Pre-harvest management is a critical practice for minimizing aflatoxin contamination of maize.
ABSTRACT: Maize, the main dietary staple in Kenya, is one of the crops most susceptible to contamination by aflatoxin. To understand sources of aflatoxin contamination for home grown maize, we collected 789 maize samples from smallholder farmers' fields in Eastern and South Western, two regions in Kenya representing high and low aflatoxin risk areas, respectively, and determined aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) using ELISA with specific polyclonal antibodies. AFB1 was detected in 274 of the 416 samples from Eastern Kenya at levels between 0.01 and 9091.8??g?kg-1 (mean 67.8??g?kg-1). In South Western, AFB1 was detected in 233 of the 373 samples at levels between 0.98 and 722.2??g?kg-1 (mean 22.3??g?kg-1). Of the samples containing AFB1, 153 (55.8%) from Eastern and 102 (43.8%) from South Western exceeded the maximum allowable limit of AFB1 (5??g?kg-1) in maize for human consumption in Kenya. The probable daily intake (PDI) of AFB1 in Eastern Kenya ranged from 0.07 to 60612?ng?kg-1 bw day-1 (mean 451.8?ng?kg-1 bw day-1), while for South Western, PDI ranged from 6.53 to 4814.7?ng?kg-1 bw day-1 (mean 148.4?ng?kg-1 bw day-1). The average PDI for both regions exceeded the estimated provisional maximum tolerable daily intake of AFB1, which is a health concern for the population in these regions. These results revealed significant levels of preharvest aflatoxin contamination of maize in both regions. Prevention of preharvest infection of maize by toxigenic A. flavus strains should be a critical focal point to prevent aflatoxin contamination and exposure.
Project description:Maize is a staple food in Mexico that might contain Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Nonetheless, data on the exposure and risk assessment of AFB1 from maize for the Mexican population are limited. The aim of the present study was to analyse the occurrence of AFB1 in Mexican nixtamalized maize samples, and to assess the accompanying exposure and risk. Four out of 88 samples contained AFB1 at levels above the limit of detection (1?ng/g). AFB1 occurrence values obtained in this study and additional occurrence values from literature were combined with available literature data for mean and P95 consumption of maize based products. For a 70?kg body weight person, lower bound and upper bound exposure assessments resulted in estimated daily intakes (EDI) of 0.7-8.5?ng/kg bw/day, based on a mean maize consumption. Based on the P95 maize consumption these EDI values amounted to 3.3-11.7?ng/kg bw/day. The corresponding Margin of Exposure (MOE) values amounted to 257-20 for the mean and 50-15 for the P95 consumers. The estimated increased cancer risks were 9-320 and 43-439 cases/106 individuals/lifetime of 75 years for the mean and P95 consumers, respectively. Altogether, the assessment reveals the need for continued risk management of AFB1 in Mexico.
Project description:There are limited data on exposure to mycotoxins in Pakistan. Here, we measured exposure to deoxynivalenol (DON), a common contaminant of wheat, and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a known contaminant of rice, using biomarkers of exposure. Wheat (n = 195) and rice (n = 62) samples were analyzed for AFB1 and DON levels, and the corresponding urinary biomarkers were analyzed in urine samples from a rural population (n = 264, aged 4-80 years, male 58%) using ultra-sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. AFB1 was detected in 66% of rice (5.04 ± 11.94 µg/kg) and 3% of wheat samples. AFM1 (hydroxylated form of AFB1)was detected in 69% of urine samples, mean 0.023 ± 0.048 ng/mL and DON was detected in 20% of urine samples, mean 0.170 ± 0.129 ng/mL. The maximum probable daily intake for DON derived from the urinary biomarker was 59.8 ng/kg b.w./day, which is below the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives' tolerable daily intake (1000 ng/kg b.w./day). However, for aflatoxin, the derived margin of exposure (MoE) of (13.2) was well below the safe MoE (10,000) suggested by the European Food Safety Authority. The calculated aflatoxin-associated cancer risk of 0.514/105 individuals/year suggests that measures should be taken to reduce the AFB1 contamination in food, particularly rice, in Pakistan.
Project description:Aflatoxin M1 contamination of milk in Pakistan, like many developing countries, is poorly understood. The present study was therefore conducted to determine AFM1 contamination of milk and its contributory factors in Pakistan. We sampled milk and feedstuffs from 450 peri-urban dairy farms in seven major cities following a cross-sectional study design. Analysis of milk using ELISA revealed high contamination with an overall average of 3164.5 ng of AFM1/L, and significant differences (p < 0.001) between cities. The milk sampled from Gilgit, in northern hilly areas, had an average AFM1 level of 92.5 ng/L. Milk from other cities had 3529.7 ng/L average contamination, with only 5.7% samples qualifying the maximum tolerable limit of 500 ng of AFM1/L. Heavy mean aflatoxin contamination was found in bakery waste (724.6 ?g/kg), and cottonseed cake (600.8 ?g/kg). Rest of the other feedstuffs had moderate to low mean aflatoxin contamination, ranging from 66.0 ?g/kg in maize stover to 3.4 ?g/kg in wheat bran. The mean aflatoxin level in commercial dairy concentrates was 32.7 µg/kg. About 80% of the total aflatoxin intake of dairy animals was contributed by cottonseed cake alone due to its high aflatoxin contamination and proportion in dairy rations. On-farm storage time of oilseed cakes varied (p < 0.01) in different cities but was not associated with aflatoxin contamination. The exceptionally high AFM1 contamination suggests that milk from peri-urban dairy farms is a serious public health threat in Pakistan. This situation can be mitigated by reducing aflatoxin contamination in cottonseed cake and promoting the use of commercial concentrates and other feedstuffs with low contamination.
Project description:Multiple-mycotoxin contamination has been frequently found in the agro-food monitoring due to the coexistence of fungi. However, many determination methods focused on a single mycotoxin, highlighting the demand for on-site determination of multiple mycotoxins in a single run. We develop a multicolor-based immunochromatographic strip (ICS) for simultaneous determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEN) and T-2 toxin in maize- and cereal-based animal feeds. The nanoparticles with different colors are conjugated with three monoclonal antibodies, which serve as the immunoassay probes. The decrease in color intensity is observed by the naked eyes, providing simultaneous quantification of three mycotoxins. The visible limits of detection for AFB1, ZEN and T-2 are estimated to be 0.5, 2, and 30 ng/mL, respectively. The cut-off values are 1, 10, and 50 ng/mL, respectively. Considerable specificity and stability are found using real samples. The results are in excellent agreement with those from high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The multi-color ICS boasts sensitive and rapid visual differentiation and simultaneous semi-quantification of aflatoxin B1, zearalenone and T-2 toxin in maize- and cereal-based feed samples within 20 min.
Project description:In recent years, very many incidences of contamination with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in pistachio nuts have been reported as a major global problem for the crop. In Europe, legislation is in force and 12 ?g/kg of AFB1 is the maximum limit set for pistachios to be subjected to physical treatment before human consumption. The goal of the current study was to develop a mechanistic, weather-driven model to predict Aspergillus flavus growth and the AFB1 contamination of pistachios on a daily basis from nut setting until harvest. The planned steps were to: (i) build a phenology model to predict the pistachio growth stages, (ii) develop a prototype model named AFLA-pistachio (model transfer from AFLA-maize), (iii) collect the meteorological and AFB1 contamination data from pistachio orchards, (iv) run the model and elaborate a probability function to estimate the likelihood of overcoming the legal limit, and (v) manage a preliminary validation. The internal validation of AFLA-pistachio indicated that 75% of the predictions were correct. In the external validation with an independent three-year dataset, 95.6% of the samples were correctly predicted. According to the results, AFLA-pistachio seems to be a reliable tool to follow the dynamic of AFB1 contamination risk throughout the pistachio growing season.
Project description:Pseudomonas fluorescens strain 3JW1, which has a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, was studied to investigate whether it affects the amounts of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) produced by Aspergillus flavus. It was found that the bacterium reduced the amounts of AFB1 in potato dextrose broth (PDB) and peanut medium by 97.8% and 99.4%, respectively. It also reduced AFB1 by ~183 μg/kg (55.8%) when applied onto peanut kernels. This strain reduced AFB1 via three mechanisms. First, it significantly inhibited A. flavus growth; second, our data showed that strain 3JW1 inhibits aflatoxin biosynthesis by A. flavus; and third, P. fluorescens strain 3JW1 is capable of degrading AFB1 at a rate as high as 88.3% in 96 hours. This is the first report demonstrating that Pseudomonas fluorescens can reduce toxin contamination caused by A. flavus on peanut kernels. Our findings indicate that P. fluorescens strain 3JW1 had multiple effects including reducing A. flavus infection and aflatoxin contamination. And the results also highlight the potential applications of the strain 3JW1 for the biological control of aflatoxin contamination in peanuts and other susceptible crops.
Project description:Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and its metabolite aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) are well-known carcinogens for humans and animals health. In this study, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography linked with fluorescence detection (UPLC-FLD) method was optimized and validated. In addition, we investigated for the first time, the influence of curcumin on residue depletion of AFB1 and AFM1 in liver, kidney, and muscle tissues of broiler chickens and estimated a necessary clearance time required for AFB1 and AFM1 residues. The results showed that the average recoveries of AFB1 varied in liver, kidney, and muscles between 82.32-85.56, 85.34-88.45, and 84.88-89.73% respectively, while the average recoveries of AFM1 in liver, kidney, and muscles varied between 92.17-95.03, 94.12-97.21, and 95.32-98.51%, respectively. The detection limit of aflatoxin B1 was 0.008 ng/ml, while for aflatoxin M1 was 0.003 ng/ml. The limit of quantification (LOQ) for AFB1 and AFM1 was 0.02 and 0.01 ng/ml, respectively. Clearance time for AFB1 and AFM1 residues were analyzed in two experimental groups of broilers. One group fed with dietary AFB1 (5.0 mg/kg feed) and other with curcumin+AFB1 diet (curcumin; 300 mg/kg feed, AFB1; 5.0 mg/kg feed). AFB1 and AFM1 residues clearance time was calculated based on LOQ using withdrawal time calculation software (WT1.4). Clearance time analyzed for AFB1 ranged from 11 to 19 days and for AFM1 ranged from 10 to 12 days at 95% confidence level. Interestingly, curcumin supplementation in the diet reduced the clearance time of AFM1 in liver and kidney but not in muscle tissues. Conclusively, the developed method can be appropriately used for the quality control testing of commercial broiler-meat processing companies, food manufacturers, and quality control laboratories.
Project description:Milk is an important commodity in Kenya; the country has the largest dairy herd and highest per capita milk consumption in East Africa. As such, hazards in milk are of concern. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a toxic metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) excreted in milk by lactating animals after ingesting AFB1-contaminated feeds. This metabolite is injurious to human health, but there is little information on the risk to human health posed by AFM1 in milk in rural Kenya. To fill this gap, a quantitative risk assessment (QRA) applying probabilistic statistical tools to quantify risks was conducted. This assessed the risk of liver cancer posed by AFM1 in milk, assuming 10-fold lower carcinogenicity than AFB1. Data from four agro-ecological zones in Kenya (semi-arid, temperate, sub-humid and humid) were used. We estimated that people were exposed to between 0.3 and 1 ng AFM1 per kg body weight per day through the consumption of milk. The annual incidence rates of cancer attributed to the consumption of AFM1 in milk were 3.5 × 10-3 (95% CI: 3 × 10-3-3.9 × 10-3), 2.9 × 10-3 (95% CI: 2.5 × 10-3-3.3 × 10-3), 1.4 × 10-3 (95% CI: 1.2 × 10-3-1.5 × 10-3) and 2.7 × 10-3 (95% CI: 2.3 × 10-3-3 × 10-3) cancers per 100,000 in adult females, adult males, children 6-18 years old, and in children less than five years old, respectively. Our results show that aflatoxin exposure from milk contributes relatively little to the incidence of liver cancer. Nonetheless, risk managers should take action based on cumulative exposure from all sources of aflatoxins.
Project description:Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most harmful mycotoxin that occurs as natural contaminant of agricultural commodities, particularly maize. Practical solutions for detoxification of contaminated staples and reduction of agricultural wastes are scarce. We investigated the capability of the white-rot and edible fungus Plerotus eryngii (king oyster mushroom) to degrade AFB1 both in vitro and in a laboratory-scale mushroom cultivation, using a substrate similar to that routinely used in mushroom farms. In malt extract broth, degradation of AFB1 (500 ng/mL) by nine isolates of P. eryngii ranged from 81 to 99% after 10 days growth, and reached 100% for all isolates after 30 days. The growth of P. eryngii on solid medium (malt extract-agar, MEA) was significantly reduced at concentrations of AFB1 500 ng/mL or higher. However, the addition of 5% wheat straw to the culture medium increased the tolerance of P. eryngii to AFB1 and no inhibition was observed at a AFB1 content of 500 ng/mL; degradation of AFB1 in MEA supplemented with 5% wheat straw and 2.5% (w/v) maize flour was 71-94% after 30 days of growth. Further, AFB1 degradation by P. eryngii strain ITEM 13681 was tested in a laboratory-scale mushroom cultivation. The mushroom growth medium contained 25% (w/w) of maize spiked with AFB1 to the final content of 128 μg/kg. Pleurotus eryngii degraded up to 86% of the AFB1 in 28 days, with no significant reduction of either biological efficiency or mushroom yield. Neither the biomass produced on the mushroom substrate nor the mature basidiocarps contained detectable levels of AFB1 or its metabolite aflatoxicol, thus ruling out the translocation of these toxins through the fungal thallus. These findings make a contribution towards the development of a novel technology for remediation of AFB1- contaminated corn through the exploitation of the degradative capability of P. eryngii and its bioconversion into high nutritional value material intended for feed production.
Project description:Introduction: Milk consumption in Kenya supersedes other countries in East Africa. However, milk contamination with aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is common, but the magnitude of this exposure and the health risks are poorly understood and need to be monitored routinely. This study aimed at assessing the awareness, knowledge and practices of urban and peri-urban farmers about aflatoxins and determining the levels of aflatoxin contamination in on-farm milk in a selected area within Nairobi County. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken to assess aflatoxin contamination levels of milk in Kasarani sub-county. A total of 84 milk samples were collected from small-holder dairy farms and analyzed for AFM1 using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Results and Discussion: Ninety nine percent of the samples (83/84) analysed were contaminated with AFM1. The mean aflatoxin level was 84 ng/kg with 64% of the samples exceeding the EU legal limit of 50 ng/kg. Whereas 80% of the farmers were aware of aflatoxin, there was no correlation between farmers' knowledge and gender with AFM1 prevalence. Conclusion: This study concludes that AFM1 is a frequent contaminant in milk and there is need to enhance farmers awareness on mitigation.