Nuclear Lipid Microdomains Regulate Daunorubicin Resistance in Hepatoma Cells.
ABSTRACT: Daunorubicin is an anticancer drug, and cholesterol is involved in cancer progression, but their relationship has not been defined. In this study, we developed a novel experimental model that utilizes daunorubicin, cholesterol, and daunorubicin plus cholesterol in the same cells (H35) to search for the role of nuclear lipid microdomains, rich in cholesterol and sphingomyelin, in drug resistance. We find that the daunorubicin induces perturbation of nuclear lipid microdomains, localized in the inner nuclear membrane, where active chromatin is anchored. As changes of sphingomyelin species in nuclear lipid microdomains depend on neutral sphingomyelinase activity, we extended our studies to investigate whether the enzyme is modulated by daunorubicin. Indeed the drug stimulated the sphingomyelinase activity that induced reduction of saturated long chain fatty acid sphingomyelin species in nuclear lipid microdomains. Incubation of untreated-drug cells with high levels of cholesterol resulted in the inhibition of sphingomyelinase activity with increased saturated fatty acid sphingomyelin species. In daunodubicin-treated cells, incubation with cholesterol reversed the action of the drug by acting via neutral sphingomyelinase. In conclusion, we suggest that cholesterol and sphingomyelin-forming nuclear lipid microdomains are involved in the drug resistance.
Project description:Diet and obesity are recognized in the scientific literature as important risk factors for cancer development and progression. Hypercholesterolemia facilitates lymphoma lymphoblastic cell growth and in time turns in hypocholesterolemia that is a sign of tumour progression. The present study examined how and where the cholesterol acts in cancer cells when you reproduce in vitro an in vivo hypercholesterolemia condition.We used non-Hodgkin's T cell human lymphoblastic lymphoma (SUP-T1 cell line) and we studied cell morphology, aggressiveness, gene expression for antioxidant proteins, polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase and actin, cholesterol and sphingomyelin content and finally sphingomyelinase activity in whole cells, nuclei and nuclear lipid microdomains.We found that cholesterol changes cancer cell morphology with the appearance of protrusions together to the down expression of ?-actin gene and reduction of ?-actin protein. The lipid influences SUP-T1 cell aggressiveness since stimulates DNA and RNA synthesis for cell proliferation and increases raf1 and E-cadherin, molecules involved in invasion and migration of cancer cells. Cholesterol does not change GRX2 expression but it overexpresses SOD1, SOD2, CCS, PRDX1, GSR, GSS, CAT and PNKP. We suggest that cholesterol reaches the nucleus and increases the nuclear lipid microdomains known to act as platform for chromatin anchoring and gene expression.The results imply that, in hypercholesterolemia conditions, cholesterol reaches the nuclear lipid microdomains where activates gene expression coding for antioxidant proteins. We propose the cholesterolemia as useful parameter to monitor in patients with cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Extravasation of macrophages and formation of lipid-laden foam cells are key events in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. The degradation of atherogenic lipoproteins subsequently leads to alterations in cellular lipid metabolism that influence inflammatory signaling. Especially sphingolipids and ceramides are known to be involved in these processes. We therefore analyzed monocyte derived macrophages during differentiation and after loading with enzymatically (eLDL) and oxidatively (oxLDL) modified low-density lipoproteins (LDL). METHODS:Primary human monocytes were isolated from healthy, normolipidemic blood donors using leukapheresis and counterflow elutriation. On the fourth day of MCSF-induced differentiation eLDL (40 ?g/ml) or oxLDL (80 ?g/ml) were added for 48h. Lipid species were analyzed by quantitative tandem mass spectrometry. Taqman qPCR was performed to investigate transcriptional changes in enzymes involved in sphingolipid metabolism. Furthermore, membrane lipids were studied using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. RESULTS:MCSF dependent phagocytic differentiation of blood monocytes had only minor effects on the sphingolipid composition. Levels of total sphingomyelin and total ceramide remained unchanged, while lactosylceramides, cholesterylesters and free cholesterol decreased. At the species level most ceramide species showed a reduction upon phagocytic differentiation. Loading with eLDL preferentially increased cellular cholesterol while loading with oxLDL increased cellular ceramide content. Activation of the salvage pathway with a higher mRNA expression of acid and neutral sphingomyelinase, neutral sphingomyelinase activation associated factor and glucosylceramidase as well as increased surface expression of SMPD1 were identified as potentially underlying mechanisms. Moreover, flow-cytometric analysis revealed a higher cell-surface-expression of ceramide, lactosylceramide (CDw17), globotriaosylceramide (CD77), dodecasaccharide-ceramide (CD65s) and GM1 ganglioside upon oxLDL loading. ApoE in contrast to apoA-I preferentially bound to the ceramide enriched surfaces of oxLDL loaded cells. Confocal microscopy showed a co-localization of acid sphingomyelinase with ceramide rich membrane microdomains. CONCLUSION:eLDL leads to the formation of lipid droplets and preferentially induces cholesterol/sphingomyelin rich membrane microdomains while oxLDL promotes the development of cholesterol/ceramide rich microdomains via activation of the salvage pathway.
Project description:This study examines the relationship between cellular sphingomyelin content and the distribution of unesterified cholesterol between the plasma-membrane pool and the putative intracellular regulatory pool. The sphingomyelin content of cultured human skin fibroblasts was reduced by treatment of intact cells with extracellularly added neutral sphingomyelinase, and subsequent changes in the activities of cholesterol-metabolizing enzymes were determined. Exposure of fibroblasts to 0.1 unit of sphingomyelinase/ml for 60 min led to the depletion of more than 90% of the cellular sphingomyelin, as determined from total lipid extracts. In a time-course study, it was found that within 10 min of the addition of sphingomyelinase to cells, a dramatic increase in acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase activity could be observed, whether measured from the appearance of plasma membrane-derived [3H]cholesterol or exogenously added [14C]oleic acid, in cellular cholesteryl esters. In addition, the cholesteryl ester mass was significantly higher in sphingomyelin-depleted fibroblasts at 3 h after exposure to sphingomyelinase compared with that in untreated fibroblasts [7.1 +/- 0.4 nmol of cholesterol/mg equivalents of esterified cholesterol compared with 4.2 +/- 0.1 nmol of cholesterol/mg equivalents of cholesteryl ester in control cells (P less than 0.05)]. The sphingomyelin-depleted cells also showed a reduction in the rate of endogenous synthesis of cholesterol, as measured by incorporation of sodium [14C]acetate into [14C]cholesterol. These results are consistent with a rapid movement of cholesterol from sphingomyelin-depleted plasma membranes to the putative intracellular regulatory pool of cholesterol. This mass movement of cholesterol away from the plasma membranes presumably resulted from a decreased capacity of the plasma membranes to solubilize cholesterol, since sphingomyelin-depleted cells also had a decreased capacity to incorporate nanomolar amounts of [3H]cholesterol from the extracellular medium, as compared with control cells. These findings confirm previous assumptions that the membrane sphingomyelin content is an important determinant of the overall distribution of cholesterol within intact cells.
Project description:The properties of bilayers composed of pure brain cerebroside (bCrb) or of binary mixtures of bCrb with brain ceramide, cholesterol, egg phosphatidylcholine or brain sphingomyelin have been studied using a combination of physical techniques. Pure bCrb exhibits a rather narrow gel-fluid transition centred at ≈65 °C, with a half-width at half-height T1/2 ≈ 3 °C. bCrb mixes well with both fluid and gel phospholipids and ceramide, and it rigidifies bilayers of egg phosphatidylcholine or brain sphingomyelin when the latter are in the fluid state. Cholesterol markedly widens the bCrb gel-fluid transition, while decreasing the associated transition enthalpy, in the manner of cholesterol mixtures with saturated phosphatidylcholines, or sphingomyelins. Laurdan and DPH fluorescence indicate the formation of fluid ordered phases in the bCrb:cholesterol mixtures. Macroscopic phase separation of more and less fluid domains is observed in giant unilamellar vesicles consisting of bCrb:egg phosphatidylcholine or bCrb:sphingomyelin. Crb capacity to induce bilayer permeabilization or transbilayer (flip-flop) lipid motion is much lower than those of ceramides. The mixtures explored here contained mostly bCrb concentrations >50 mol%, mimicking the situation of cell membranes in Gaucher's disease, or of the Crb-enriched microdomains proposed to exist in healthy cell plasma membranes.
Project description:Micellar cholesterol uptake and secretion were investigated in the human intestinal cell line CaCo-2 following depletion of apical membrane sphingomyelin. The addition of exogenous sphingomyelinase, which hydrolysed 60% of prelabelled sphingomyelin, resulted in a 50% decrease in the uptake of cholesterol from bile salt micelles. The flux of membrane cholesterol into the cell by the hydrolysis of membrane sphingomyelin decreased the rate of cholesterol synthesis by 43% and inhibited hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity by 54%. Moreover, the rate of cholesterol esterification was increased 4-fold. Total cellular cholesterol mass was unchanged by the addition of sphingomyelinase; however, cholesteryl esters increased by 50% and the amount of unesterified cholesterol decreased significantly. The basolateral secretion of cholesterol mass was also decreased following sphingomyelin hydrolysis. Human pancreatic juice was found to contain neutral sphingomyelinase activity which required taurocholate for full expression. The presence of neutral sphingomyelinase activity was also documented in membranes prepared from CaCo-2 cells and in whole homogenates from human duodenal biopsies. The data suggest that the amount of sphingomyelin present in the apical membrane of the intestinal absorptive cell regulates cholesterol uptake from bile salt micelles. Sphingomyelinase activity within intestinal cells and in pancreatic juice could alter the sphingomyelin content of brush-border membranes of small intestinal absorptive cells and thus regulate the amount of cholesterol absorbed by the gut.
Project description:Lipid rafts are microdomains rich in sphingomyelin (SM) and cholesterol (Chol). The essential question is why natural lipid rafts prefer SM rather than saturated diacyl glycerophosphocholine, although both form ordered membranes with Chol in model systems. Hence in this study, we synthesized site-specifically deuterated 1-palmitoyl-2-stearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholines that match the acyl chain length of stearoyl-SM (SSM), and compared their deuterium quadrupole coupling profiles in detail. The results suggest a deeper distribution of Chol in the SSM membranes, a lower entropic penalty upon accommodation of Chol in SSM membranes, and a higher thermal stability of acyl-chain orders in the SSM-Chol bilayers than in the 1-palmitoyl-2-stearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine-Chol system at various Chol concentrations. The entropy effect and thermal stability should render SM a more preferred raft constituent than saturated diacyl glycerophosphocholine. Our data also demonstrate that the selective and comprehensive deuteration strategy is indispensable for accurate comparison of order profiles.
Project description:The distribution of cellular unesterified cholesterol was studied in fibroblasts, which had been depleted of plasma membrane sphingomyelin by exposure to exogenous sphingomyelinase. This treatment has previously been shown to induce an increase in cholesterol esterification, a decrease in the biosynthesis of cholesterol, and a decreased susceptibility of cell cholesterol to oxidation with cholesterol oxidase. When the cellular localization of cholesterol was studied with fluorescent filipin staining, sphingomyelin depletion did not cause any visible changes in the filipin-cholesterol staining pattern, suggesting that the major part of cellular cholesterol was retained in the plasma membrane after sphingomyelinase treatment. After the oxidation of cell-surface cholesterol with cholesterol oxidase, the plasma membrane was no longer stained by filipin, but the plasma membrane cholesterol of sphingomyelin-depleted cells appeared to be resistant to oxidation with cholesterol oxidase when sphingomyelinase was used as an oxidation-promoting agent. However, the use of hypotonic buffer or phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C together with cholesterol oxidase resulted in a complete oxidation of the cell-surface cholesterol in sphingomyelin-depleted cells, as evidenced by the filipin-cholesterol staining pattern. Similar results were obtained when [3H]cholesterol-labelled fibroblasts were used for determination of the susceptibility to cholesterol oxidation. The kinetics of [3H]cholesterol oxidation in sphingomyelin-depleted cells with cholesterol oxidase in hypotonic buffer indicated that approximately 85% of the cellular cholesterol still resided in the plasma membrane after sphingomyelin depletion. These results are contradictory to earlier reports on sphingomyelinase-induced changes in cellular cholesterol distribution and suggest that minor changes in the kinetics of cholesterol transport from the plasma membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum may be responsible for the sphingomyelinase-induced changes in the rates of cholesterol metabolism. Whereas the use of phospholipases to promote the oxidation of cholesterol in some instances might lead to misinterpretations, the use of hypotonic buffer together with cholesterol oxidase proved to be a more reliable method for the determination of cellular cholesterol distribution.
Project description:The shedding of extracellular vesicles (EVs) from the red blood cell (RBC) surface is observed during senescence in vivo and RBC storage in vitro. Two main models for EV shedding, respectively based on calcium rise and oxidative stress, have been proposed in the literature but the role of the plasma membrane lipid composition and properties is not understood. Using blood in K+/EDTA tubes stored for up to 4 weeks at 4°C as a relevant RBC vesiculation model, we showed here that the RBC plasma membrane lipid composition, organization in domains and biophysical properties were progressively modified during storage and contributed to the RBC vesiculation. First, the membrane content in cholesterol and linoleic acid decreased whereas lipid peroxidation and spectrin:membrane occupancy increased, all compatible with higher membrane rigidity. Second, phosphatidylserine surface exposure showed a first rapid rise due to membrane cholesterol decrease, followed by a second calcium-dependent increase. Third, lipid domains mainly enriched in GM1 or sphingomyelin strongly increased from the 1st week while those mainly enriched in cholesterol or ceramide decreased during the 1st and 4th week, respectively. Fourth, the plasmatic acid sphingomyelinase activity considerably increased upon storage following the sphingomyelin-enriched domain rise and potentially inducing the loss of ceramide-enriched domains. Fifth, in support of the shedding of cholesterol- and ceramide-enriched domains from the RBC surface, the number of cholesterol-enriched domains lost and the abundance of EVs released during the 1st week perfectly matched. Moreover, RBC-derived EVs were enriched in ceramide at the 4th week but depleted in sphingomyelin. Then, using K+/EDTA tubes supplemented with glucose to longer preserve the ATP content, we better defined the sequence of events. Altogether, we showed that EV shedding from lipid domains only represents part of the global vesiculation mechanistics, for which we propose four successive events (cholesterol domain decrease, oxidative stress, sphingomyelin/sphingomyelinase/ceramide/calcium alteration and phosphatidylserine exposure).
Project description:Cytochrome P450 (P450) function is dependent on the ability of these enzymes to successfully interact with their redox partners, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) and cytochrome b5, in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Because the ER is heterogeneous in lipid composition, membrane microdomains with different characteristics are formed. Ordered microdomains are more tightly packed, and enriched in saturated fatty acids, sphingomyelin and cholesterol, whereas disordered regions contain higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids. The goal of the present study was to determine whether the P450 system proteins localize to different regions of the ER. The localization of CYP1A2, CYP2B4 and CYP2E1 within the ER was determined by partial membrane solubilization with Brij 98, centrifugation on a discontinuous sucrose gradient and immune blotting of the gradient fractions to identify ordered and disordered microdomains. CYP1A2 resided almost entirely in the ordered regions of the ER with CPR also localized predominantly to this region. CYP2B4 was equally distributed between the ordered and disordered domains. In contrast, CYP2E1 localized to the disordered membrane regions. Removal of cholesterol (an important constituent of ordered domains) led to the relocation of CYP1A2, CYP2B4 and CPR to the disordered regions. Interestingly, CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 localized to different membrane microdomains, despite their high degree of sequence similarity. These data demonstrate that P450 system enzymes are organized in specific membrane regions, and their localization can be affected by depletion of membrane cholesterol. The differential localization of different P450 in specific membrane regions may provide a novel mechanism for modulating P450 function.
Project description:Daunorubicin is extensively used in chemotherapy for diverse types of cancer. Over the years, evidence has suggested that the mechanisms by which daunorubicin causes cytotoxic effects are also associated with interactions at the membrane level. The aim of the present work was to study the interplay between daunorubicin and mimetic membrane models composed of different ratios of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC), sphingomyelin (SM) and cholesterol (Chol). Several biophysical parameters were assessed using liposomes as mimetic model membranes. Thereby, the ability of daunorubicin to partition into lipid bilayers, its apparent location within the membrane and its effect on membrane fluidity were investigated. The results showed that daunorubicin has higher affinity for lipid bilayers composed of DMPC, followed by DMPC : SM, DMPC : Chol and lastly by DMPC : SM : Chol. The addition of SM or Chol into DMPC membranes not only increases the complexity of the model membrane but also decreases its fluidity, which, in turn, reduces the amount of anticancer drug that can partition into these mimetic models. Fluorescence quenching studies suggest a broad distribution of the drug across the bilayer thickness, with a preferential location in the phospholipid tails. The gathered data support that daunorubicin permeates all types of membranes to different degrees, interacts with phospholipids through electrostatic and hydrophobic bonds and causes alterations in the biophysical properties of the bilayers, namely in membrane fluidity. In fact, a decrease in membrane fluidity can be observed in the acyl region of the phospholipids. Ultimately, such outcomes can be correlated with daunorubicin's biological action, where membrane structure and lipid composition have an important role. In fact, the results indicate that the intercalation of daunorubicin between the phospholipids can also take place in rigid domains, such as rafts that are known to be involved in different receptor processes, which are important for cellular function.