Predictive value of interim positron emission tomography in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) represents the most common subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Most relapses occur in the first 2 years after diagnosis. Early response assessment with 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) may facilitate early change of treatment, thereby preventing ineffective treatment and unnecessary side effects. We aimed to assess the predictive value of visually-assessed interim 18F-FDG PET on progression-free survival (PFS) or event-free survival (EFS) in DLBCL patients treated with first-line immuno-chemotherapy regimens. METHODS:For this systematic review and meta-analysis Pubmed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched until July 11, 2017. Prospective and retrospective studies investigating qualitative interim PET response assessment without treatment adaptation based on the interim PET result were eligible. The primary outcome was two-year PFS or EFS. Prognostic and diagnostic measures were extracted and analysed with pooled hazard ratios and Hierarchical Summary Receiver Operator Characteristic Curves, respectively. Meta-regression was used to study covariate effects. RESULTS:The pooled hazard ratio for 18 studies comprising 2,255 patients was 3.13 (95%CI 2.52-3.89) with a 95% prediction interval of 1.68-5.83. In 19 studies with 2,366 patients, the negative predictive value for progression generally exceeded 80% (64-95), but sensitivity (33-87), specificity (49-94), and positive predictive values (20-74) ranged widely. CONCLUSIONS:These findings showed that interim 18F-FDG PET has predictive value in DLBCL patients. However, (subgroup) analyses were limited by lack of information and small sample sizes. Some diagnostic test characteristics were not satisfactory, especially the positive predictive value should be improved, before a successful risk stratified treatment approach can be implemented in clinical practice.
Project description:OBJECTIVE::To examine the prognostic value of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and fluorothymidine (FLT) interim positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT) for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). METHODS::44 patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL underwent both fluorine 18 FDG (18F-FDG) and 18F-FLT PET/CT scans at baseline and after two cycles of a rituximab-containing chemotherapy regimen. Maximum standard uptake values (SUVmax) and changes in SUV (?SUV) were calculated for both tracers for the predominant lesion of each patient, for prediction of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS::The median follow-up period was 71 months. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that the best ?SUV cut-off values for FDG (?SUVFDG) and FLT (?SUVFLT) were 79 and 76%, respectively. A ?SUVFLT cut-off of 76% had the highest significance for prediction of PFS (p = 0.003) and OS (p = 0009), with sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 80.0, 85.7, and 81.8% respectively in response assessment. CONCLUSION::Interim FLT PET/CT had higher specificity and accuracy than standard FDG PET/CT-based interpretation. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE::This study demonstrated that interim FLT PET/CT had higher accuracy than standardized FDG-based interpretation for therapeutic response assessment in DLBCL. FLT had the advantage of potentially reducing false positive of interim FDG PET/CT.
Project description:The present study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of baseline <sup>18</sup>F-FDG PET/CT quantitative parameters and interim treatment response, and to assess whether the combination of these could improve the predictive efficacy in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) receiving R-CHOP chemotherapy. PET/CT images and clinical data of 64 patients with DLBCL who had undergone <sup>18</sup>F-FDG PET/CT scan before and after 3 or 4 cycles of R-CHOP chemotherapy were retrospectively reviewed. The quantitative parameters including standardized uptake value (SUV), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and maximum diameter of the maximum lesion (Dmax) were measured on baseline PET/CT images. Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the influence of baseline PET/CT parameters, clinical indicators and interim treatment response on prognosis. Survival analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier method. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to estimate the predictive efficacy of the combination of baseline PET/CT parameters and interim treatment response. Ann Arbor stage, International Prognostic Index (IPI), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), necrosis, MTVmax, TLGmax, Dmax and interim treatment response showed association with 2-year progression-free survival (PFS, P<0.05). LDH, necrosis, MTVmax, MTVsum, TLGmax, TLGsum, Dmax and interim treatment response showed association with 2-year overall survival (OS, P<0.05). Ann Arbor stage, Dmax and interim treatment response were found to be independent predictors of 2-year PFS (P<0.05), while Dmax and interim treatment response were found to be independent predictors of 2-year OS (P<0.05). The PFS and OS curves of Dmax <5.7 cm group and Dmax ?5.7 cm group, complete response (CR) group and non-CR group were significantly different, respectively (P<0.05). The baseline <sup>18</sup>F-FDG PET/CT parameters and interim treatment response have important prognostic values in DLBCL patients who received R-CHOP chemotherapy. Combined application of Dmax and interim treatment response improved the predictive efficacy of 2-year PFS. It may be helpful to identify patients who are at high-risk of relapse and to guide early clinical intervention of these patients.
Project description:Interim 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (Interim-18F-FDG-PET, hereafter I-PET) has the potential to guide treatment of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) if the prognostic value is known. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal timing and response criteria for evaluating prognosis with I-PET in DLBCL. Individual patient data from 1692 patients with de novo DLBCL were combined and scans were harmonized. I-PET was performed at various time points during treatment with rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) therapy. Scans were interpreted using the Deauville score (DS) and change in maximum standardized uptake value (ΔSUVmax). Multilevel Cox proportional hazards models corrected for International Prognostic Index (IPI) score were used to study the effects of timing and response criteria on 2-year progression-free survival (PFS). I-PET after 2 cycles (I-PET2) and I-PET4 significantly discriminated good responders from poor responders, with the highest hazard ratios (HRs) for I-PET4. Multivariable HRs for a PET-positive result at I-PET2 and I-PET4 were 1.71 and 2.95 using DS4-5, 4.91 and 6.20 using DS5, and 2.93 and 4.65 using ΔSUVmax, respectively. ΔSUVmax identified a larger proportion of poor responders than DS5 did. For all criteria, the negative predictive value was >80%, and positive predictive values ranged from 30% to 70% at I-PET2 and I-PET4. Unlike I-PET1, I-PET3 discriminated good responders from poor responders using DS4-5 and DS5 thresholds (HRs, 2.94 and 4.67, respectively). I-PET2 and I-PET4 predict good response equally during R-CHOP therapy in DLBCL. Optimal timing and response criteria depend on the clinical context. Good response at I-PET2 is suggested for de-escalation trials, and poor response using ΔSUVmax at I-PET4 is suggested for randomized trials that are evaluating new therapies.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:The aim of this study is to determine the prognostic value of interim and final FDG-PET in major histotypes of B-cell NHL patients treated with rituximab containing-chemotherapy. METHODS:We searched for articles published in English, limited to lymphoma, rituximab, and FDG-PET, and dedicated to deal with the impact on progression and survival. The log hazard ratios (HR) and their variances were estimated. RESULTS:A PubMed and Scopus review of published trials identified 13 studies of Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) which were set as the main outcome measures. The combined HRs of I-PET for PFS and OS in DLBCL were 4.4 (P = 0.11) and 3.99 (P = 0.46), respectively. The combined HRs of F-PET for PFS and OS in DLBCL were 5.91 (P = 0.39) and 6.75 (P = 0.92), respectively. Regarding to non-DLBCL with F-PET, the combined HRs of F-PET for PFS and OS were 4.05 (P = 0.79) and 5.1 (P = 0.51), respectively. No publication bias existed. CONCLUSION:In DLBCL, both I-PET and F-PET can be performed for survival and progression analysis. But in other B-cell subtypes such as follicular lymphoma (FL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), it would be necessary to perform F-PET for predictive purposes.
Project description:Objectives:To explore the application of pretreatment 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) texture analysis (TA) in predicting the interim response of primary gastrointestinal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (PGIL-DLBCL). Methods:Pretreatment 18F-FDG PET/CT images of 30 PGIL-DLBCL patients were studied retrospectively. The interim response was evaluated after 3-4 cycles of chemotherapy. The complete response (CR) rates in patients with different clinicopathological characteristics were compared by Fisher's exact test. The differences in the maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and texture features between the CR and non-CR groups were compared by the Mann-Whitney U test. Feature selection was performed according to the results of the Mann-Whitney U test and feature categories. The predictive efficacies of the SUVmax, MTV, and the selected texture features were assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. A prediction probability was generated by binary logistic regression analysis. Results:The SUVmax, MTV, some first-order texture features, volume, and entropy were significantly higher in the non-CR group. The energy was significantly lower in the non-CR group. The SUVmax, volume, and entropy were excellent predictors of the interim response, and the areas under the curves (AUCs) were 0.850, 0.805, and 0.800, respectively. The CR rate was significantly lower in patients with intestinal involvement. The prediction probability generated from the combination of the SUVmax, entropy, volume, and intestinal involvement had a higher AUC (0.915) than all single parameters. Conclusions:TA has potential in improving the value of pretreatment PET/CT in predicting the interim response of PGIL-DLBCL. However, prospective studies with large sample sizes and validation analyses are needed to confirm the current results.
Project description:This study aimed to determine whether 18F-FDG PET response after induction chemotherapy before concurrent chemoradiotherapy can identify patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma who may benefit from subsequent esophagectomy. Methods: We identified and analyzed 220 patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma who had received induction chemotherapy before chemoradiotherapy, with or without surgery, with curative intent; all underwent 18F-FDG PET scanning before and after induction chemotherapy. 18F-FDG PET responders were defined as patients who achieved complete response (CR) after induction chemotherapy (maximum SUV ? 3.0). The predictive value of 18F-FDG PET response for patient outcomes was evaluated. Results: Overall, 86 patients had bimodality therapy (BMT; induction chemotherapy + chemoradiotherapy) and 134 had trimodality therapy (TMT; induction chemotherapy + chemoradiotherapy with surgery). Forty-eight patients (21.8%) achieved an 18F-FDG PET CR after induction chemotherapy. 18F-FDG PET CR was found to correlate with overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in BMT patients. For TMT patients, 18F-FDG PET CR predicted pathologic response (P = 0.003) but not survival. Among 18F-FDG PET nonresponders, TMT patients had significantly better survival than did BMT patients (P < 0.001). However, among 18F-FDG PET responders, BMT patients had OS (P = 0.201) and PFS (P = 0.269) similar to that of TMT patients. After propensity score-matched analysis, 18F-FDG PET responders treated with BMT versus TMT still had comparable OS and PFS, but TMT was associated with better locoregional control. Conclusion:18F-FDG PET response to induction chemotherapy could be a useful imaging biomarker to identify patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma who could benefit from subsequent esophagectomy after chemoradiotherapy. Compared with BMT, TMT can significantly improve survival in 18F-FDG PET nonresponders. However, outcomes for 18F-FDG PET responders were similar after either treatment (BMT or TMT). Prospective validation of these findings is warranted.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>The study objective was to compare the prognostic value of interim and end-of-treatment FDG PET/CT using five therapeutic evaluation criteria in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL).<h4>Methods</h4>181 patients were retrospectively analysed. All patients underwent FDG-PET at baseline and after four cycles (iPET4) of first-line chemotherapy and 165 at the end-of-treatment (PET-eot). Ratio Deauville score (rDS) (SUVmax-target residual lesion/SUVmax-liver) was measured in iPET4 and PET-eot, and its optimal threshold was determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Deauville score (DS) (iPET4 and PET-eot), ?SUVmax, ?SUVmax determined according to Menton 2011 criteria (?SUVmax+DS) and ?SUVmax+rDS were also evaluated (iPET4 only). Median follow-up was 44 months.<h4>Results</h4>ROC analysis revealed the optimal cut-off value was 1.4-fold of SUVmax-liver on iPET4 and PET-eot. On iPET4, positive predictive value (PPV) of rDS was significantly better than DS: 81.58% vs. 67.79%. In univariate analysis, the five interpretation methods were statistically significant (p<0.0001 for progression-free survival [PFS] and overall survival [OS]). In multivariate analysis, only rDS was an independent prognostic factor (p = 0.0002 and p<0.0001 for PFS and OS, respectively). On PET-eot, similarly, the two therapeutic evaluation criteria analysed (rDS and DS) were statistically significant at the univariate level (p<0.0001). rDS was the only significant prognostic factor in multivariate analysis (p<0.0001). PPV and accuracy of rDS were also better than DS.<h4>Conclusions</h4>rDS with a tumor/liver ratio of 1.4 is a robust prognostic factor in patients with DLBCL on iPET4 and PET-eot.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the prognostic significance of 18F-FDG PET and PET/CT for evaluation of responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in breast cancer patients. METHODS:We searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases until June 2020 to identify studies that assessed the prognostic value of 18F-FDG PET scans during or after NAC with regard to overall (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled meta-analytically using a random-effects model. RESULTS:Twenty-one studies consisting of 1630 patients were included in the qualitative synthesis. Twelve studies investigated the use of PET scans for interim response evaluation (during NAC) and 10 studies assessed post-treatment PET evaluation (after NAC). The most widely evaluated parameter distinguishing metabolic responders from poor responders on interim or post-treatment PET scans was %?SUVmax, defined as the percent reduction of SUVmax compared to baseline PET, followed by SUVmax and complete metabolic response (CMR). For the 17 studies included in the meta-analysis, the pooled HR of metabolic responses on DFS was 0.21 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14-0.32) for interim PET scans and 0.31 (95% CI, 0.21-0.46) for post-treatment PET scans. Regarding the influence of metabolic responses on OS, the pooled HRs for interim and post-treatment PET scans were 0.20 (95% CI, 0.09-0.44) and 0.26 (95% CI, 0.14-0.51), respectively. CONCLUSIONS:The currently available literature suggests that the use of 18F-FDG PET or PET/CT for evaluation of response to NAC provides significant predictive value for disease recurrence and survival in breast cancer patients and might allow risk stratification and guide rational management.
Project description:We assessed the predictive value of new radiomic features characterizing lesion dissemination in baseline 18F-FDG PET and tested whether combining them with baseline metabolic tumor volume (MTV) could improve prediction of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients. Methods: From the LNH073B trial (NCT00498043), patients with advanced-stage DLCBL and 18F-FDG PET/CT images available for review were selected. MTV and several radiomic features, including the distance between the 2 lesions that were farthest apart (Dmaxpatient), were calculated. Receiver-operating-characteristic analysis was used to determine the optimal cutoff for quantitative variables, and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were performed. Results: With a median age of 46 y, 95 patients were enrolled, half of them treated with R-CHOP biweekly (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) and the other half with R-ACVBP (rituximab, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vindesine, bleomycin, and prednisone), with no significant impact on outcome. Median MTV and Dmaxpatient were 375 cm3 and 45 cm, respectively. The median follow-up was 44 mo. High MTV and Dmaxpatient were adverse factors for PFS (P = 0.027 and P = 0.0003, respectively) and for OS (P = 0.0007 and P = 0.0095, respectively). In multivariate analysis, only Dmaxpatient was significantly associated with PFS (P = 0.0014) whereas both factors remained significant for OS (P = 0.037 and P = 0.0029, respectively). Combining MTV (>384 cm3) and Dmaxpatient (>58 cm) yielded 3 risk groups for PFS (P = 0.0003) and OS (P = 0.0011): high with 2 adverse factors (4-y PFS and OS of 50% and 53%, respectively, n = 18), low with no adverse factor (94% and 97%, n = 36), and an intermediate category with 1 adverse factor (73% and 88%, n = 41). Conclusion: Combining MTV with a parameter reflecting the tumor burden dissemination further improves DLBCL patient risk stratification at staging.