Urban-Rural Disparity in Cancer Incidence, Mortality, and Survivals in Shanghai, China, During 2002 and 2015.
ABSTRACT: Introduction: Disparities in the incidence, mortality, and survival of cancer types between urban and rural areas in China reflect the effects of different risk factor exposure, education, and different medical availability. We aimed to characterize the disparities in the incidence, mortality, and survivals of cancer types between urban and rural areas in Shanghai, China, 2002-2015. Materials and Methods: The incidence and mortality were standardized by Segi's world standard population. Trends in the incidence and mortality of cancers were compared using annual percent change. The 5-year observed and relative survivals were calculated with life table and Ederer II methods. Results: Age-standardized incidences and mortalities were 212.55/105 and 109.45/105 in urban areas and 210.14/105 and 103.99/105 in rural areas, respectively. Female breast cancer and colorectal cancer occurred more frequently in urban than in rural areas, quite in contrast to liver cancer and cervical cancer. Cancers of lung and bronchus, liver, stomach, and colon and rectum were the leading causes of cancer death in both areas. Age-standardized incidence of female breast cancer and colorectal cancer in urban areas increased while gastric cancer and liver cancer decreased in both areas. Age-standardized mortalities of cancers of breast, esophagus, stomach, colon and rectum, liver, and lung and bronchus decreased in both areas. For all cancers combined, the 5-year observed and relative survivals of cancer patients were higher in urban than in rural areas. The 5-year observed and relative survivals of cancers of liver, pancreas, stomach, brain and central nervous system (CNS), and prostate were higher in urban than in rural areas. The 5-year observed and relative survivals of cervical cancer were higher in rural than in urban areas. Conclusions: Factors promoting female breast cancer and colorectal cancer in urban areas and liver cancer and cervical cancer in rural areas should be specifically intervened in cancer prophylaxis. Improved medical services can greatly prolong the survival of major cancers in rural areas.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>With the rapid development of the socioeconomic status, the mortality of several cancers has been changed in China during the past 30 years. We aimed to estimate the trends of mortality and years of life lost (YLLs) of various cancers in urban and rural areas of China from 1990 to 2017.<h4>Methods</h4>The mortality data were collected from Chinese yearbooks and the age structure of population from the Chinese sixth population census were used as reference to calculate age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) and YLLs rates. Joinpoint regression analysis was implemented to calculate the annual percent change (APC) of mortality rates and YLL rates for cancers. YLLs owing to premature death were calculated as age-specific cancer deaths multiplied by the reference life expectancy at birth of 80 years for male and 82.5 years for female.<h4>Results</h4>The ASMRs of all cancers showed significant decreasing trends for urban residents from 1990 to 2017, such downward trend without significance was also observed among rural residents. Interestingly, ASMRs of lung cancer and breast cancer have raised continuously in rural areas since 1990. The age-standardized YYL rates for urban and rural residents decreased with 1.02% and 0.85% per year, respectively. YLLs in rural areas were higher than those in urban areas, whereas YLLs of urban outstripped those of rural finally with the increasing in YLLs of urban areas (216.71% for men and 207.87% for women).<h4>Conclusion</h4>The ASMRs and YLL rates of all cancers have declined in urban and rural areas from 1990 to 2017. YLLs increased in urban areas and remained higher level in rural areas after 2014 year. Preventive measures should be strengthened to against cancer, especially for lung cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Esophageal cancer is among the leading cancer types in Inner Mongolia. This study aimed to investigate the incidence and mortality rates of esophageal cancer in 2015 and the trends in these rates in the 2010-2015 period in this region. METHODS:National Colorectal Cancer Roundtable (NCCR) screening methods and criteria were used to extract data from 10 cancer registries stratified by area (urban/rural), sex, and age group. The Chinese standard population in 2000 and Segi's world population were used to calculate age-standardized rates. The annual percentage change (APC) in these rates was calculated using the Joinpoint Regression Program. RESULTS:In 2015, Inner Mongolia had 4324 new cases (4027 male vs. 297 female patients) and 3559 deaths (3300 male vs. 259 female patients) from esophageal cancer. The crude incidence, age-standardized incidence by Chinese population, age-standardized incidence by world population, and cumulative incidence were 13.45/100?000, 9.92/100?000, 10.18/100?000, and 1.30%, respectively. The corresponding figures for mortality were 11.32/100?000, 8.35/100?000, 8.53/100?000, and 1.04%. The incidence and mortality increased with age between 40 and 80?years. The rates in rural dwellers, especially men, showed negative APC (-13.25% vs. -11.08%; P?<?0.05). CONCLUSIONS:The incidence and mortality rates of esophageal cancer in Inner Mongolia increased between 2010 and 2015. The rates were higher in men in rural areas, middle-aged and elderly individuals. Prevention and control programs focused on these groups, in addition to early diagnosis and treatment of esophageal cancer, are needed to reduce these rates. KEY POINTS:Significant findings of the study: In Inner Mongolia, incidence and mortality rates of esophageal cancer were higher in urban areas than in rural areas and in men than in women between 2010 and 2015, and in middle-aged and elderly than in younger people. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS:Prevention and control programs, in addition to early diagnosis and treatment of esophageal cancer, should be tailored to specifically target men in rural areas and middle-aged and elderly individuals in order to reduce the incidence and mortality rates of this pathology.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Epidemiological evidence suggests a role for an infectious etiology for cancers in teenagers and young adults (TYAs). We investigated this by describing associations between infection transmission using the population mixing (PM) proxy and incidence of cancers in TYAs in Yorkshire, UK.<h4>Methods</h4>We extracted cancer cases from the Yorkshire Specialist Register of Cancer in Children and Young People from 1990 to 2013 (n = 1929). Using multivariable Poisson regression models (adjusting for effects of deprivation and population density), we investigated whether PM was associated with cancer incidence. We included population mixing-population density interaction terms to examine for differences in effects of PM in urban and rural populations.<h4>Results</h4>Nonsignificant IRRs were observed for leukemias (IRR 1.20, 95% CI 0.91-1.59), lymphomas (IRR 1.09, 95% CI 0.90-1.32), central nervous system tumors (IRR 1.06, 95% CI 0.80-1.40) and germ cell tumors (IRR 1.14, 95% CI 0.92-1.41). The association between PM and cancer incidence did not vary in urban and rural areas.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Study results suggest PM is not associated with incidence of cancers among TYAs. This effect does not differ between rural and urban settings.
Project description:The Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) Policy Model-China, a national scale cardiovascular disease computer simulation model, was used to project future impact of urbanization.Populations and cardiovascular disease incidence rates were stratified into four submodels: North-Urban, South-Urban, North-Rural, and South-Rural. 2010 was the base year, and high and low urbanization rate scenarios were used to project 2030 populations.Rural-to-urban migration, population growth, and aging were projected to more than double cardiovascular disease events in urban areas and increase events by 27.0-45.6% in rural areas. Urbanization is estimated to raise age-standardized coronary heart disease incidence by 73-81 per 100,000 and stroke incidence only slightly.Rural-to-urban migration will likely be a major demographic driver of the cardiovascular disease epidemic in China.
Project description:This study explores the impact of lifestyle and environment on gene expression through whole transcriptome profiling of peripheral blood samples in Fijian population (native Melanesians and Indians) living in the rural and urban areas. 41 individuals (14 urban Melanesians, 10 rural Melanesians and 17 urban Indians) of both gender were sampled under informed consents. Only healthy individuals aged between 18 and 65 were sampled. RNA from each sample was hybridized to an Illumina array. No replicates were done in this study
Project description:BACKGROUND:Thus far, the incidence, mortality, and temporal trend data of oropharyngeal cancers (OPC) in China were few. We estimated the incidence, mortality, and temporal patterns of OPC in China during 2008-2012 according to the data from 135 population-based cancer registries to better understand the epidemiological pattern of OPC and to provide more precise information for OPC control in China. METHODS:According to the data of diagnosed OPC reported to 135 cancer registries during 2008-2012, we calculated age-standardized rate of incidence and mortality by 2000 Chinese standard population (ASRIC and ASRMC) and by 1985 Segi's world standard population (ASRIW and ASRMW) by age, sex, and geographic regions; annual percentage changes of OPC incidence and mortality were calculated using Joinpoint trend analysis. RESULTS:ASRIW and ASRMW were 2.22/100,000 person-years and 0.94/100,000 person-years, respectively. The incidence and mortality in urban areas were higher than those in rural areas. ASRIC and ASRIW of males were higher than those of females. The overall ASRIC of OPC was significantly increased by 6.2% annually between 2003 and 2006 (P?=?0.038), but remained stable between 2007 and 2012 (P?=?0.392). ASRIC and ASRMC of males and in rural areas were significantly increased in the last decade (P?<?0.05), but the rates of females remained stable during the same period (P?>?0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Across multiple cancer registries in China, there was an obvious increase in OPC in the recent decade, especially for incidence and mortality of males and in rural areas, whereas the rates of females remained stable. A healthy lifestyle should be advocated and early diagnosis and early treatment of OPC should be enhanced.
Project description:Cancer incidence rates vary regionally among American Indians (AIs) and Latinos. The goal of this was to identify areas of research necessary to reduce cancer health disparities in AIs and Latinos, the two major racial/ethnic minority groups in Arizona. In an effort to better understand cancer health disparities, cancer incidence rates in AIs and Latinos in Arizona were compared to non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs). Age-adjusted incidence rates (per 100,000) were obtained from the Arizona Cancer Registry and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. Spearman's rank test was used to examine correlation between county-level cancer incidence rates and socio-demographic factors. AIs and Latinos had lower incidence rates of screening for detectable cancers than NHWs. Among older men (age ?65), however, AIs and Latinos had similar prostate cancer incidence rates to NHWs. Some of less common cancers, such as kidney, stomach, liver, and gallbladder, were more frequently diagnosed in AIs and Latinos than NHWs. AIs and Latinos were more likely to be diagnosed with advanced cancer stage, except for cervical cancer. Correlations between prostate and breast cancer incidence rates and percent urban residents as well as correlations between incidence rates of these two cancer types and population size were significantly positive. Poverty levels were inversely correlated with colorectal and lung cancer incidence rates. Our review of cancer incidence rates suggests that socio-demographic factors, such as population size (rural/urban) and poverty levels, have influenced cancer detection and incidence rates in Arizona.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To provide an up-to-date overview of long-term trends of liver cancer mortality and evaluate the effects attributable to age, period and cohort in Chinese population stratified by gender and urban/rural areas. METHODS:Population and liver cancer mortality data were obtained based on the Disease Surveillance Points in China from 1991 to 2014. To examine the time trends of liver cancer mortality by gender in urban and rural areas in China, Joinpoint analysis was used to estimate the annual per cent change. The intrinsic estimator, a method of age-period-cohort analysis to estimate age, period and cohort effects simultaneously, was used to analyse the underlying mechanisms for liver cancer mortality trends in the aforementioned four groups. RESULTS:We observed a significant decline in liver cancer mortality for urban men (average annual per cent change (AAPC)=-1.1%, P<0.05) and urban women (AAPC=-1.4%, P<0.05), while the liver cancer mortality remained stable for rural men (AAPC=-0.1%, P>0.05) and rural women (AAPC=-0.9%, P>0.05). Compared with the 15-19 age group, the liver cancer mortality risk of the 85 and above age group increased 65 and 42 times for urban and rural men, and 102 and 70 times for urban and rural women. From the 1990-1994 period to the 2005-2009 period, the risk increased 56% and 92% for urban and rural men, and 30% and 74% for urban and rural women. Compared with period and cohort effects, age effects were the most influential factor in liver cancer mortality. CONCLUSIONS:As the status of ageing population in China gets worse, the burden caused by liver cancer mortality could still be a great challenge for China in the future. The disparity of liver cancer mortality trends between urban and rural residents can be attributed to period effects, referring to the unequal medical levels and resources between urban and rural areas.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>We conducted spatial analyses to determine the geographic variation of cancer at the neighbourhood level (dissemination areas or DAs) within the area of a single Ontario public health unit, Wellington-Dufferin-Guelph, covering a population of 238,326 inhabitants. Cancer incidence data between 1999 and 2003 were obtained from the Ontario Cancer Registry and were geocoded down to the level of DA using the enhanced Postal Code Conversion File. The 2001 Census of Canada provided information on the size and age-sex structure of the population at the DA level, in addition to information about selected census covariates, such as average neighbourhood income.<h4>Results</h4>Age standardized incidence ratios for cancer and the prevalence of census covariates were calculated for each of 331 dissemination areas in Wellington-Dufferin-Guelph. The standardized incidence ratios (SIR) for cancer varied dramatically across the dissemination areas. However, application of the Moran's I statistic, a popular index of spatial autocorrelation, suggested significant spatial patterns for only two cancers, lung and prostate, both in males (p < 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively). Employing Bayesian hierarchical models, areas in the urban core of the City of Guelph had significantly higher SIRs for male lung cancer than the remainder of Wellington-Dufferin-Guelph; and, neighbourhoods in the urban and surrounding rural areas of Orangeville exhibited significantly higher SIRs for prostate cancer. After adjustment for age and spatial dependence, average household income attenuated much of the spatial pattern of lung cancer, but not of prostate cancer.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This paper demonstrates the feasibility and utility of a systematic approach to identifying neighbourhoods, within the area served by a public health unit, that have significantly higher risks of cancer. This exploratory, ecologic study suggests several hypotheses for these spatial patterns that warrant further investigations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first Canadian study published in the peer-reviewed literature estimating the risk of relatively rare public health outcomes at a very small areal level, namely dissemination areas.