Gut microbiota and plasma metabolites associated with diabetes in women with, or at high risk for, HIV infection.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Gut microbiota alteration has been implicated in HIV infection and metabolic disorders. The relationship between gut microbiota and diabetes has rarely been studied in HIV-infected individuals, who have excess risk of metabolic disorders. METHODS:Our study during 2015-2016 enrolled predominantly African Americans and Hispanics in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. We studied 28 women with long-standing HIV infection under antiretroviral therapy and 20 HIV-uninfected, but at high risk of infection, women (16 HIV+ and 6 HIV- with diabetes). Fecal samples were analyzed by sequencing prokaryotic16S rRNA gene. Plasma metabolomics profiling was performed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. FINDINGS:No significant differences in bacterial ?- or ?-diversity were observed by diabetes or HIV serostatus (all P?>?.1). Relative abundances of four genera (Finegoldia, Anaerococcus, Sneathia, and Adlercreutzia) were lower in women with diabetes compared to those without diabetes (all P??0.05). Anaerococcus, known to produce butyrate which is involved in anti-inflammation and glucose metabolism, showed an inverse correlation with kynurenine/tryptophan ratio (r?=?-0.38, P?
Project description:HIV infection and type 2 diabetes are associated with altered gut microbiota, chronic inflammation, and increased cardiovascular risk. We aimed to investigate the combined effect of these diseases on gut microbiota composition and related metabolites, and a potential relation to endothelial dysfunction in individuals with HIV-infection only (n?=?23), diabetes only (n?=?16) or both conditions (n?=?21), as well as controls (n?=?24). Fecal microbiota was analyzed by Illumina sequencing of the 16?S rRNA gene. Markers of endothelial dysfunction (asymmetric dimethylarginine [ADMA]), tryptophan catabolism (kynurenine/tryptophan [KT]-ratio), and inflammation (neopterin) were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The combination of HIV and type 2 diabetes was associated with reduced gut microbiota diversity, increased plasma KT-ratio and neopterin. Microbial genes related to tryptophan metabolism correlated with KT-ratio and low alpha diversity, in particular in HIV-infected with T2D. In multivariate analyses, KT-ratio associated with ADMA (??=?4.58 [95% CI 2.53-6.63], p?<?0.001), whereas microbiota composition per se was not associated with endothelial dysfunction. Our results indicate that tryptophan catabolism may be related to endothelial dysfunction, with a potentially detrimental interaction between HIV and diabetes. The potential contribution of gut microbiota and the impact for cardiovascular risk should be further explored in prospective studies powered for clinical end points.
Project description:Dysbiosis and a dysregulated gut immune barrier function contributes to chronic immune activation in HIV-1 infection. We investigated if nutritional supplementation with vitamin D and phenylbutyrate could improve gut-derived inflammation, selected microbial metabolites, and composition of the gut microbiota. Treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected individuals (n = 167) were included from a double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled trial of daily 5000 IU vitamin D and 500 mg phenylbutyrate for 16 weeks (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01702974). Baseline and per-protocol plasma samples at week 16 were analysed for soluble CD14, the antimicrobial peptide LL-37, kynurenine/tryptophan-ratio, TMAO, choline, and betaine. Assessment of the gut microbiota involved 16S rRNA gene sequencing of colonic biopsies. Vitamin D + phenylbutyrate treatment significantly increased 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (p < 0.001) but had no effects on sCD14, the kynurenine/tryptophan-ratio, TMAO, or choline levels. Subgroup-analyses of vitamin D insufficient subjects demonstrated a significant increase of LL-37 in the treatment group (p = 0.02), whereas treatment failed to significantly impact LL-37-levels in multiple regression analysis. Further, no effects on the microbiota was found in number of operational taxonomic units (p = 0.71), Shannon microbial diversity index (p = 0.82), or in principal component analyses (p = 0.83). Nutritional supplementation with vitamin D + phenylbutyrate did not modulate gut-derived inflammatory markers or microbial composition in treatment-naïve HIV-1 individuals with active viral replication.
Project description:Background:Tryptophan catabolism, measured by the kynurenine:tryptophan (kyn/trp) ratio, is associated with gut microbiota alterations in people with HIV (PWH). We examined the association of the kyn/trp ratio with liver fibrosis in women with/without HIV infection. Methods:The plasma kyn/trp ratio was measured in 137 HIV-monoinfected, HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected, and uninfected women in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Fibrosis was estimated using FIB-4 in all participants and vibration-controlled transient elastography liver stiffness measurement (LSM) in a subset (n = 83). We used multivariable linear regression to evaluate the associations of infection status and kyn/trp ratio with relative differences in fibrosis estimates. Results:The median kyn/trp ratio (interquartile range) was 0.056 (0.045-0.066) in HIV/HCV-coinfected, 0.038 (0.032-0.046) in HIV-monoinfected, and 0.031 (0.025-0.034) in uninfected women (P < .001). After adjustment for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and metabolic factors, HIV monoinfection and HIV/HCV coinfection were associated with 37% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9% to 73%) and 164% (95% CI, 100% to 250%) greater FIB-4, respectively. When kyn/trp ratio was included, higher kyn/trp ratio was associated with greater FIB-4 (27% per kyn/trp doubling; 95% CI, 5% to 53%), and the associations of HIV monoinfection (29% per kyn/trp doubling; 95% CI, 2% to 63%) and HIV/HCV coinfection (123% per kyn/trp doubling; 95% CI, 63% to 203%) with greater FIB-4 were attenuated. Among those with LSM, higher kyn/trp ratio was associated with greater LSM (43% per kyn/trp doubling; 95% CI, 15% to 79%) in multivariable analysis. Conclusions:The kyn/trp ratio is elevated in PWH and is associated with greater liver fibrosis. Tryptophan catabolism may modify the relationships between HIV, HCV, and fibrosis.
Project description:The natural course of Chlamydia trachomatis urogenital tract infections varies between individuals. While protective immunity can occur, some women can become reinfected, contributing to the development of severe pathology. While the reasons for these differences are unknown, an individual's response to induced interferon-? (IFN-?) is suggested to be critical. IFN-? induction of the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, which depletes tryptophan, may be the key. One hypothesis suggests that indole-producing bacteria in the vaginal microbiota can provide a substrate for the Chlamydia to synthesize tryptophan, rescuing the Chlamydia from host IFN-? attack. We studied a cohort of 25 women who were either, Chlamydia negative, Chlamydia positive with a single infection, or Chlamydia positive with repeated infection, to test our hypothesis. We characterized their vaginal microbiota, cytokine response, as well as their tryptophan, kynurenine and indole concentrations directly in vaginal secretions. We found that C. trachomatis urogenital tract infections either initial or repeat infections, were associated with elevated vaginal kynurenine/tryptophan ratios, primarily as a result of elevated kynurenine levels. In addition, vaginal microbiota of community state type (CST) IV showed significantly lower vaginal tryptophan levels compared to CST I and III, which might be related to a higher abundance of indole producers found within this group. Furthermore, we found a higher abundance of indole producers in women who cleared their Chlamydia infection post antibiotic treatment. This study demonstrates for the first time in vivo, the association between high vaginal kynurenine/tryptophan ratios and C. trachomatis infections. In addition, tryptophan depletion was associated with vaginal microbiota of CST IV.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection causes impairment of the gastrointestinal barrier, with substantial depletion of CD4+ T cells in the gut. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) restores CD4+ counts and may have beneficial effects on gut microbiota in adults. Little is known about effect of long-term ART on gut microbiome in HIV-infected children. We investigated composition of gut microbiota in HIV-infected and -uninfected children and assessed associations between gut microbiota and patient characteristics. METHODS:In a cross-sectional study, rectal swabs were collected from 177 HIV-infected and 103 HIV-uninfected controls. Gut microbial composition was explored using 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid sequencing. RESULTS:Human immunodeficiency virus-infected children had significantly lower alpha-diversity and higher beta-diversity compared to HIV-uninfected. No association was observed between microbiome diversity and CD4+ T-cell count, HIV viral load, or HIV-associated chronic lung disease. We found enriched levels of Corynebacterium (P < .01), Finegoldia (P < .01), and Anaerococcus (P < .01) in HIV-infected participants and enrichment of Enterobacteriaceae (P = .02) in participants with low CD4+ counts (<400 cells/mm3). Prolonged ART-treatment (?10 years) was significantly associated with a richer gut microbiota by alpha diversity. CONCLUSIONS:Human immunodeficiency virus-infected children have altered gut microbiota. Prolonged ART may restore the richness of the microbiota closer to that of HIV-uninfected children.
Project description:Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by anomalous functioning of the immuno regulatory, tryptophan-catabolic enzyme indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase 1 (IDO1). In T1D, the levels of kynurenine—the first byproduct of tryptophan degradation via IDO1—are significantly lower than in nondiabetic controls, such that defective immune regulation by IDO1 has been recognized as potentially contributing to autoimmunity in T1D. Because tryptophan catabolism—and the production of immune regulatory catabolites—also occurs via the gut microbiota, we measured serum levels of tryptophan, and metabolites thereof, in pediatric, diabetic patients after a 3-month oral course of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Daily administration of the probiotic significantly affected circulating levels of tryptophan as well as the qualitative pattern of metabolite formation in the diabetic patients, while it decreased inflammatory cytokine production by the patients. This study suggests for the first time that a probiotic treatment may affect systemic tryptophan metabolism and restrain proinflammatory profile in pediatric T1D.
Project description:Gut mucosal layers are crucial in maintaining the gut barrier function. Gut microbiota regulate homeostasis of gut mucosal layer via gut immune cells such as ROR?t (+) IL-22(+) ILC3 cells, which can influence the proliferation of mucosal cells and the production of mucin. However, it is unclear how gut microbiota execute this regulation. Here we show that lactobacilli promote gut mucosal formation by producing L-Ornithine from arginine. L-Ornithine increases the level of aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand L-kynurenine produced from tryptophan metabolism in gut epithelial cells, which in turn increases ROR?t (+)IL-22(+) ILC3 cells. Human REG3A transgenic mice show an increased proportion of L-Ornithine producing lactobacilli in the gut contents, suggesting that gut epithelial REG3A favors the expansion of L-Ornithine producing lactobacilli. Our study implicates the importance of a crosstalk between arginine metabolism in Lactobacilli and tryptophan metabolism in gut epithelial cells in maintaining gut barrier.
Project description:The composition of the gut microbiota can be influenced by dietary composition. In pregnancy, the maternal gut microbiome has associations with maternal and infant metabolic status. There is little known regarding the impact of a vegetarian diet in pregnancy on maternal gut microbiota. This study explored the gut microbiota profile in women who were vegetarian or omnivorous in early gestation. Women were selected from participants in the Study of PRobiotics IN Gestational diabetes (SPRING) randomised controlled trial. Nine women identified as vegetarians were matched to omnivorous women in a 1:2 ratio. Microbiota analyses were performed using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and analysed using the Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology (QIIME) and Calypso software tools. There was no difference in alpha diversity, but beta diversity was slightly reduced in vegetarians. There were differences seen in the relative abundance of several genera in those on a vegetarian diet, specifically a reduction in Collinsella, Holdemania, and increases in the relative abundances of Roseburia and Lachnospiraceae. In this sub-analysis of gut microbiota from women in early pregnancy, a vegetarian as compared to omnivorous diet, was associated with a different gut microbiome, with features suggesting alterations in fermentation end products from a mixed acid fermentation towards more acetate/butyrate.
Project description:The fructooligosaccharide 1-kestose cannot be hydrolyzed by gastrointestinal enzymes, and is instead fermented by the gut microbiota. Previous studies suggest that 1-kestose promotes increases in butyrate concentrations in vitro and in the ceca of rats. Low levels of butyrate-producing microbiota are frequently observed in the gut of patients and experimental animals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, little is known about the role of 1-kestose in increasing the butyrate-producing microbiota and improving the metabolic conditions in type 2 diabetic animals. Here, we demonstrate that supplementation with 1-kestose suppressed the development of diabetes in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, possibly through improved glucose tolerance. We showed that the cecal contents of rats fed 1-kestose were high in butyrate and harbored a higher proportion of the butyrate-producing genus Anaerostipes compared to rats fed a control diet. These findings illustrate how 1-kestose modifications to the gut microbiota impact glucose metabolism of T2D, and provide a potential preventative strategy to control glucose metabolism associated with dysregulated insulin secretion.
Project description:Progressive HIV infection is characterized by dysregulation of the intestinal immune barrier, translocation of immunostimulatory microbial products, and chronic systemic inflammation that is thought to drive progression of disease to AIDS. Elements of this pathologic process persist despite viral suppression during highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and drivers of these phenomena remain poorly understood. Disrupted intestinal immunity can precipitate dysbiosis that induces chronic inflammation in the mucosa and periphery of mice. However, putative microbial drivers of HIV-associated immunopathology versus recovery have not been identified in humans. Using high-resolution bacterial community profiling, we identified a dysbiotic mucosal-adherent community enriched in Proteobacteria and depleted of Bacteroidia members that was associated with markers of mucosal immune disruption, T cell activation, and chronic inflammation in HIV-infected subjects. Furthermore, this dysbiosis was evident among HIV-infected subjects undergoing HAART, and the extent of dysbiosis correlated with activity of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan catabolism and plasma concentrations of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), two established markers of disease progression. Gut-resident bacteria with capacity to catabolize tryptophan through the kynurenine pathway were found to be enriched in HIV-infected subjects, strongly correlated with kynurenine levels in HIV-infected subjects, and capable of kynurenine production in vitro. These observations demonstrate a link between mucosal-adherent colonic bacteria and immunopathogenesis during progressive HIV infection that is apparent even in the setting of viral suppression during HAART. This link suggests that gut-resident microbial populations may influence intestinal homeostasis during HIV disease.