Something special about CO-dependent CO2 fixation.
ABSTRACT: Carbon dioxide enters metabolism via six known CO2 fixation pathways, of which only one is linear, exergonic in the direction of CO2 -assimilation, and present in both bacterial and archaeal anaerobes - the Wood-Ljungdahl (WL) or reductive acetyl-CoA pathway. Carbon monoxide (CO) plays a central role in the WL pathway as an energy rich intermediate. Here, we scan the major biochemical reaction databases for reactions involving CO and CO2 . We identified 415 reactions corresponding to enzyme commission (EC) numbers involving CO2 , which are non-randomly distributed across different biochemical pathways. Their taxonomic distribution, reversibility under physiological conditions, cofactors and prosthetic groups are summarized. In contrast to CO2 , only 15 reaction classes involving CO were detected. Closer inspection reveals that CO interfaces with metabolism and the carbon cycle at only two enzymes: anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH), a Ni- and Fe-containing enzyme that generates CO for CO2 fixation in the WL pathway, and aerobic CODH, a Mo- and Cu-containing enzyme that oxidizes environmental CO as an electron source. The CO-dependent reaction of the WL pathway involves carbonyl insertion into a methyl carbon-nickel at the Ni-Fe-S A-cluster of acetyl-CoA synthase (ACS). It appears that no alternative mechanisms to the CO-dependent reaction of ACS have evolved in nearly 4 billion years, indicating an ancient and mechanistically essential role for CO at the onset of metabolism.
Project description:Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthase (CODH/ACS) is a five-subunit enzyme complex responsible for the carbonyl branch of the Wood-Ljungdahl (WL) pathway, considered one of the most ancient metabolisms for anaerobic carbon fixation, but its origin and evolutionary history have been unclear. While traditionally associated with methanogens and acetogens, the presence of CODH/ACS homologs has been reported in a large number of uncultured anaerobic lineages. Here, we have carried out an exhaustive phylogenomic study of CODH/ACS in over 6,400 archaeal and bacterial genomes. The identification of complete and likely functional CODH/ACS complexes in these genomes significantly expands its distribution in microbial lineages. The CODH/ACS complex displays astounding conservation and vertical inheritance over geological times. Rare intradomain and interdomain transfer events might tie into important functional transitions, including the acquisition of CODH/ACS in some archaeal methanogens not known to fix carbon, the tinkering of the complex in a clade of model bacterial acetogens, or emergence of archaeal-bacterial hybrid complexes. Once these transfers were clearly identified, our results allowed us to infer the presence of a CODH/ACS complex with at least four subunits in the last universal common ancestor (LUCA). Different scenarios on the possible role of ancestral CODH/ACS are discussed. Despite common assumptions, all are equally compatible with an autotrophic, mixotrophic, or heterotrophic LUCA. Functional characterization of CODH/ACS from a larger spectrum of bacterial and archaeal lineages and detailed evolutionary analysis of the WL methyl branch will help resolve this issue.
Project description:Engineering the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway (WLP) in the established industrial organism Clostridium acetobutylicum would allow for the conversion of carbohydrates into butanol, acetone, and other metabolites at higher yields than are currently possible, while minimizing CO2 and H2 release. To this effect, we expressed 11 Clostridium ljungdahlii core genes coding for enzymes and accessory proteins of the WLP in Clostridium acetobutylicum The engineered WLP in C. acetobutylicum showed functionality of the eastern branch of the pathway based on the formation of labeled 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate from 13C-labeled formate, as well as functionality of the western branch as evidenced by the formation of CO from CO2 However, the lack of labeling in acetate and butyrate pools indicated that the connection between the two branches is not functional. The focus of our investigation then centered on the functional expression of the acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthase (ACS), which forms a complex with the CO dehydrogenase (CODH) and serves to link the two branches of the WLP. The CODH/ACS complex catalyzes the reduction of CO2 to CO and the condensation of CO with a methyl group to form acetyl-CoA, respectively. Here, we show the simultaneous activities of the two recombinant enzymes. We demonstrate in vivo the classical in vitro ACS carbonyl carbon exchange assay, whereby the carbonyl carbon of acetyl-CoA is exchanged with the CO carbon. Our data suggest that the low heterologous expression of ACS may limit the functionality of the heterologous WLP in C. acetobutylicum IMPORTANCE The bifunctional carbon monoxide dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthase (CODH/ACS) from C. ljungdahlii was heterologously expressed in the obligate heterotroph C. acetobutylicum The functional activity of the CODH was confirmed through both the oxidation and reduction of CO, as had previously been shown for the heterologous CODH from Clostridium carboxidivorans Significantly, a novel in vivo assay for ACS exchange activity using 13C-tracers was developed and used to confirm functional ACS expression.
Project description:UNLABELLED:The future sustainable production of chemicals and fuels from nonpetrochemical resources and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions are two of the greatest societal challenges. Gas fermentation, which utilizes the ability of acetogenic bacteria such as Clostridium autoethanogenum to grow and convert CO2 and CO into low-carbon fuels and chemicals, could potentially provide solutions to both. Acetogens fix these single-carbon gases via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. Two enzyme activities are predicted to be essential to the pathway: carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH), which catalyzes the reversible oxidation of CO to CO2, and acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) synthase (ACS), which combines with CODH to form a CODH/ACS complex for acetyl-CoA fixation. Despite their pivotal role in carbon fixation, their functions have not been confirmed in vivo By genetically manipulating all three CODH isogenes (acsA, cooS1, and cooS2) of C. autoethanogenum, we highlighted the functional redundancies of CODH by demonstrating that cooS1 and cooS2 are dispensable for autotrophy. Unexpectedly, the cooS1 inactivation strain showed a significantly reduced lag phase and a higher growth rate than the wild type on H2 and CO2 During heterotrophic growth on fructose, the acsA inactivation strain exhibited 61% reduced biomass and the abolishment of acetate production (a hallmark of acetogens), in favor of ethanol, lactate, and 2,3-butanediol production. A translational readthrough event was discovered in the uniquely truncated (compared to those of other acetogens) C. autoethanogenum acsA gene. Insights gained from studying the function of CODH enhance the overall understanding of autotrophy and can be used for optimization of biotechnological production of ethanol and other commodities via gas fermentation. IMPORTANCE:Gas fermentation is an emerging technology that converts the greenhouse gases CO2 and CO in industrial waste gases and gasified biomass into fuels and chemical commodities. Acetogenic bacteria such as Clostridium autoethanogenum are central to this bioprocess, but the molecular and genetic characterization of this microorganism is currently lacking. By targeting all three of the isogenes encoding carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) in C. autoethanogenum, we identified the most important CODH isogene for carbon fixation and demonstrated that genetic inactivation of CODH could improve autotrophic growth. This study shows that disabling of the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway via the inactivation of acsA (encodes CODH) significantly impairs heterotrophic growth and alters the product profile by abolishing acetate production. Moreover, we discovered a previously undescribed mechanism for controlling the production of this enzyme. This study provides valuable insights into the acetogenic pathway and can be used for the development of more efficient and productive strains for gas fermentation.
Project description:With recent advances in synthetic biology, CO2 could be utilized as a carbon feedstock by native or engineered organisms, assuming the availability of electrons. Two key enzymes used in autotrophic CO2 fixation are the CO dehydrogenase (CODH) and acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) synthase (ACS), which form a bifunctional heterotetrameric complex. The CODH/ACS complex can reversibly catalyze CO2 to CO, effectively enabling a biological water-gas shift reaction at ambient temperatures and pressures. The CODH/ACS complex is part of the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway (WLP) used by acetogens to fix CO2, and it has been well characterized in native hosts. So far, only a few recombinant CODH/ACS complexes have been expressed in heterologous hosts, none of which demonstrated in vivo CO2 reduction. Here, functional expression of the Clostridium carboxidivorans CODH/ACS complex is demonstrated in the solventogen Clostridium acetobutylicum, which was engineered to express CODH alone or together with the ACS. Both strains exhibited CO2 reduction and CO oxidation activities. The CODH reactions were interrogated using isotopic labeling, thus verifying that CO was a direct product of CO2 reduction, and vice versa. CODH apparently uses a native C. acetobutylicum ferredoxin as an electron carrier for CO2 reduction. Heterologous CODH activity depended on actively growing cells and required the addition of nickel, which is inserted into CODH without the need to express the native Ni insertase protein. Increasing CO concentrations in the gas phase inhibited CODH activity and altered the metabolite profile of the CODH-expressing cells. This work provides the foundation for engineering a complete and functional WLP in nonnative host organisms.IMPORTANCE Functional expression of CO dehydrogenase (CODH) from Clostridium carboxidivorans was demonstrated in C. acetobutylicum, which is natively incapable of CO2 fixation. The expression of CODH, alone or together with the C. carboxidivorans acetyl-CoA synthase (ACS), enabled C. acetobutylicum to catalyze both CO2 reduction and CO oxidation. Importantly, CODH exhibited activity in both the presence and absence of ACS. 13C-tracer studies confirmed that the engineered C. acetobutylicum strains can reduce CO2 to CO and oxidize CO during growth on glucose.
Project description:Conversion of acetate to methane (aceticlastic methanogenesis) is an ecologically important process carried out exclusively by methanogenic archaea. An important enzyme for this process as well as for methanogenic growth on carbon monoxide is the five-subunit archaeal CO dehydrogenase/acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) synthase multienzyme complex (CODH/ACS) catalyzing both CO oxidation/CO(2) reduction and cleavage/synthesis of acetyl-CoA. Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A contains two very similar copies of a six-gene operon (cdh genes) encoding two isoforms of CODH/ACS (Cdh1 and Cdh2) and a single CdhA subunit, CdhA3. To address the role of the CODH/ACS system in M. acetivorans, mutational as well as promoter/reporter gene fusion analyses were conducted. Phenotypic characterization of cdh disruption mutants (three single and double mutants, as well as the triple mutant) revealed a strict requirement of either Cdh1 or Cdh2 for acetotrophic or carboxidotrophic growth, as well as for autotrophy, which demonstrated that both isoforms are bona fide CODH/ACS. While expression of the Cdh2-encoding genes was generally higher than that of genes encoding Cdh1, both appeared to be regulated differentially in response to growth phase and to changing substrate conditions. While dispensable for growth, CdhA3 clearly affected expression of cdh1, suggesting that it functions in signal perception and transduction rather than in catabolism. The data obtained argue for a functional hierarchy and regulatory cross talk of the CODH/ACS isoforms.
Project description:Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) from Oligotropha carboxydovorans catalyzes the oxidation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide, providing the organism both a carbon source and energy for growth. In the oxidative half of the catalytic cycle, electrons gained from CO are ultimately passed to the electron transport chain of the Gram-negative organism, but the proximal acceptor of reducing equivalents from the enzyme has not been established. Here we investigate the reaction of the reduced enzyme with various quinones and find them to be catalytically competent. Benzoquinone has a k(ox) of 125.1 s(-1) and a K(d) of 48 ?M. Ubiquinone-1 has a k(ox)/K(d) value of 2.88 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1). 1,4-Naphthoquinone has a k(ox) of 38 s(-1) and a K(d) of 140 ?M. 1,2-Naphthoquinone-4-sulfonic acid has a k(ox)/K(d) of 1.31 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1). An extensive effort to identify a cytochrome that could be reduced by CO/CODH was unsuccessful. Steady-state studies with benzoquinone indicate that the rate-limiting step is in the reductive half of the reaction (that is, the reaction of oxidized enzyme with CO). On the basis of the inhibition of CODH by diphenyliodonium chloride, we conclude that quinone substrates interact with CODH at the enzyme's flavin site. Our results strongly suggest that CODH donates reducing equivalents directly to the quinone pool without using a cytochrome as an intermediary.
Project description:A fascinating feature of some bifunctional enzymes is the presence of an internal channel or tunnel to connect the multiple active sites. A channel can allow for a reaction intermediate generated at one active site to be used as a substrate at a second active site, without the need for the intermediate to leave the safety of the protein matrix. One such bifunctional enzyme is carbon monoxide dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthase from Moorella thermoacetica (mtCODH/ACS). A key player in the global carbon cycle, CODH/ACS uses a Ni-Fe-S center called the C-cluster to reduce carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide and uses a second Ni-Fe-S center, called the A-cluster, to assemble acetyl-CoA from a methyl group, coenzyme A, and C-cluster-generated CO. mtCODH/ACS has been proposed to contain one of the longest enzyme channels (138 A long) to allow for intermolecular CO transport. Here, we report a 2.5 A resolution structure of xenon-pressurized mtCODH/ACS and examine the nature of gaseous cavities within this enzyme. We find that the cavity calculation program CAVENV accurately predicts the channels connecting the C- and A-clusters, with 17 of 19 xenon binding sites within the predicted regions. Using this X-ray data, we analyze the amino acid composition surrounding the 19 Xe sites and consider how the protein fold is utilized to carve out such an impressive interior passageway. Finally, structural comparisons of Xe-pressurized mtCODH/ACS with related enzyme structures allow us to study channel design principles, as well as consider the conformational flexibility of an enzyme that contains a cavity through its center.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4><i>Citrobacter amalonaticus</i> Y19 is a good biocatalyst for production of hydrogen (H<sub>2</sub>) from oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO) via the so-called water-gas-shift reaction (WGSR). It has a high H<sub>2</sub>-production activity (23.83 mmol H<sub>2</sub> g<sup>-1</sup> cell h<sup>-1</sup>) from CO, and can grow well to a high density on various sugars. However, its H<sub>2</sub>-production activity is expressed only when CO is present as an inducer and in the absence of glucose.<h4>Results</h4>In order to avoid dependency on CO and glucose, in the present study, the native CO-inducible promoters of WGSR operons (CO dehydrogenase, CODH, and CODH-dependent hydrogenase, CO-<i>hyd</i>) in Y19 were carefully analyzed and replaced with strong and constitutive promoters screened from Y19. One engineered strain (Y19-PR1), selected from three positive ones after screening ~10,000 colonies, showed a similar CO-dependent H<sub>2</sub>-production activity to that of wild-type Y19, without being affected by glucose and/or CO. Compared with wild-type Y19, transcription of the CODH operon in Y19-PR1 increased 1.5-fold, although that of the CO-<i>hyd</i> operon remained at a similar level. To enhance the activity of CO-Hyd in Y19-PR1, further modifications, including an increase in gene copy number and engineering of the 5' untranslated region, were attempted, but without success.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Convenient recombinant Y19-PR1 that expresses CO-dependent H<sub>2</sub>-production activity without being limited by CO and glucose was obtained.
Project description:In the presence of carbon monoxide, the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum induces expression of proteins which allow the organism to metabolize carbon monoxide in the net reaction CO + H2O --> CO2 + H2. These proteins include the enzymes carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) and a CO-tolerant hydrogenase. In this paper, we present the complete amino acid sequence for the large subunit of this hydrogenase and describe the properties of the crude enzyme in relation to other known hydrogenases. The amino acid sequence deduced from the CO-induced hydrogenase large-subunit gene (cooH) shows significant similarity to large subunits of other Ni-Fe hydrogenases. The closest similarity is with HycE (58% similarity and 37% identity) from Escherichia coli, which is the large subunit of an Ni-Fe hydrogenase (isoenzyme 3). The properties of the CO-induced hydrogenase are unique. It is exceptionally resistant to inhibition by carbon monoxide. It also exhibits a very high ratio of H2 evolution to H2 uptake activity compared with other known hydrogenases. The CO-induced hydrogenase is tightly membrane bound, and its inhibition by nonionic detergents is described. Finally, the presence of nickel in the hydrogenase is addressed. Analysis of wild-type R. rubrum grown on nickel-depleted medium indicates a requirement for nickel for hydrogenase activity. However, analysis of strain UR294 (cooC insertion mutant defective in nickel insertion into CODH) shows that independent nickel insertion mechanisms are utilized by hydrogenase and CODH. CooH lacks the C-terminal peptide that is found in other Ni-Fe hydrogenases; in other systems, this peptide is cleaved during Ni processing.
Project description:Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) catalyzes the reversible oxidation of CO to CO2 at a nickel-iron-sulfur cluster (the C-cluster). CO oxidation follows a ping-pong mechanism involving two-electron reduction of the C-cluster followed by electron transfer through an internal electron transfer chain to external electron acceptors. We describe 13C NMR studies demonstrating a CODH-catalyzed steady-state exchange reaction between CO and CO2 in the absence of external electron acceptors. This reaction is characterized by a CODH-dependent broadening of the 13CO NMR resonance; however, the chemical shift of the 13CO resonance is unchanged, indicating that the broadening is in the slow exchange limit of the NMR experiment. The 13CO line broadening occurs with a rate constant (1080 s-1 at 20 degrees C) that is approximately equal to that of CO oxidation. It is concluded that the observed exchange reaction is between 13CO and CODH-bound 13CO2 because 13CO line broadening is pH-independent (unlike steady-state CO oxidation), because it requires a functional C-cluster (but not a functional B-cluster) and because the 13CO2 line width does not broaden. Furthermore, a steady-state isotopic exchange reaction between 12CO and 13CO2 in solution was shown to occur at the same rate as that of CO2 reduction, which is approximately 750-fold slower than the rate of 13CO exchange broadening. The interaction between CODH and the inhibitor cyanide (CN-) was also probed by 13C NMR. A functional C-cluster is not required for 13CN- broadening (unlike for 13CO), and its exchange rate constant is 30-fold faster than that for 13CO. The combined results indicate that the 13CO exchange includes migration of CO to the C-cluster, and CO oxidation to CO2, but not release of CO2 or protons into the solvent. They also provide strong evidence of a CO2 binding site and of an internal proton transfer network in CODH. 13CN- exchange appears to monitor only movement of CN- between solution and its binding to and release from CODH.