not SCC, with the best overall survival achieved in TIMT3 (high CD8+ TIL and low PD-1/PD-L1), whereas TIMT2 (low CD8+ TIL and high PD-1/PD-L1) manifested the worst outcome. TIMT classification based on PD-1/ CD8+ TIL could better stratify patient of different prognosis than PD-L1/ CD8+ TIL based classification. EGFR wide type and IFN? overexpression were associated with TIMT4 (high PD-1/PD-L1 and high CD8+ TIL), whereas tumor mutational burden (TMB) manifested no significant difference across four TIMTs. Conclusion: The classification of tumors into four microenvironment subtypes based on PD-1/PD-L1 status and CD8+ TIL is an appropriate approach to stratify patients of different clinical outcome and better guide the practical use of immunotherapy.
Project description:Objectives:Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), particularly CD8+ TILs in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), are highly prognostic in the early-disease stages (I-II). In metastatic disease (stage IV; mCRC), their influence is less well defined. It has presumably failed to contain tumor cells to the primary site; however, is this evident? We explored the prognostic impact of TILs at the primary site in patients who presented de novo with mCRC. Methods:Treatment-naïve patients (109) with mCRC were assessed for CD8+ TILs and PD-L1 expression. Microsatellite instability (MSI) was evaluated by IHC for PMS2 and MSH6 proteins and/or by PCR using the Bethesda panel. Results:Microsatellite instability-high tumors had significantly more CD8+ TILs, with no significant survival advantage observed between MSI-H and microsatellite stable (MSS) tumors (12 vs 19 months, P = 0.304). TIL density for all cases had no impact on OS (low: 20 vs high: 13 months, P = 0.426), while PD-L1 of 1% or higher was associated with reduced mean survival (9.6 vs 18.9 months; P = 0.038). MSI-H tumors and associated immune cells had higher PD-L1 expression than in MSS cases. A positive correlation between PD-L1 on immune cells and CD8+ve TILs was found. A subset of MSS tumors had relatively high TILs approximating that of MSI-H tumors. Conclusion:In contrast to early-stage CRC, the immune response in primary tumors of patients with de novo mCRC does not appear to influence survival. A subgroup of MSS tumors was identified with increased TILs/PD-L1 comparable to MSI-H tumors, traditionally not be considered for immune checkpoint blockade and perhaps should be.
Project description:In order to explore the potential patient population who could benefit from anti PD-1/PD-L1 mono or combination therapies, this study aimed to profile a panel of immunotherapy related biomarkers (PD-1, PD-L1, CTLA-4 and CD8) and targeted therapy biomarkers (EGFR, KRAS, ALK, ROS1 and MET) in NSCLC.Tumor samples from 297 NSCLC patients, including 156 adenocarcinomas (AD) and 129 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), were analyzed using immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization.43.1% of NSCLC patients had PD-L1 positive staining on ? 5% tumor cells (TC). Furthermore, dual color immunofluorescence revealed that the majority of PD-L1/CD8 dual positive tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) had infiltrated into the tumor core. Finally, combined analysis of all eight biomarkers showed that tumor PD-L1 positivity overlapped with known alterations in NSCLC oncogenic tumor drivers in 26% of SCC and 76% of AD samples.Our illustration of the eight biomarkers' overlap provides an intuitive overview of NSCLC for personalized therapeutic strategies using anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immune therapies, either as single agents, or in combination with targeted therapies. For the first time, we also report that PD-L1 and CD8 dual positive TILs are predominantly located within the tumor core.