Role of IL-18 induced Amphiregulin expression on virus induced ocular lesions.
ABSTRACT: This report deals with the possible mechanism by which IL-18 can contribute to the control and resolution of inflammatory lesions in the cornea caused by herpes simplex virus infection. Our results demonstrate that the expression of the IL-18R by both regulatory T cells (Treg) and effector T cells was a pivotal event that influenced lesion pathogenesis. The engagement of IL-18R on Treg with its cytokine ligand resulted in Amphiregulin expression a molecule associated with tissue repair. In support of this scheme of events, lesion severity became more severe in animals unable to express the IL-18R because of gene knockout and was reduced in severity when IL-18 was overexpressed in the cornea. These changes in lesion severity correlated with the frequency and number of both Treg and Teff that expressed Amphiregulin. Additional experiments indicated that IL-12 and IL-18 acted synergistically to enhance Amphiregulin expression in Treg, an event partly dependent on P38 MAPK activity. Finally, sub-conjunctival administration of Amphiregulin resulted in resolution of both developing and developed lesions. Thus, overall our results imply that IL-18 may participate in controlling the severity of SK and contribute to tissue repair by converting both Treg and effector T cells into those that produce Amphiregulin.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Amphiregulin, a member of the epidermal growth factor family, is expressed by activated mouse T(H)2 cells. Amphiregulin produced by mouse hematopoietic cells contributes to the elimination of a nematode infection by a type 2 effector response.<h4>Objective</h4>To identify the human peripheral blood cell population expressing amphiregulin.<h4>Methods</h4>Amphiregulin-expressing cells were identified by flow cytometry of cell surface markers and histologic staining. Histamine and amphiregulin in supernatants were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure mRNA expression.<h4>Results</h4>Stimulation of human PBMCs by anti-CD3 + anti-CD28 antibodies induced expression of amphiregulin mRNA and protein by a non-T-cell population. The amphiregulin-producing cells were basophils, as judged by morphology and expression of CD203c and CD123 (IL-3 receptor ? chain). Activated mouse basophils also produced amphiregulin. Amphiregulin expression by basophils in response to anti-TCR stimulation required IL-3 produced by T cells, and IL-3 alone induced high levels of amphiregulin expression by purified basophils. Amphiregulin was expressed at much higher levels when human basophils were stimulated by IL-3 than by IgE cross-linking, whereas the opposite was true for IL-4 expression and histamine release. Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor was also expressed by IL-3-stimulated human basophils. PBMCs from human subjects with asthma contained significantly higher numbers of basophils able to produce amphiregulin compared with controls with or without allergy.<h4>Conclusion</h4>IL-3 can induce basophils to express high levels of amphiregulin, which may contribute to tissue remodeling during type 2 immune responses such as asthma.
Project description:Ocular infection with HSV causes a chronic T cell-mediated inflammatory lesion in the cornea. Lesion severity is affected by the balance of different CD4 T cell subsets, with greater severity occurring when the activity of regulatory T cells (Tregs) is compromised. In this study, fate-mapping mice were used to assess the stability of Treg function in ocular lesions. We show that cells that were once Foxp3+ functional Tregs may lose Foxp3 and become Th1 cells that could contribute to lesion expression. The instability primarily occurred with IL-2Rlo Tregs and was shown, in part, to be the consequence of exposure to IL-12. Lastly, in vitro-generated induced Tregs (iTregs) were shown to be highly plastic and capable of inducing stromal keratitis when adoptively transferred into Rag1-/- mice, with 95% of iTregs converting into ex-Tregs in the cornea. This plasticity of iTregs could be prevented when they were generated in the presence of vitamin C and retinoic acid. Importantly, adoptive transfer of these stabilized iTregs to HSV-1-infected mice prevented the development of stromal keratitis lesions more effectively than did control iTregs. Our results demonstrate that CD25lo Treg and iTreg instability occurs during a viral immunoinflammatory lesion and that its control may help to avoid lesion chronicity.
Project description:RNA-Seq analysis of Treg cell subsets isolated from lungs of Il10GFPFoxp3Thy1.1 mice. Thy1.1+ Treg cells were FACS-sorted into IL-10–IL-18R–, IL-10+IL-18R– and IL10–IL-18R+ populations on day 5 following intranasal infection with 0.5 LD50 PR8-OTI influenza virus. mRNA profiles of each Thy1.1+ Treg cell population (IL-10–IL-18R–, IL-10+IL-18R– and IL10–IL-18R+) from lungs on day 5 following influenza infection from 5 infected mice, sorted into TRIzol LS reagent.
Project description:Maintenance of tissue integrity in skeletal muscle requires the immunomodulatory and regenerative functions of muscle-resident regulatory T cells (Tregs). Chronic skeletal muscle infections, such as with Toxoplasma gondii disrupt normal immuno-regulatory networks and lead to pathogenic changes in Treg function. Specifically, Tregs during chronic T. gondii infection reinforce an inflammatory macrophage bias that exacerbates injury in skeletal muscle. In this study, we investigated whether the aberrations in skeletal muscle Treg function during chronic infection could be overcome by treatment with Treg-related factors associated with enhanced muscle regeneration during sterile injury. We show treatment of chronically infected mice with the Treg promoting therapies, interleukin-2 complexed with anti-IL-2 antibody or interleukin-33 (IL-33), did not restore macrophage dynamics or muscle function, respectively, in vivo. However supplementation of known Treg-derived factors, interleukin-10 (IL-10) and amphiregulin (Areg) improved muscle function and skewed macrophages toward a restorative phenotype in the presence of chronic infection. These shifts in macrophage phenotype are coupled with enhanced physiologic parameters of regeneration. Together, these data suggest that while Treg-mediated immuno-regulation is compromised during chronic skeletal muscle infection, supplementation of canonical Treg-derived factors such as IL-10 and Areg can restore immunologic balance and enhance muscle repair.
Project description:Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells are pivotal in maintaining immunological self-tolerance and tissue homeostasis; however, it remains unclear how tissue Treg cells respond to liver injury and regulate chronic inflammation, which can cause liver fibrosis. We report here that hepatic Treg cells play a critical role in preventing liver pathology by suppressing inflammatory cellular immunity that can promote liver damage and fibrosis. Chronic liver inflammation induced by injections of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) led to preferential expansion of hepatic Treg cells that prevented liver fibrosis. In contrast, depletion of Treg cells in the CCl4-induced liver fibrosis model exacerbated the severity of liver pathology. Treg depletion unleashed tissue cellular immunity and drove the activation and expansion of the pro-fibrotic IL-4-producing T helper 2 cells, as well as CCR2high Ly-6Chigh inflammatory monocytes/macrophages in the inflamed liver. Although Treg expression of amphiregulin plays a key role in tissue remodeling and repair in various inflammation models, amphiregulin from hepatic Treg cells, the largest producer among liver immune cells, was dispensable for maintaining liver homeostasis and preventing liver fibrosis during CCl4-induced chronic inflammation. Our results indicate that Treg cells control chronic liver inflammation and fibrosis by regulating the aberrant activation and functions of immune effector cells. Harnessing Treg functions, which effectively regulate tissue cellular immunity, may be a therapeutic strategy for preventing and treating liver fibrosis.
Project description:Lung group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) drive allergic inflammation and promote tissue repair. ILC2 development is dependent on the transcription factor retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor (ROR?), which is also expressed in common ILC progenitors. To elucidate the developmental pathways of lung ILC2s, we generated ROR? lineage tracer mice and performed single-cell RNA sequencing, flow cytometry, and functional analyses. In adult mouse lungs, we found an IL-18R?+ST2- population different from conventional IL-18R?-ST2+ ILC2s. The former was GATA-3intTcf7EGFP+Kit+, produced few cytokines, and differentiated into multiple ILC lineages in vivo and in vitro. In neonatal mouse lungs, three ILC populations were identified, namely an ILC progenitor population similar to that in adult lungs and two distinct effector ILC2 subsets that differentially produced type 2 cytokines and amphiregulin. Lung ILC progenitors might actively contribute to ILC-poiesis in neonatal and inflamed adult lungs. In addition, neonatal lung ILC2s include distinct proinflammatory and tissue-repairing subsets.
Project description:Interleukin (IL)-18 expression in synovial tissue correlates with the severity of joint inflammation and the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, the role of the IL-18/IL-18 receptor-alpha (R?) signaling pathway in autoimmune arthritis is unknown. Wild-type (WT) and IL-18R? knockout (KO) mice were immunized with bovine type II collagen before the onset of arthritis induced by lipopolysaccharide injection. Disease activity was evaluated by semiquantitative scoring and histologic assessment. Serum inflammatory cytokine and anticollagen antibody levels were quantified by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Joint cytokine and matrix metalloproteinases-3 levels were determined by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Splenic suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) were determined by Western blot analysis as indices of systemic immunoresponse. IL-18R? KO mice showed lower arthritis and histological scores in bone erosion and synovitis due to reductions in the infiltration of CD4+ T cells and F4/80+ cells and decreased serum IL-6, -18, TNF, and IFN-? levels. The mRNA expression and protein levels of SOCS3 were significantly increased in the IL-18R? KO mice. By an up-regulation of SOCS, pro-inflammatory cytokines were decreased through the IL-18/IL-18R? signaling pathway. These results suggest that inhibitors of the IL-18/IL-18R? signaling pathway could become new therapeutic agents for rheumatoid arthritis.
Project description:Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is known to be critically involved in tissue development and homeostasis as well as in the pathogenesis of cancer. Here we showed that Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells express EGFR under inflammatory conditions. Stimulation with the EGF-like growth factor Amphiregulin (AREG) markedly enhanced Treg cell function in vitro, and in a colitis and tumor vaccination model we showed that AREG was critical for efficient Treg cell function in vivo. In addition, mast cell-derived AREG fully restored optimal Treg cell function. These findings reveal EGFR as a component in the regulation of local immune responses and establish a link between mast cells and Treg cells. Targeting of this immune regulatory mechanism may contribute to the therapeutic successes of EGFR-targeting treatments in cancer patients.
Project description:Soluble stimulation-2 (ST2) is increased during graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), while Tregs that express ST2 prevent GVHD through unknown mechanisms. Transplantation of Foxp3- T cells and Tregs that were collected and sorted from different Foxp3 reporter mice indicated that in mice that developed GVHD, ST2+ Tregs were thymus derived and predominantly localized to the intestine. ST2-/- Treg transplantation was associated with reduced total intestinal Treg frequency and activation. ST2-/- versus WT intestinal Treg transcriptomes showed decreased Treg functional markers and, reciprocally, increased Rorc expression. Rorc-/- T cells transplantation enhanced the frequency and function of intestinal ST2+ Tregs and reduced GVHD through decreased gut-infiltrating soluble ST2-producing type 1 and increased IL-4/IL-10-producing type 2 T cells. Cotransfer of ST2+ Tregs sorted from Rorc-/- mice with WT CD25-depleted T cells decreased GVHD severity and mortality, increased intestinal ST2+KLRG1+ Tregs, and decreased type 1 T cells after transplantation, indicating an intrinsic mechanism. Ex vivo IL-33-stimulated Tregs (TregIL-33) expressed higher amphiregulin and displayed better immunosuppression, and adoptive transfer prevented GVHD better than control Tregs or TregIL-33 cultured with IL-23/IL-17. Amphiregulin blockade by neutralizing antibody in vivo abolished the protective effect of TregIL-33. Our data show that inverse expression of ST2 and ROR?t in intestinal Tregs determines GVHD and that TregIL-33 has potential as a cellular therapy avenue for preventing GVHD.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>The proinflammatory cytokine IL-18 is involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. While the changes in IL-18 are known, IL-18R expression and relationship with IL-18 and other inflammatory markers in the adipose tissue in obesity/type-2 diabetes (T2D) remain unclear.<h4>Methods</h4>We, therefore, determined the adipose tissue expression of IL-18R and IL-18 mRNA/protein in lean, overweight, and obese individuals with and without T2D, 15 each, using qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and confocal microscopy. Data (mean?±?SEM) were analyzed using unpaired t-test and Pearson's correlation (r); all P values ?0.05 were considered statistically significant.<h4>Results</h4>We found the upregulated gene/protein expression of IL-18R and IL-18 in non-diabetic obese/overweight as compared with lean individuals (P?<?0.05). BMI correlated positively (P?<?0.05) with the adipose tissue expression of IL-18R (mRNA: r?=?0.90 protein: r?=?0.84) and IL-18 (mRNA: r?=?0.84 protein: r?=?0.80). Similarly, in T2D individuals, gene and protein expression of IL-18R/IL-18 was significantly higher in obese as compared with overweight/lean individuals. The BMI was associated with the changes in both IL-18R (mRNA: r?=?0.55 protein: r?=?0.50) and IL-18 (mRNA: r?=?0.53 protein: r?=?0.57) expression. IL-18R/IL-18 gene expression in the adipose tissue was positively associated (P?<?0.05) with local gene expression of other inflammatory markers including CD11c, CD86, CD68, CD163, TNF-?, and CCL5. Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was higher in diabetic/non-diabetic obese and it correlated with BMI (P?<?0.05). IL-18R and IL-18 mRNA/protein expression in obesity was associated with HOMA-IR only in non-diabetics.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The adipose tissue IL-18R/IL-18 expression is enhanced in obesity which associates with proinflammatory gene signature and insulin resistance in these individuals.