Structure of the hyperosmolality-gated calcium-permeable channel OSCA1.2.
ABSTRACT: In plants, hyperosmolality stimuli triggers opening of the osmosensitive channels, leading to a rapid downstream signaling cascade initiated by cytosolic calcium concentration elevation. Members of the OSCA family in Arabidopsis thaliana, identified as the hyperosmolality-gated calcium-permeable channels, have been suggested to play a key role during the initial phase of hyperosmotic stress response. Here, we report the atomic structure of Arabidopsis OSCA1.2 determined by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy. It contains 11 transmembrane helices and forms a homodimer. It is in an inactivated state, and the pore-lining residues are clearly identified. Its cytosolic domain contains a RNA recognition motif and two unique long helices. The linker between these two helices forms an anchor in the lipid bilayer and may be essential to osmosensing. The structure of AtOSCA1.2 serves as a platform for the study of the mechanism underlying osmotic stress responses and mechanosensing.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Reception of and response to exogenous and endogenous osmotic changes is important to sustain plant growth and development, as well as reproductive formation. Hyperosmolality-gated calcium-permeable channels (OSCA) were first characterised as an osmosensor in Arabidopsis and are involved in the perception of extracellular changes to trigger hyperosmolality-induced [Ca(2+)]i increases (OICI). To explore the potential biological functions of OSCAs in rice, we performed a bioinformatics and expression analysis of the OsOSCA gene family. RESULTS:A total of 11 OsOSCA genes were identified from the genome database of Oryza sativa L. Japonica. Based on their sequence composition and phylogenetic relationship, the OsOSCA family was classified into four clades. Gene and protein structure analysis indicated that the 11 OsOSCAs shared similar structures with their homologs in Oryza sativa L. ssp. Indica, Oryza glaberrima, and Oryza brachyantha. Multiple sequence alignment analysis revealed a conserved DUF221 domain in these members, in which the first three TMs were conserved, while the others were not. The expression profiles of OsOSCA genes were analysed at different stages of vegetative growth, reproductive development, and under osmotic-associated abiotic stresses. We found that four and six OsOSCA genes showed a clear correlation between the expression profile and osmotic changes during caryopsis development and seed imbibition, respectively. Orchestrated transcription of three OsOSCAs was strongly associated with the circadian clock. Moreover, osmotic-related abiotic stress differentially induced the expression of 10 genes. CONCLUSION:The entire OSCA family is characterised by the presence of a conserved DUF221 domain, which functions as an osmotic-sensing calcium channel. The phylogenetic tree of OSCA genes showed that two subspecies of cultivated rice, Oryza sativa L. ssp. Japonica and Oryza sativa L. ssp. Indica, are more closely related than wild rice Oryza glaberrima, while Oryza brachyantha was less closely related. OsOSCA expression is organ- and tissue-specific and regulated by different osmotic-related abiotic stresses in rice. These findings will facilitate further research in this gene family and provide potential target genes for generation of genetically modified osmotic-stress-resistant plants.
Project description:Sensing and responding to environmental water deficiency and osmotic stresses are essential for the growth, development, and survival of plants. Recently, an osmolality-sensing ion channel called OSCA1 was discovered that functions in sensing hyperosmolality in Arabidopsis Here, we report the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure and function of an OSCA1 homolog from rice (Oryza sativa; OsOSCA1.2), leading to a model of how it could mediate hyperosmolality sensing and transport pathway gating. The structure reveals a dimer; the molecular architecture of each subunit consists of 11 transmembrane (TM) helices and a cytosolic soluble domain that has homology to RNA recognition proteins. The TM domain is structurally related to the TMEM16 family of calcium-dependent ion channels and lipid scramblases. The cytosolic soluble domain possesses a distinct structural feature in the form of extended intracellular helical arms that are parallel to the plasma membrane. These helical arms are well positioned to potentially sense lateral tension on the inner leaflet of the lipid bilayer caused by changes in turgor pressure. Computational dynamic analysis suggests how this domain couples to the TM portion of the molecule to open a transport pathway. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDXMS) experimentally confirms the conformational dynamics of these coupled domains. These studies provide a framework to understand the structural basis of proposed hyperosmolality sensing in a staple crop plant, extend our knowledge of the anoctamin superfamily important for plants and fungi, and provide a structural mechanism for potentially translating membrane stress to transport regulation.
Project description:Background:Worldwide cultivation of maize is often impacted negatively by drought stress. Hyperosmolality-gated calcium-permeable channels (OSCA) have been characterized as osmosensors in Arabidopsis. However, the involvement of members of the maize OSCA (ZmOSCA) gene family in response to drought stress is unknown. It is furthermore unclear which ZmOSCA gene plays a major role in genetic improvement of drought tolerance in Maize. Methods:We predicted the protein domain structure and transmembrane regions by using the NCBI Conserved Domain Database database and TMHMM server separately. The phylogeny tree was built by Mega7. We used the mixed linear model in TASSEL to perform the family-based association analysis. Results:In this report, 12 ZmOSCA genes were uncovered in the maize genome by a genome-wide survey and analyzed systematically to reveal their synteny and phylogenetic relationship with the genomes of rice, maize, and sorghum. These analyses indicated a relatively conserved evolutionary history of the ZmOSCA gene family. Protein domain and transmembrane analysis indicated that most of the 12 ZmOSCAs shared similar structures with their homologs. The result of differential expression analysis under drought at various stages, as well as the expression profiles in 15 tissues, revealed a functional divergence of ZmOSCA genes. Notably, the expression level of ZmOSCA4.1 being up-regulated in both seedlings and adult leaves. Notably, the association analysis between genetic variations in these genes and drought tolerance was detected. Significant associations between genetic variation in ZmOSCA4.1 and drought tolerance were found at the seedling stage. Our report provides a detailed analysis of the ZmOSCAs in the maize genome. These findings will contribute to future studies on the functional characterization of ZmOSCA proteins in response to water deficit stress, as well as understanding the mechanism of genetic variation in drought tolerance in maize.
Project description:Mechanically activated ion channels underlie touch, hearing, shear-stress sensing, and response to turgor pressure. OSCA/TMEM63s are a newly-identified family of eukaryotic mechanically activated ion channels opened by membrane tension. The structural underpinnings of OSCA/TMEM63 function are not explored. Here, we elucidate high resolution cryo-electron microscopy structures of OSCA1.2, revealing a dimeric architecture containing eleven transmembrane helices per subunit and surprising topological similarities to TMEM16 proteins. We locate the ion permeation pathway within each subunit by demonstrating that a conserved acidic residue is a determinant of channel conductance. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal membrane interactions, suggesting the role of lipids in OSCA1.2 gating. These results lay a foundation to decipher how the structural organization of OSCA/TMEM63 is suited for their roles as MA ion channels.
Project description:Mechanically activated (MA) ion channels convert physical forces into electrical signals, and are essential for eukaryotic physiology. Despite their importance, few bona-fide MA channels have been described in plants and animals. Here, we show that various members of the OSCA and TMEM63 family of proteins from plants, flies, and mammals confer mechanosensitivity to naïve cells. We conclusively demonstrate that OSCA1.2, one of the Arabidopsis thaliana OSCA proteins, is an inherently mechanosensitive, pore-forming ion channel. Our results suggest that OSCA/TMEM63 proteins are the largest family of MA ion channels identified, and are conserved across eukaryotes. Our findings will enable studies to gain deep insight into molecular mechanisms of MA channel gating, and will facilitate a better understanding of mechanosensory processes in vivo across plants and animals.
Project description:Duckweeds are a family of freshwater angiosperms with morphology reduced to fronds and propagation by vegetative budding. Unlike other angiosperm plants such as Arabidopsis and rice that have physical barriers between their photosynthetic organs and soils, the photosynthetic organs of duckweeds face directly to their nutrient suppliers (waters), therefore, their responses to salinity may be distinct. In this research, we found that the duckweed Spirodela polyrhiza L. accumulated high content of sodium and reduced potassium and calcium contents in large amounts under salt stress. Fresh weight, Rubisco and AGPase activities, and starch content were significantly decreaseded in the first day but recovered gradually in the following days and accumulated more starch than control from Day 3 to Day 5 when treated with 100 mM and 150 mM NaCl. A total of 2156 differentially expressed genes were identified. Overall, the genes related to ethylene metabolism, major CHO degradation, lipid degradation, N-metabolism, secondary metabolism of flavonoids, and abiotic stress were significantly increased, while those involved in cell cycle and organization, cell wall, mitochondrial electron transport of ATP synthesis, light reaction of photosynthesis, auxin metabolism, and tetrapyrrole synthesis were greatly inhibited. Moreover, salt stress also significantly influenced the expression of transcription factors that are mainly involved in abiotic stress and cell differentiation. However, most of the osmosensing calcium antiporters (OSCA) and the potassium inward channels were downregulated, Na+/H+ antiporters (SOS1 and NHX) and a Na+/Ca2+ exchanger were slightly upregulated, but most of them did not respond significantly to salt stress. These results indicated that the ion homeostasis was strongly disturbed. Finally, the shared and distinct regulatory networks of salt stress responses between duckweeds and other plants were intensively discussed. Taken together, these findings provide novel insights into the underlying mechanisms of salt stress response in duckweeds, and can be served as a useful foundation for salt tolerance improvement of duckweeds for the application in salinity conditions.
Project description:Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 4 (TRPV4) and calcium-activated potassium channels (KCa ) mediate osmosensing in many tissues. Both TRPV4 and KCa channels are found in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, an area critical for sympathetic control of cardiovascular and renal function. Here, we have investigated whether TRPV4 channels functionally couple to KCa channels to mediate osmosensing in PVN parvocellular neurones and have characterized, pharmacologically, the subtype of KCa channel involved.We investigated osmosensing roles for TRPV4 and KCa channels in parvocellular PVN neurones using cell-attached and whole-cell electrophysiology in mouse brain slices and rat isolated PVN neurons. Intracellular Ca(2+) was recorded using Fura-2AM. The system was modelled in the NEURON simulation environment.Hypotonic saline reduced action current frequency in hypothalamic slices; a response mimicked by TRPV4 channel agonists 4?PDD (1??M) and GSK1016790A (100?nM), and blocked by inhibitors of either TRPV4 channels (RN1734 (5??M) and HC067047 (300?nM) or the low-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channel (UCL-1684 30?nM); iberiotoxin and TRAM-34 had no effect. Our model was compatible with coupling between TRPV4 and KCa channels, predicting the presence of positive and negative feedback loops. These predictions were verified using isolated PVN neurons. Both hypotonic challenge and 4?PDD increased intracellular Ca(2+) and UCL-1684 reduced the action of hypotonic challenge.There was functional coupling between TRPV4 and SK channels in parvocellular neurones. This mechanism contributes to osmosensing in the PVN and may provide a novel pharmacological target for the cardiovascular or renal systems.
Project description:The growing pollen tube is central to plant reproduction and is a long-standing model for cellular tip growth in biology. Rapid osmotically driven growth is maintained under variable conditions, which requires osmosensing and regulation. This study explores the mechanism of water entry and the potential role of osmosensory regulation in maintaining pollen growth. The osmotic permeability of the plasmalemma of Lilium pollen tubes was measured from plasmolysis rates to be 1.32±0.31×10(-3) cm s(-1). Mercuric ions reduce this permeability by 65%. Simulations using an osmotic model of pollen tube growth predict that an osmosensor at the cell membrane controls pectin deposition at the cell tip; inhibiting the sensor is predicted to cause tip bursting due to cell wall thinning. It was found that adding mercury to growing pollen tubes caused such a bursting of the tips. The model indicates that lowering the osmotic permeability per se does not lead to bursting but rather to thickening of the tip. The time course of induced bursting showed no time lag and was independent of mercury concentration, compatible with a surface site of action. The submaximal bursting response to intermediate mercuric ion concentration was independent of the concentration of calcium ions, showing that bursting is not due to a competitive inhibition of calcium binding or entry. Bursting with the same time course was also shown by cells growing on potassium-free media, indicating that potassium channels (implicated in mechanosensing) are not involved in the bursting response. The possible involvement of mercury-sensitive water channels as osmosensors and current knowledge of these in pollen cells are discussed.
Project description:Two-pore channels (TPCs) contain two copies of a Shaker-like six-transmembrane (6-TM) domain in each subunit and are ubiquitously expressed in both animals and plants as organellar cation channels. Here we present the crystal structure of a vacuolar two-pore channel from Arabidopsis thaliana, AtTPC1, which functions as a homodimer. AtTPC1 activation requires both voltage and cytosolic Ca(2+). Ca(2+) binding to the cytosolic EF-hand domain triggers conformational changes coupled to the pair of pore-lining inner helices from the first 6-TM domains, whereas membrane potential only activates the second voltage-sensing domain, the conformational changes of which are coupled to the pair of inner helices from the second 6-TM domains. Luminal Ca(2+) or Ba(2+) can modulate voltage activation by stabilizing the second voltage-sensing domain in the resting state and shift voltage activation towards more positive potentials. Our Ba(2+)-bound AtTPC1 structure reveals a voltage sensor in the resting state, providing hitherto unseen structural insight into the general voltage-gating mechanism among voltage-gated channels.
Project description:Intracellular malate-starch interconversion plays an important role in stomatal movements. We investigated whether malate or oxaloacetate from the cytosolic membrane side regulate anion channels in the plasma membrane of Arabidopsis thaliana guard cells. Physiological concentrations of cytosolic malate have been reported in the range of 0.4-3 mM in leaf cells. Guard cell patch clamp and two-electrode oocyte voltage-clamp experiments were pursued. We show that a concentration of 1 mM cytosolic malate greatly activates S-type anion channels in Arabidopsis thaliana guard cells. Interestingly, 1 mM cytosolic oxaloacetate also activates S-type anion channels. Malate activation was abrogated at 10 mM malate and in SLAC1 anion channel mutant alleles. Interestingly, malate activation of S-type anion currents was disrupted at below resting cytosolic-free calcium concentrations ([Ca2+ ]cyt ), suggesting a key role for basal [Ca2+ ]cyt signaling. Cytosolic malate was not able to directly activate or enhance SLAC1-mediated anion currents in Xenopus oocytes, whereas in positive controls, cytosolic NaHCO3 enhanced SLAC1 activity, suggesting that malate may not directly modulate SLAC1. Cytosolic malate activation of S-type anion currents was impaired in ost1 and in cpk5/6/11/23 quadruple mutant guard cells. Together these findings show that these cytosolic organic anions function in guard cell 'plasma membrane' ion channel regulation.