Incidence of sexually transmitted infections in men who have sex with men and who are at substantial risk of HIV infection - A meta-analysis of data from trials and observational studies of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Men who have sex with men (MSM) and who engage in condomless anal intercourse with casual partners are at high risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs), but reliable epidemiological data are scarce. Studies on HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) enrol MSM who indicate that they engage in behaviour that puts them at high risk of acquiring HIV. Because they also screen for STIs at regular intervals, these studies may serve as a valuable source to estimate incidence rates of STIs in this subpopulation of MSM. METHODS:We systematically searched for trials and observational studies of PrEP in MSM that reported data on the incidence of STIs during the study period. Incidence rates were calculated as events per 100 person-years (py) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Data from individual studies were pooled building subgroups along study types and geography. We performed sensitivity analyses, including data only from studies that met pre-defined quality criteria. RESULTS:Twenty-four publications on 20 studies were included. The majority of studies reported that sexual behaviour and/or STI incidence remained stable or decreased during the study period. For syphilis, incidence rates ranged from 1.8/100py to 14.9/100py, the pooled estimate was 9.1/100py (95%-CI: 7.7-10.9). Incidence rates for gonorrhoea and chlamydia of any site ranged from 13.3/100py to 43.0/100py and 15.1/100py to 48.5/100py, respectively. Considering only studies that met the criteria for sensitivity analysis yielded pooled estimates of 39.6/100py (95%-CI: 32.9-47.6) and 41.8/100py (95%-CI: 33.9-51.5), respectively. The overall estimate for hepatitis C incidence was 1.3/100py (95%-CI: 1.0-1.8). CONCLUSIONS:Despite partly heterogeneous results, the data depict high incidence rates of STIs among MSM who engage in higher-risk sexual behaviours such as condomless sex with casual partners. This subpopulation of MSM requires access to STI screening at close intervals. By offering access to structures that provide regular STI monitoring and prompt treatment, PrEP may not only decrease HIV incidence but also have beneficial effects in decreasing the burden of STIs.
Project description:Several randomized clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition. Little is known about adherence to the regimen, sexual practices, and overall effectiveness when PrEP is implemented in clinics that treat sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and community-based clinics serving men who have sex with men (MSM).To assess PrEP adherence, sexual behaviors, and the incidence of STIs and HIV infection in a cohort of MSM and transgender women initiating PrEP in the United States.Demonstration project conducted from October 1, 2012, through February 10, 2015 (last date of follow-up), among 557 MSM and transgender women in 2 STI clinics in San Francisco, California, and Miami, Florida, and a community health center in Washington, DC. Data were analyzed from December 18, 2014, through August 8, 2015.A combination of daily, oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine was provided free of charge for 48 weeks. All participants received HIV testing, brief client-centered counseling, and clinical monitoring.Concentrations of tenofovir diphosphate in dried blood spot samples, self-reported numbers of anal sex partners and episodes of condomless receptive anal sex, and incidence of STI and HIV acquisition.Overall, 557 participants initiated PrEP, and 437 of these (78.5%) were retained through 48 weeks. Based on the findings from the 294 participants who underwent measurement of tenofovir diphosphate levels, 80.0% to 85.6% had protective levels (consistent with ?4 doses/wk) at follow-up visits. African American participants (56.8% of visits; P?=?.003) and those from the Miami site (65.1% of visits; P?<?.001) were less likely to have protective levels, whereas those with stable housing (86.8%; P?=?.02) and those reporting at least 2 condomless anal sex partners in the past 3 months (88.6%; P?=?.01) were more likely to have protective levels. The mean number of anal sex partners declined during follow-up from 10.9 to 9.3, whereas the proportion engaging in condomless receptive anal sex remained stable at 65.5% to 65.6%. Overall STI incidence was high (90 per 100 person-years) but did not increase over time. Two individuals became HIV infected during follow-up (HIV incidence, 0.43 [95% CI, 0.05-1.54] infections per 100 person-years); both had tenofovir diphosphate levels consistent with fewer than 2 doses/wk at seroconversion.The incidence of HIV acquisition was extremely low despite a high incidence of STIs in a large US PrEP demonstration project. Adherence was higher among those participants who reported more risk behaviors. Interventions that address racial and geographic disparities and housing instability may increase the impact of PrEP.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is highly effective for preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, but risk compensation (RC) in men who have sex with men (MSM) raises concerns about increased sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The Center for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) PrEP guidelines recommend biannual STI screening, which may reduce incidence by treating STIs that would otherwise remain undiagnosed. We investigated these two counteracting phenomena.<h4>Methods</h4>With a network-based mathematical model of HIV, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) transmission dynamics among MSM in the United States, we simulated PrEP uptake following the prescription indications and HIV/STI screening recommendations in the CDC guidelines. Scenarios varied PrEP coverage (the proportion of MSM indicated for PrEP who received it), RC (a reduction in the per-act probability of condom use), and the STI screening interval.<h4>Results</h4>In our reference scenario (40% coverage, 40% RC), 42% of NG and 40% of CT infections would be averted over the next decade. A doubling of RC would still result in net STI prevention relative to no PrEP. STIs declined because PrEP-related STI screening resulted in a 17% and 16% absolute increase in the treatment of asymptomatic and rectal STIs, respectively. Screening and timely treatment at quarterly vs biannual intervals would reduce STI incidence an additional 50%.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Implementation of the CDC PrEP guidelines while scaling up PrEP coverage could result in a significant decline in STI incidence among MSM. Our study highlights the design of PrEP not only as antiretroviral medication but as combination HIV/STI prevention incorporating STI screening.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) greatly reduces the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition, but its optimal delivery strategy remains uncertain. Clinics for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) can provide an efficient venue for PrEP delivery. METHODS:To quantify the added value of STI clinic-based PrEP delivery, we used an agent-based simulation of HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM). We simulated the impact of PrEP delivery through STI clinics compared with PrEP delivery in other community-based settings. Our primary outcome was the projected 20-year reduction in HIV incidence among MSM. RESULTS:Assuming PrEP uptake and adherence of 60% each, evaluating STI clinic attendees and delivering PrEP to eligible MSM reduced HIV incidence by 16% [95% uncertainty range, 14%-18%] over 20 years, an impact that was 1.8 (1.7-2.0) times as great as that achieved by evaluating an equal number of MSM recruited from the community. Comparing strategies where an equal number of MSM received PrEP in each strategy (ie, evaluating more individuals for PrEP in the community-based strategy, because MSM attending STI clinics are more likely to be PrEP eligible), the reduction in HIV incidence under the STI clinic-based strategy was 1.3 (1.3-1.4) times as great as that of community-based delivery. CONCLUSIONS:Delivering PrEP to MSM who attend STI clinics can improve efficiency and effectiveness. If high levels of adherence can be achieved in this population, STI clinics may be an important venue for PrEP implementation.
Project description:<h4>Importance</h4>There have been concerns that HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may be associated with increases in sexually transmitted infections (STIs) because of subsequent reductions in condom use and/or increases in sexual partners.<h4>Objective</h4>To determine trends in STI test positivity among high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM) before and after the start of HIV PrEP.<h4>Design, setting, and participants</h4>A before-after analysis was conducted using a subcohort of a single-group PrEP implementation study cohort in New South Wales, Australia (Expanded PreEP Implementation in Communities in New South Wales [EPIC-NSW]), from up to 1 year before enrollment if after January 1, 2015, and up to 2 years after enrollment and before December 31, 2018. STI testing data were extracted from a network of 54 sexual health clinics and 6 primary health care clinics Australia-wide, using software to deidentify, encrypt, and anonymously link participants between clinics. A cohort of MSM dispensed PrEP for the first time during the study, with 2 or more STI tests in the prior year and who tested during follow-up, were included from the EPIC-NSW cohort of HIV-negative participants with high-risk sexual behavior. Data analysis was performed from June to December 2019.<h4>Exposures</h4>Participants were dispensed coformulated tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (300 mg) and emtricitabine (200 mg) as HIV PrEP.<h4>Main outcomes and measures</h4>The main outcome was STI, measured using test positivity, defined as the proportion of participants testing positive for an STI at least once per quarter of follow-up. Outcomes were calculated for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoea by site of infection (anorectal, pharyngeal, urethral, or any) and for syphilis.<h4>Results</h4>Of the EPIC-NSW cohort of 9709 MSM, 2404 were included in the before-after analysis. The mean (SD) age of the participants was 36 (10.4) years, and 1192 (50%) were Australia-born. STI positivity was 52% in the year after PrEP (23.3% per quarter; 95% CI, 22.5%-24.2% per quarter) with no significant trend (mean rate ratio [RR] increase of 1.01 per quarter [95% CI, 0.99-1.02]; P?=?.29), compared with 50% positivity in the year prior to PrEP (20.0% per quarter [95% CI, 19.04%-20.95% per quarter]; RR for overall STI positivity, 1.17 [95% CI, 1.10-1.24]; P?<?.001), with an increase in quarterly STI positivity (mean RR of 1.08 per quarter, or an 8% increase per quarter [95% CI, 1.05-1.11]; P?<?.001; RR, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.90-0.96]; P?<?.001). Findings were similar when stratified by specific STIs and anatomical site.<h4>Conclusions and relevance</h4>STI rates were high but stable among high-risk MSM while taking PrEP, compared with a high but increasing trend in STI positivity before commencing PrEP. These findings suggest the importance of considering trends in STIs when describing how PrEP use may be associated with STI incidence.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The increasing burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV and syphilis among male sex workers (MSWs) is a major global concern. The aim of our study was to evaluate the difference between MSWs and non-commercial MSMs in China.<h4>Methods</h4>During 2008-09, in a cross-sectional study, 2618 adult MSM were recruited through respondent-driven and snowball sampling from seven cities of China. Information regarding socio-demographics, risk behaviors, HIV-related knowledge and STI-related symptoms were collected and participants were tested for HIV and syphilis.<h4>Results</h4>Among 2618 participating MSM, 9.97% sold sex to males. HIV prevalence was 7.45% (6.13% among MSWs and 7.59% among non-MSW MSM) and syphilis prevalence was 14.32% (10.73% for MSWs and 14.72% for non-MSW MSM). Compared to non-MSW MSM, MSWs were more likely to be younger (adjusted odds ratio: aOR = 0.91, 95% confidence interval: 95%CI=0.88-0.93), never married (aOR = 4.38, 95% CI = 2.38-6.80), less educated, heterosexual (aOR = 13.04, 95% CI = 6.08-27.95), less knowledgeable regarding HIV (aOR = 0.70, 95% CI=0.51-0.96), experiencing symptoms of STI (aOR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.47-3.19), engaging in condomless vaginal intercourse (aOR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.47-3.19) and less likely to engage in condomless anal intercourse (aOR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.46-0.85).<h4>Conclusions</h4>High HIV and syphilis prevalence warranted urgent intervention targeting MSWs as a separate sentinel group for efficient surveillance owing to their different distribution from non-MSW MSM. Although male sex workers and non-commercial homosexuals have similar rates of HIV and syphilis, MSWs have different characteristics which should be considered in designing intervention programs targeting them.
Project description:Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI) is high among pregnant women in certain settings. We estimated STI incidence and compared STI risk in pregnant and non-pregnant women. Data came from the Methods for Improving Reproductive Health in Africa (MIRA) study conducted in South Africa and Zimbabwe 2003-2006. Women aged 18-50 years with at least one follow-up visit within 6 months of enrollment were included. Follow-up visits included laboratory testing for pregnancy, chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, and HIV, as well as self-report of hormonal contraceptive (HC) use, sexual behaviors and intravaginal practices. All visits were classified according to pregnancy status. Incidence of each STI was calculated using follow-up time. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted using pregnancy as a time-varying exposure and sexual behaviors and intravaginal practices as time-varying covariates. Among 4,549 women, 766 (16.8%) had a positive pregnancy test. Median follow-up time was 18 months [IQR: 12-24]. The overall incidence rate of chlamydia was 6.7 per 100 person years (py) and 9.9/100py during pregnancy; gonorrhea incidence was 2.7/100py and 4.9/100py during pregnancy; trichomoniasis incidence was 7.1/100py overall and 9.2/100py during pregnancy. Overall HIV incidence was 3.9/100py and 3.8/100py during pregnancy. In crude models, pregnancy increased risk for chlamydia (hazard ratio (HR) 1.5, 95%CI: 1.1-1.2), however there was no increased risk of any measured STI in adjusted models. STI Incidence was high during pregnancy however pregnancy did not increase STI risk after adjustment for sexual behaviors. Greater efforts are needed to help pregnant women avoid STIs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionally affected by sexually transmitted infections (STI). STI are often extragenital and asymptomatic. Both can delay diagnosis and treatment. Approval of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) might have influenced sexual behaviour and STI-prevalence of HIV- MSM. We estimated STI-prevalence and risk factors amongst HIV- and HIV+ MSM in Germany to plan effective interventions. METHODS:We conducted a nationwide, cross-sectional study between February and July 2018. Thirteen MSM-friendly STI-practices screened MSM for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), Neisseria gonorrhea (NG), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) using self-collected rectal and pharyngeal swabs, and urine samples. APTIMA™ STI-assays (Hologic™ Inc., San Diego, USA) were used for diagnostics, and samples were not pooled. We collected information on socio-demographics, HIV-status, clinical symptoms, sexual behaviour within the last 6?months, and PrEP use. We combined HIV status and PrEP use for defining risk groups, and used directed acyclic graphs and multivariable logistic regression to identify risk factors for STI. RESULTS:Two thousand three hundred three MSM were included: 50.5% HIV+, median age 39 [18-79] years. Median number of male sex partners within the last 6 months was five. Sex without condom was reported by 73.6%, use of party drugs by 44.6%. 80.3% had a STI history, 32.2% of STI+ MSM reported STI-related symptoms. 27.6% of HIV- MSM used PrEP. Overall STI-prevalence was 30.1, 25.0% in HIV-/PrEP- MSM (CT:7.2%; MG:14.2%; NG:7.4%; TV:0%), 40.3% in HIV-/PrEP+ MSM (CT:13.8%; MG:19.4%; NG:14.8%; TV:0.4%), and 30.8% in HIV+ MSM (CT:10.1%; MG:18.4%; NG:8.6%; TV:0.1%). Being HIV+ (OR 1.7, 95%-CI 1.3-2.2), using PrEP (OR 2.0, 95%-CI 1.5-2.7), having >?5 sex partners (OR:1.65; 95%-CI:1.32-2.01.9), having condomless sex (OR:2.11.9; 95%-CI:1.65-2.86), and using party drugs (OR:1.65; 95%-CI:1.32-2.0) were independent risk factors for being tested positive for at least one STI. CONCLUSIONS:We found a high STI-prevalence in MSM in Germany, especially in PrEP users, frequently being asymptomatic. As a relevant proportion of PrEP users will not use a condom, counselling and comprehensive STI screening is essential and should be low threshold and preferably free of cost. Counselling of PrEP users should also address use of party drugs.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Given the synergistic relationship between HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI), the integration of services has the potential to reduce the incidence of both HIV and STIs. We explored the extent to which STI testing has been offered within HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) programmes worldwide.<h4>Methods</h4>We conducted a systematic review of PrEP programmes implementing STI testing services in nine databases. We approached PrEP implementers for additional unpublished data and implementation details. Descriptive statistics were used to present the characteristics of STI testing within PrEP programmes. Content analysis of the input from PrEP implementers was conducted to summarize the barriers to and facilitators of STI testing.<h4>Results</h4>Of 9,161 citations, 91 studies conducted in 32 countries were included: 69% from high-income countries (HICs) and 64% from programmes targeting men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW) only. The majority of programmes (70%, 64/91) conducted STI testing before the initiation of PrEP. The most common STIs tested were gonorrhoea (86%, 78/91), chlamydia (84%, 76/91) and syphilis (84%, 76/91). The majority provided STI testing at three-month intervals (70%, 53/76, for syphilis; 70% 53/78, for chlamydia; 68%, 53/78, for gonorrhoea). Relative to low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), a higher proportion of PrEP programmes in HICs offered testing for gonorrhoea (92% vs. 71%, p < 0.05), chlamydia (92% vs. 64%, p < 0.01), syphilis (87% vs. 75%, p < 0.05), hepatitis A (18% vs. 4%, p < 0.05) and hepatitis C (43% vs. 21%, p < 0.05); offered testing for a higher number of STIs (mean 3.75 vs. 3.04, p < 0.05); and offered triple (throat, genital/urine and anorectal) anatomical site screening (54% vs. 18%, p < 0.001). Common implementation challenges included costs, access to STI diagnostics, programme logistics of integrating STI testing into PrEP delivery models and lack of capacity building for staff involved in PrEP provision.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Significant gaps and challenges remain in the provision of STI testing services within HIV PrEP programmes. We recommend more active integration of STI testing and management into PrEP programmes, supported by standardized practice guidelines, staff capacity building training and adequate funding. This could lead to improved sexual health and HIV outcomes in key populations.
Project description:<h4>Importance</h4>Despite a global increase in sexually transmitted infections (STIs), there is limited focus and investment in STI management within HIV programs, in which risks for STIs are likely to be elevated.<h4>Objective</h4>To estimate the prevalence of STIs at initiation of HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP; emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) and the incidence of STIs during PrEP use.<h4>Data sources</h4>Nine databases were searched up to November 20, 2018, without language restrictions. The implementers of PrEP were also approached for additional unpublished data.<h4>Study selection</h4>Studies reporting STI prevalence and/or incidence among PrEP users were included.<h4>Data extraction and synthesis</h4>Data were extracted independently by at least 2 reviewers. The methodological quality of studies was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute critical assessment tool for prevalence and incidence studies. Random-effects meta-analysis was performed.<h4>Main outcomes and measures</h4>Pooled STI prevalence (ie, within 3 months of PrEP initiation) and STI incidence (ie, during PrEP use, after 3 months).<h4>Results</h4>Of the 3325 articles identified, 88 were included (71 published and 17 unpublished). Data came from 26 countries; 62 studies (70%) were from high-income countries, and 58 studies (66%) were from programs only for men who have sex with men. In studies reporting a composite outcome of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and early syphilis, the pooled prevalence was 23.9% (95% CI, 18.6%-29.6%) before starting PrEP. The prevalence of the STI pathogen by anatomical site showed that prevalence was highest in the anorectum (chlamydia, 8.5% [95% CI, 6.3%-11.0%]; gonorrhea, 9.3% [95% CI, 4.7%-15.2%]) compared with genital sites (chlamydia, 4.0% [95% CI, 2.0%-6.6%]; gonorrhea, 2.1% [95% CI, 0.9%-3.7%]) and oropharyngeal sites (chlamydia, 2.4% [95% CI, 0.9%-4.5%]; gonorrhea, 4.9% [95% CI, 1.9%-9.1%]). The pooled incidence of studies reporting the composite outcome of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and early syphilis was 72.2 per 100 person-years (95% CI, 60.5-86.2 per 100 person-years).<h4>Conclusions and relevance</h4>Given the high burden of STIs among individuals initiating PrEP as well as persistent users of PrEP, this study highlights the need for active integration of HIV and STI services for an at-risk and underserved population.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) face higher rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) compared with the general population. The association between venues where sexual partners are met and STI transmission is dynamic and poorly understood, especially among those who use geosocial networking (GSN) apps. This study aimed to determine whether there is a difference in STI incidence between MSM who met their last sexual partner through a GSN app and MSM who met their last partner via other venues. METHODS:Data were analyzed from HIV-negative MSM attending the Los Angeles LBGT Center between August 2015 and July 2016 (n = 9499). Logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between STI incidence and whether or not an individual met his last partner through a GSN app. RESULTS:No relationship was detected between STI incidence and whether one's last sexual partner was met via GSN app. However, an association was detected between STI incidence and having used GSN apps to meet sexual partners in the past 3 months. A dose-response relationship was observed between the number of venues used to meet partners and testing positive for any STI (adjusted odds ratio, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.14). CONCLUSIONS:The relationship between how people meet sexual partners and STI acquisition is much more nuanced than previously thought. Geosocial networking apps do not inherently expose users to high-risk reservoirs of STIs, but further understanding of the complexity of sexual networks and networking methods is warranted, given increasing rates of STIs.