Effects of long periods of pneumoperitoneum combined with the head-up position on heart rate-corrected QT interval during robotic gastrectomy: an observational study.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:Pneumoperitoneum and the head-up position reportedly stimulate the sympathetic nervous system, potentially increasing the risk of cardiac arrhythmia. We evaluated the effects of a long duration of pneumoperitoneum in the head-up position on the heart rate-corrected QT (QTc) interval during robotic gastrectomy. METHODS:This prospective observational study involved 28 patients undergoing robotic gastrectomy. The QTc interval was recorded at the following time points: before anaesthetic induction (baseline); 10 minutes after tracheal intubation; 1, 5, 30, 60, and 90 minutes after pneumoperitoneum induction in the head-up position; after pneumoperitoneum desufflation in the supine position; and at the end of surgery. The primary outcome was the QTc interval, which was measured 90 minutes after pneumoperitoneum combined with the head-up position. RESULTS:Compared with baseline, the QTc interval was significantly prolonged at 1 and 60 minutes after pneumoperitoneum, peaked at 90 minutes, and was sustained and notably prolonged until the end of surgery. However, no considerable haemodynamic changes developed. CONCLUSION:A long period of carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum application in a head-up position significantly prolonged the QTc interval during robotic gastrectomy. Therefore, diligent care and close monitoring are required for patients who are susceptible to developing ventricular arrhythmia. Trial Registration: Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02604979 ; Registration number NCT02604979.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We evaluated the change of cerebral regional tissue oxygen saturation (rSO2) along with the pneumoperitoneum and the Trendelenburg position. We also assessed the relationship between the change of rSO2 and the changes of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2), arterial oxygen tension (PaO2), or arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2). METHODS:Forty-one adult patients who underwent a robotic assisted endoscopic prostatic surgery under propofol and remifentanil anesthesia were involved in this study. During the surgery, a pneumoperitoneum was established using carbon dioxide. Measurements of rSO2, MAP, HR, PaCO2, PaO2, and SaO2 were performed before the pneumoperitoneum (baseline), every 5?min after the onset of pneumoperitoneum, before the Trendelenburg position. After the onset of the Trendelenburg position, rSO2, MAP, HR were recorded at 5, 10, 20, 30, 45, and 60?min, and PaCO2, PaO2, and SaO2 were measured at 10, 30, and 60?min. RESULTS:Before the pneumoperitoneum, left and right rSO2 were 67.9?±?6.3% and 68.5?±?7.0%. Ten minutes after the onset of pneumoperitoneum, significant increase in the rSO2 was observed (left: 69.6?±?5.9%, right: 70.6?±?7.4%). During the Trendelenburg position, the rSO2 increased initially and peaked at 5?min (left: 72.2?±?6.5%, right: 73.1?±?7.6%), then decreased. Multiple regression analysis showed that change of rSO2 correlated with MAP and PaCO2. CONCLUSIONS:Pneumoperitoneum and the Trendelenburg position in robotic-assisted endoscopic prostatic surgery did not worsen cerebral oxygenation. Arterial blood pressure is the critical factor in cerebral oxygenation. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Japan Primary Registries Network (JPRN); UMIN-CTR ID; UMIN000026227 (retrospectively registered).
Project description:Intraperitoneal insufflation of carbon dioxide may affect the sympathetic activity that leads to changes in ventricular repolarization. This in turn can result in changes of heart rate-corrected QT (QTc) interval and Tpeak-Tend (Tp-e) interval. Dexmedetomidine is a highly selective ?2-receptor agonist and has potential antiarrhythmic properties. This prospective, randomized, double-blinded, controlled study evaluated the effects of dexmedetomidine administration on QTc and Tp-e intervals during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy with steep Trendelenburg position.Fifty patients scheduled for robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy randomly received either a continuous infusion of dexmedetomidine at a rate of 0.3??g/kg/hour, from anesthetic induction until the end of the Trendelenburg position (dexmedetomidine group; n?=?25), or the same volume of normal saline (control group; n?=?25). Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane and remifentanil. The primary and secondary goals were to evaluate the effect of dexmedetomidine on the QTc and Tp-e interval changes. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, end-tidal CO2, and end-tidal sevoflurane concentrations were assessed as well.Forty-seven patients (94%) completed the study. Dexmedetomidine significantly attenuated QTc interval prolongation and reduced the Tp-e interval, even though the baseline values of the QTc and Tp-e intervals were similar between the 2 groups (PGroup?×?Time?=?0.001 and 0.014, respectively). Twenty-two patients (96%) in the control group and 13 (54%) in the dexmedetomidine group had QTc interval prolongation of >20?ms from the baseline value during surgery (P?=?0.001). The maximum QTc interval prolongation from the baseline value during surgery was 46?±?21?ms in the control group and 24?±?21?ms in the dexmedetomidine group (mean?±?SD, P?=?0.001). Mean arterial pressure and heart rate were comparable between the groups.Continuous infusion of dexmedetomidine at a rate of 0.3??g/kg/hour significantly attenuated the QTc interval prolongation induced by CO2 pneumoperitoneum with steep Trendelenburg position. Furthermore, dexmedetomidine reduced the Tp-e interval. Thus, dexmedetomidine administration may be effective for patients who are susceptible to the development of ventricular arrhythmia during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>It is hypothesized that robotic gastrectomy may surpass laparoscopic gastrectomy after the operators acquire long-term experience and skills in the manipulation of robotic arms. This study aimed to evaluate the long-term learning curve of robotic distal gastrectomy (RDG) for gastric cancer compared with laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (LDG).<h4>Materials and methods</h4>From October 2008 to December 2015, patients who underwent LDG (n=809) were matched to patients who underwent RDG (n=232) at a 1:1 ratio, by using a propensity score matching method after stratification for the operative year. The surgical outcomes, such as trends of operative time, blood loss, and complication rate, were compared between the two groups.<h4>Results</h4>The RDG group showed a longer operative time (171.3 minutes vs. 147.6 minutes, P<0.001) but less estimated blood loss (77.6 ml vs. 116.6 ml, P<0.001). The complication rate and postoperative recovery did not differ between the two groups. The RDG group showed a longer operative time and similar estimated blood loss compared with the LDG group after 5 years of experience (operative time: 159.2 minutes vs. 136.0 minutes in 2015, P=0.003; estimated blood loss: 72.9 ml vs. 78.1 ml in 2015, P=0.793).<h4>Conclusions</h4>In terms of short-term surgical outcomes, RDG may not surpass LDG after a long-term experience with the technique.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sudden cardiac death is one of the primary causes of mortality in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. Prolonged QTc interval is associated with increased rate of sudden cardiac death. The aim of this article is to assess the abnormalities found in electrocardiograms (ECGs), and to explore factors that can influence the QTc interval. METHODS:A total of 141 conventional HD patients were enrolled in this study. ECG tests were conducted on each patient before a single dialysis session and 15 minutes before the end of dialysis session (at peak stress). Echocardiography tests were conducted before dialysis session began. Blood samples were drawn by phlebotomy immediately before and after the dialysis session. RESULTS:Before dialysis, 93.62% of the patients were in sinus rhythm, and approximately 65% of the patients showed a prolonged QTc interval (i.e., a QTc interval above 440 ms in males and above 460ms in females). A comparison of ECG parameters before dialysis and at peak stress showed increases in heart rate (77.45±11.92 vs. 80.38±14.65 bpm, p = 0.001) and QTc interval (460.05±24.53 ms vs. 470.93±24.92 ms, p<0.001). After dividing patients into two groups according to the QTc interval, lower pre-dialysis serum concentrations of potassium (K+), calcium (Ca2+), phosphorus, calcium* phosphorus (Ca*P), and higher concentrations of plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were found in the group with prolonged QTc intervals. Patients in this group also had a larger left atrial diameter (LAD) and a thicker interventricular septum, and they tended to be older than patients in the other group. Then patients were divided into two groups according to ?QTc (?QTc = QTc peak-stress- QTc pre-HD). When analyzing the patients whose QTc intervals were longer at peak stress than before HD, we found that they had higher concentrations of Ca2+ and P5+ and lower concentrations of K+, ferritin, UA, and BNP. They were also more likely to be female. In addition, more cardiac construction abnormalities were found in this group. In multiple regression analyses, serum Ca2+ concentration before HD and LAD were independent variables of QTc interval prolongation. UA, ferritin, and interventricular septum were independent variables of ?QTc. CONCLUSION:Prolonged QT interval is very common in HD patients and is associated with several risk factors. An appropriate concentration of dialysate electrolytes should be chosen depending on patients' clinical conditions.
Project description:Background:Prolonged heart rate corrected QT (QTc) interval was reported to be associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Objective:There exists little data on the association between QTc interval and cardiovascular risk in Asian populations. We prospectively investigated the association of QTc interval with CVDs and vascular traits in a large cohort of Chinese adults. Methods:A total of 7,605 participants aged 40 years or older from a well-defined community without CVDs at baseline were included and followed up for an average of 4.5 years. Association of baseline QTc interval with incident CVDs was evaluated using Cox regression analysis. Associations of QTc interval with brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), and risk of microalbuminuria and peripheral arterial diseases (PAD) were secondarily examined. Results:Prolonged QTc interval (?460 ms in women and ?450 ms in men) was associated with 51% higher risk of total major CVDs (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.20, 1.90]), particularly, 48% increased risk of stroke (95% CI [1.16, 1.88]). Prolonged QTc interval was positively associated with baPWV (? = 38.10 cm/s, standard error [SE] = 8.04, P < 0.0001) and CIMT (? = 0.01 mm, SE = 0.01, P = 0.04). Prolonged QTc interval was associated with increased risk of incident microalbuminuria (odds ratio [OR] = 1.65, 95% CI [1.21, 2.24]) and PAD (2.49, 95% CI [1.35, 4.59]). Conclusions:Prolonged QTc interval is positively and significantly associated with increased risk of CVDs and related vascular traits in Chinese population.
Project description:Heart rate-corrected QT (QTc) interval is associated with mortality in the general population, but this association is less clear in individuals with type 2 diabetes. We assessed the association of QTc interval with all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in the Diabetes Heart Study.We studied 1,020 participants with type 2 diabetes (83% European Americans; 55% women; mean age 61.4 years) who were free of atrial fibrillation, major ventricular conduction defects, and antiarrhythmic therapy at baseline. QT duration was automatically calculated from a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG). Following American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology Foundation recommendations, a linear scale was used to correct the QT for heart rate. Using Cox regression, risk was estimated per 1-SD increase in QTc interval as well as prolonged QTc interval (>450 ms) vs. normal QTc interval for mortality.At baseline, the mean (SD) QTc duration was 414.9 ms (18.1), and 3.0% of participants had prolonged QTc. After a median follow-up time of 8.5 years (maximum follow-up time 13.9 years), 204 participants were deceased. In adjusted multivariate models, a 1-SD increase in QTc interval was associated with an 18% higher risk for all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 1.18 [95% CI 1.03-1.36]) and 29% increased risk for CVD mortality (1.29 [1.05-1.59]). Similar results were obtained when QTc interval was used as a categorical variable (prolonged vs. normal) (all-cause mortality 1.73 [0.95-3.15]; CVD mortality 2.86 [1.35-6.08]).Heart rate QTc interval is an independent predictor of all-cause and CVD mortality in this population with type 2 diabetes, suggesting that additional prognostic information may be available from this simple ECG measure.
Project description:Major laparoscopic pelvic surgery requires steep Trendelenburg position with pneumoperitoneum for a long time. We investigated the effect of Trendelenburg position with pneumoperitoneum on diaphragmatic excursion and lung compliance during major laparoscopic pelvic surgery using M-mode sonography. Twenty patients undergoing elective pelviscopic radical hysterectomy were included in this study. Diaphragmatic excursion was measured at the following time points; after sedation, after intubation, 90 minutes after Trendelenburg position with pneumoperitoneum, and after operation with recovery of muscle relaxation. And lung compliance was measured using anesthetic machine under general anesthesia; after the intubation, 90 minutes after Trendelenburg position with pneumoperitoneum and after operation with recovery of muscle relaxation. In order to detect postoperative pulmonary complication, postoperative chest radiography was checked. Static lung compliance, dynamic lung compliance and diaphragmatic excursion were decreased during operation (P < 0.001, respectively). At the end of the operation with recovery of muscle relaxation, reduced diaphragmatic movement was not recovered as its excursion after sedation (P < 0.001). In conclusion, lung compliance was decreased following transiently decreased diaphragmatic excursion during major laparoscopic pelvic surgery.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Prolonged QT interval in hemodialysis patients may be associated with sudden cardiac death, however, few studies examined the longitudinal associations of modifiable factors such as serum and dialysate concentrations of calcium, potassium, and magnesium with corrected QT (QTc) prolongation in incident hemodialysis patients. METHODS:In 330 in-center hemodialysis participants from the PACE study who were followed up for one year, we examined the associations of predialysis serum electrolytes (total calcium [Ca], corrected Ca [cCa], ionized Ca [iCa], potassium [K], magnesium [Mg]), dialysate (dCa and dK), and serum-to-dialysate gradient measures with QTc interval and prolongation (?460?ms in women and???450?ms in men). RESULTS:At the first study visit, 47% had QTc prolongation. Lower iCa and K were associated with longer QTc interval independent of potential confounders (QTc difference?=?8.55[95% CI: 2.13, 14.97] ms for iCa; QTc difference?=?9.89[1.58, 18.20] ms for K). Lower iCa was also associated with a higher risk of QTc prolongation. At 1?year of follow-up, 31% had persistent QTc prolongation. In longitudinal analyses, the associations of iCa and K with QTc interval remained significant, and lower K was associated with a higher risk of QTc prolongation while the association of iCa with QTc prolongation was borderline statistically significant. Serum Mg, dCa or dK, and respective gradients were not associated with QTc interval or prolongation. CONCLUSION:Prolonged QTc is very common in incident hemodialysis participants and persists over follow-up. Ionized Ca and K are consistently inversely associated with QTc prolongation, which suggests closer monitoring for a low calcium or potassium level to mitigate risk.
Project description:Poisoning is a frequent cause of admission to the emergency department (ED) and may involve drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This study aims to describe the prevalence of QTc prolongation among ED patients with suspected poisoning and to calculate the absolute and relative risk of mortality or cardiac arrest associated with a prolonged QTc interval.We performed a register-based cohort study, including all adult first-time contacts with suspected poisoning to the ED of two Swedish hospitals (January 2010-December 2014) and two Danish hospitals (March 2013-April 2014). We used propensity score matching to calculate HRs for all-cause mortality or cardiac arrest (combined endpoint) within 30 days after contact comparing patients with a prolonged QTc interval (?450?ms men, ?460?ms women) with patients with a QTc interval of <440?ms.Among all first-time contacts with suspected poisoning that had an ECG recorded within 4?hours after arrival (n=3869), QTc prolongation occurred in 6.5%. The overall mortality after a 30-day follow-up period was 0.8% (95% CI 0.6 to 1.2), with an absolute risk of mortality or cardiac arrest in patients with QTc prolongation of 3.2% (95% CI 1.4 to 6.1). A prolonged QTc interval on arrival was associated with a HR of 3.6 (95% CI 1.0 to 12.2).In the ED, a prolonged QTc interval in patients arriving with suspected poisoning seems to be associated with a threefold increased risk of 30-day all-cause mortality or cardiac arrest.
Project description:AIM: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of robotic gastrectomy versus open gastrectomy for gastric cancer. METHODS: A comprehensive search of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Knowledge was performed. Systematic review was carried out to identify studies comparing robotic gastrectomy and open gastrectomy in gastric cancer. Intraoperative and postoperative outcomes were also analyzed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the surgery. A fixed effects model or a random effects model was utilized according to the heterogeneity. RESULTS: Four studies involving 5780 patients with 520 (9.00%) cases of robotic gastrectomy and 5260 (91.00%) cases of open gastrectomy were included in this meta-analysis. Compared to open gastrectomy, robotic gastrectomy has a significantly longer operation time (weighted mean differences (WMD) =92.37, 95% confidence interval (CI): 55.63 to 129.12, P<0.00001), lower blood loss (WMD: -126.08, 95% CI: -189.02 to -63.13, P<0.0001), and shorter hospital stay (WMD = -2.87; 95% CI: -4.17 to -1.56; P<0.0001). No statistical difference was noted based on the rate of overall postoperative complication, wound infection, bleeding, number of harvested lymph nodes, anastomotic leakage and postoperative mortality rate. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this meta-analysis suggest that robotic gastrectomy is a better alternative technique to open gastrectomy for gastric cancer. However, more prospective, well-designed, multicenter, randomized controlled trials are necessary to further evaluate the safety and efficacy as well as the long-term outcome.