Pharmacokinetics of rivaroxaban in children using physiologically based and population pharmacokinetic modelling: an EINSTEIN-Jr phase I study.
ABSTRACT: Background:The EINSTEIN-Jr program will evaluate rivaroxaban for the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in children, targeting exposures similar to the 20 mg once-daily dose for adults. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for pediatric rivaroxaban dosing has been constructed. Methods:We quantitatively assessed the pharmacokinetics (PK) of a single rivaroxaban dose in children using population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) modelling and assessed the applicability of the PBPK model. Plasma concentration-time data from the EINSTEIN-Jr phase I study were analysed by non-compartmental and PopPK analyses and compared with the predictions of the PBPK model. Two rivaroxaban dose levels, equivalent to adult doses of rivaroxaban 10 mg and 20 mg, and two different formulations (tablet and oral suspension) were tested in children aged 0.5-18 years who had completed treatment for VTE. Results:PK data from 59 children were obtained. The observed plasma concentration-time profiles in all subjects were mostly within the 90% prediction interval, irrespective of dose or formulation. The PopPK estimates and non-compartmental analysis-derived PK parameters (in children aged ≥6 years) were in good agreement with the PBPK model predictions. Conclusions:These results confirmed the applicability of the rivaroxaban pediatric PBPK model in the pediatric population aged 0.5-18 years, which in combination with the PopPK model, will be further used to guide dose selection for the treatment of VTE with rivaroxaban in EINSTEIN-Jr phase II and III studies. Trial registration:ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01145859; registration date: 17 June 2010.
Project description:Background:Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a relatively rare condition in childhood with treatment mainly based on extrapolation from studies in adults. Therefore, clinical trials of anticoagulation in children require novel approaches to deal with numerous challenges. The EINSTEIN-Jr program identified pediatric rivaroxaban regimens commencing with in vitro dose finding studies followed by evaluation of children of different ages through phase I and II studies using extensive modeling to determine bodyweight-related doses. Use of this approach resulted in drug exposure similar to that observed in young adults treated with rivaroxaban 20 mg once-daily. Methods:EINSTEIN-Jr phase III is a randomized, open-label, study comparing the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban 20 mg-equivalent dose regimens with those of standard anticoagulation for the treatment of any types of acute VTE in children aged 0-18 years.A total of approximately 500 children are expected to be included during the 4-year study window. Flexibility of treatment duration is allowed with study treatment to be given for 3 months with the option to continue treatment in 3-month increments, up to a total of 12 months. However, based on most common current practice, children younger than 2 years with catheter-related thrombosis will have a main treatment period of 1 month with the option to prolong treatment in 1-month increments, up to a total of 3 months. Conclusions:EINSTEIN-Jr will compare previously established 20 mg-equivalent rivaroxaban dosing regimens with standard anticoagulation for the treatment of VTE in children. Demonstration of similarity of disease, as well as equivalent rivaroxaban exposure and exposure-response will enable extrapolation of efficacy from adult trials, which is critical given the challenges of enrollment in pediatric anticoagulation trials. Trial registration:Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02234843, registered on 9 September 2014.
Project description:Background:The EINSTEIN-Jr program will evaluate rivaroxaban for the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in children, targeting exposures similar to the 20 mg once-daily dose for adults. Methods:This was a multinational, single-dose, open-label, phase I study to describe the pharmacodynamics (PD), pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety of a single bodyweight-adjusted rivaroxaban dose in children aged 0.5-18 years. Children who had completed treatment for a venous thromboembolic event were enrolled into four age groups (0.5-2 years, 2-6 years, 6-12 years and 12-18 years) receiving rivaroxaban doses equivalent to 10 mg or 20 mg (either as a tablet or oral suspension). Blood samples for PK and PD analyses were collected within specified time windows. Results:Fifty-nine children were evaluated. In all age groups, PD parameters (prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and anti-Factor Xa activity) showed a linear relationship versus rivaroxaban plasma concentrations and were in line with previously acquired adult data, as well as in vitro spiking experiments. The rivaroxaban pediatric physiologically based pharmacokinetic model, used to predict the doses for the individual body weight groups, was confirmed. No episodes of bleeding were reported, and treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in four children and all resolved during the study. Conclusions:Bodyweight-adjusted, single-dose rivaroxaban had predictable PK/PD profiles in children across all age groups from 0.5 to 18 years. The PD assessments based on prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time demonstrated that the anticoagulant effect of rivaroxaban was not affected by developmental hemostasis in children. Trial registration:ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01145859.
Project description:Background:Venous thromboembolism (VTE) in young children is not well documented. Methods:Clinicians from 12 institutions retrospectively evaluated the presentation, therapeutic management, and outcome of VTE in children younger than 2 years seen in 2011-2016. Feasibility of recruiting these children in EINSTEIN-Jr. phase III, a randomized trial evaluating rivaroxaban versus standard anticoagulation for VTE, was assessed. Results:We identified 346 children with VTE, of whom 227 (65.6%) had central venous catheter-related thrombosis (CVC-VTE), 119 (34.4%) had non-CVC-VTE, and 156 (45.1%) were younger than 1 month. Of the 309 children who received anticoagulant therapy, 86 (27.8%) had a short duration of therapy (i.e. <?6 weeks for CVC-VTE and?<?3 months for non-CVC-VTE) and 17 (5.5%) had recurrent VTE during anticoagulation (n?=?8, 2.6%) or shortly after its discontinuation (n?=?9, 2.9%). A total of 37 (10.7%) children did not receive anticoagulant therapy and 4 (10.5%) had recurrent VTE.The average number of children aged <?0.5 years and 0.5-2 years who would have been considered for enrolment in EINSTEIN-Jr is approximately 1.0 and 0.9 per year per site, respectively. Conclusions:Young children with VTE most commonly have CVC-VTE and approximately one-tenth and one-fourth received no or only short durations of anticoagulant therapy, respectively. Recurrent VTE rates without anticoagulation, during anticoagulation or shortly after its discontinuation seem comparable to those observed in adults. Short and flexible treatment durations could potentially increase recruitment in EINSTEIN-Jr. phase III.
Project description:Anticoagulant treatment of pediatric central venous catheter-related venous thromboembolism (CVC-VTE) has not been specifically evaluated. In EINSTEIN-Jr, 500 children with any VTE received rivaroxaban or standard anticoagulants. A predefined analysis of the CVC-VTE cohort was performed. Children with CVC-VTE (age, birth to 17 years) were administered rivaroxaban or standard anticoagulants during the 1-month (children <2 years) or 3-month (all other children) study period. Predefined outcomes were recurrent VTE, change in thrombotic burden on repeat imaging, and bleeding. Predictors for continuation of anticoagulant therapy beyond the study period were evaluated. One hundred twenty-six children with symptomatic (n = 76, 60%) or asymptomatic (n = 50, 40%) CVC-VTE received either rivaroxaban (n = 90) or standard anticoagulants (n = 36). There was no recurrent VTE (0%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.0%-2.8%). Three children had the principal safety outcome: none had major bleeding and 3 children had clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding (2.4%; 95% CI, 0.7%-6.5%), all in the rivaroxaban arm. Complete or partial vein recanalization occurred in 57 (55%) and 38 (37%) of 103 evaluable children, respectively. Results were similar for symptomatic and asymptomatic CVC-VTE. Continuation of anticoagulant therapy beyond the study period occurred in 61 (48%) of children and was associated with residual VTE but only in children <2 years (odds ratio [OR], 20.9; P = .003) and continued CVC use (OR, 6.7; P = .002). Anticoagulant therapy appeared safe and efficacious and was associated with reduced clot burden in most children with symptomatic or asymptomatic CVC-VTE. Residual VTE and continued CVC use were associated with extended anticoagulation. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02234843.
Project description:Predictive performance of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) and population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) models of drugs predominantly eliminated through kidney in the pediatric population was evaluated. After optimization using adult clinical data, the verified PBPK models can predict 33 of 34 drug clearance within twofold of the observed values in children 1 month and older. More specifically, 10 of 11 of predicted clearance values were within 1.5-fold of those observed in children between 1 month and 2 years old. The PopPK approach also predicted 19 of 21 drug clearance within twofold of the observed values in children. In summary, our analysis demonstrated both PBPK and PopPK adult models, after verification with additional adult pharmacokinetic (PK) studies and incorporation of known ontogeny of renal filtration, could be applied for dosing regimen recommendation in children 1 month and older for renally eliminated drugs in a first-in-pediatric study.
Project description:Applying physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling in paediatric cancer drug development is still challenging. We aimed to demonstrate how PBPK modelling can be applied to optimize dose and sampling times for a paediatric pharmacokinetic (PK) bridging study in oncology and to compare with the allometric scaling population PK (AS-popPK) approach, using docetaxel as an example.A PBPK model for docetaxel was first developed for adult cancer patients using Simcyp® and subsequently used to predict its PK profiles in children by accounting for age-dependent physiological differences. Dose (mg m(-2) ) requirements for children aged 0-18 years were calculated to achieve targeted exposure in adults. Simulated data were then analyzed using population PK modelling with MONOLIX® in order to perform design optimization with the population Fisher information matrix (PFIM). In parallel, the AS-popPK approach was performed for the comparison.The PBPK model developed for docetaxel adequately predicted its PK profiles in both adult and paediatric cancer patients (predicted clearance and volume of distribution within 1.5 fold of observed data). The revised dose of docetaxel for a child over 1.5 years old was higher than the adult dose. Considering clinical constraints, the optimal design contained two groups of 15 patients, having three or four sampling times and had good predicted relative standard errors (RSE<30%) for almost all parameters. The AS-popPK approach performed reasonably well but could not predict for very young children.This research shows the clinical utility of PBPK modelling in combination with population PK modelling and optimal design to support paediatric oncology development.
Project description:Moxifloxacin is a widely used fluoroquinolone for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections. We applied physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) and population pharmacokinetic (popPK) modeling to support dose selection in pediatric patients. We scaled an existing adult PBPK model to children based on prior physiological knowledge. The resulting model proposed an age-dependent dosing regimen that was tested in a phase I study. Refined doses were then tested in a phase III study. A popPK analysis of all clinical pediatric data confirmed the PBPK predictions, including the proposed dosing schedule in children, and supported pharmacokinetics-related safety/efficacy questions. The pediatric PBPK model adequately predicted the doses necessary to achieve antimicrobial efficacy while maintaining safety in the phase I and III pediatric studies. Altogether, this study retroactively demonstrated the robustness and utility of modeling to support dose finding and confirmation in pediatric drug development for moxifloxacin.
Project description:Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models are increasingly used to support pediatric dose selection for small molecule drugs. In contrast, only a few pediatric PBPK models for therapeutic antibodies have been published recently, and the knowledge on the maturation of the processes relevant for antibody pharmacokinetics (PK) is limited compared to small molecules. The aim of this study was, thus, to evaluate predictions from antibody PBPK models for children which were scaled from PBPK models for adults in order to identify respective knowledge gaps. For this, we used the generic PBPK model implemented in PK-Sim without further modifications. Focusing on general clearance and distribution mechanisms, we selected palivizumab and bevacizumab as examples for this evaluation since they show simple, linear PK which is not governed by drug-specific target mediated disposition at usual therapeutic dosages, and their PK has been studied in pediatric populations after intravenous application. The evaluation showed that the PK of palivizumab was overall reasonably well predicted, while the clearance for bevacizumab seems to be underestimated. Without implementing additional ontogeny for antibody PK-specific processes into the PBPK model, bodyweight normalized clearance increases only moderately in young children compared to adults. If growth during aging at the time of the simulation was considered, the apparent clearance is approximately 20% higher compared to simulations for which growth was not considered for newborns due to the long half-life of antibodies. To fully understand the differences and similarities in the PK of antibodies between adults and children, further research is needed. By integrating available information and data, PBPK modeling can contribute to reveal the relevance of involved processes as well as to generate and test hypothesis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Patients with renal impairment receiving classical anticoagulation for venous thromboembolism (VTE) are at increased risk of bleeding and possibly pulmonary embolism. We examined the efficacy and safety of oral rivaroxaban in patients with VTE with and without renal impairment. METHODS:Prespecified subgroup analysis of the EINSTEIN DVT and EINSTEIN PE studies comparing fixed-dose rivaroxaban with enoxaparin/a vitamin K antagonist (VKA), performed in 8246 patients enrolled from 2007 to 2011 in 314 hospitals. RESULTS:Outcomes were recurrent VTE and major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding in patients with normal renal function (n?=?5569; 67.3%) or mild (n?=?2037; 24.6%), moderate (n?=?636; 7.7%), or severe (n?=?21; 0.3%) renal impairment. Rates of recurrent VTE were 1.8%, 2.8%, 3.3%, and 4.8% in patients with normal renal function and mild, moderate, and severe renal impairment, respectively (ptrend?=?0.001). Hazard ratios for recurrent VTE were similar between treatment groups across renal function categories (pinteraction?=?0.72). Major bleeding in rivaroxaban recipients occurred in 0.8%, 1.4%, 0.9%, and 0%, respectively (ptrend?=?0.50). Respective rates in enoxaparin/VKA recipients were 1.0%, 3.0%, 3.9%, and 9.1% (ptrend?<?0.001). Rivaroxaban-enoxaparin/VKA hazard ratios were 0.79 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.46-1.36) for normal renal function, 0.44 (95% CI 0.24-0.84) for mild renal impairment, and 0.23 (95% CI 0.06-0.81) for moderate renal impairment (pinteraction?=?0.034). CONCLUSIONS:Patients with symptomatic VTE and renal impairment are at increased risk of recurrent VTE. Renal impairment increased the risk of major bleeding in enoxaparin/VKA-treated patients but not in rivaroxaban-treated patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT00440193 and NCT00439777.
Project description:The pharmacokinetics (PKs) of sodium oxybate (SXB) was evaluated in a subset of participants from a study of SXB treatment in children (aged 7-11 years; n = 11) and adolescents (aged 12-17 years; n = 18) with narcolepsy with cataplexy. PK evaluation was conducted over 2 nights during the period when participants received a stable nightly SXB dose. The SXB dose on night 1 was half of night 2 and was administered in two equally divided doses: dose 1 was administered > 2 hours after the evening meal, and dose 2 was administered ? 4 hours after dose 1. Noncompartmental PK analysis demonstrated higher plasma concentrations post-dose 2 vs. post-dose 1, higher than dose-proportional increases in area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 4 hours (AUC0-4h ) after dose 1, indicating nonlinear clearance, and better correlation between exposure and mg/kg than exposure and gram dose. To confirm the noncompartmental findings, identify factors affecting SXB PK, and compare with prior results in adults, a population PK (PopPK) model was established combining PK data from the current study with prior data from adults (132 healthy volunteers and 13 with narcolepsy). A two-compartment PopPK model with first-order absorption and nonlinear clearance from the central compartment described the data well. PopPK identified weight as the main intrinsic factor and food as the main extrinsic factor affecting SXB PK, and predicts similar PK profiles on a mg/kg basis across ages. These results, along with previously reported efficacy and safety outcomes, support weight-based SXB dose initiation in pediatric patients.