Femoral artery injury during total hip arthroplasty.
ABSTRACT: There are an increasing number of vascular complications after hip replacement, some of which can be life-threatening. However, there are few reports of lower limb ischemic symptoms after undergoing an otherwise uncomplicated classic total hip replacement. We report a patient with low weight who developed postoperative limb ischemia resulting from blood clots caused by insertion of a Hohmann retractor close to small anterior acetabular osteophytes. Ultrasonography and angiography revealed her symptoms to be the result of femoral artery intimal injury with lower extremity arterial thrombosis, which led to pain, numbness, and decreased skin temperature. The patient underwent timely percutaneous intervention with a femoral artery stent, which relieved her symptoms. The discussion reviews femoral artery injury during total hip arthroplasty.
Project description:Vascular injury following total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a rare but known complication. Various vascular lesions have been described in the literature, with arterial intimal damage being uncommon. Despite the recent popularity of the direct anterior approach in THA, only 1 case of iatrogenic vascular injury has been reported. We report 3 cases of common femoral artery intimal damage with thrombosis following direct anterior THA. We propose that misplacement of the anterior retractor in this approach, especially in certain susceptible patients, can lead to vascular damage. Therefore, maintaining a step-wise approach to placing the retractor with caution is essential. One of our cases had a delayed presentation of undetectable arterial pulse, highlighting the significance of regular postoperative vascular examinations.
Project description:Total hip replacement (THR) is a highly successful operation in alleviating pain and improving the overall function of the hip, in end-stage arthritis of the hip, in otherwise fit patients. However, THR as a surgical option in post-traumatic hip arthritis with ipsilateral above-knee amputation is rarely reported.We are presenting a case report of a 30-year-old male, who had previously underwent an above-knee amputation due to road-traffic accident, presenting 24 h after the injury with segmental fracture femur and popliteal artery laceration, for which the limb could not be salvaged. He had an impacted anteroinferior dislocation of the ipsilateral hip with significant cartilage damage of the femoral head which required open reduction. Subsequently, he developed traumatic arthritis of the involved hip which required conversion to an uncemented THR, using a minimally invasive (MIS) anterolateral approach. The preoperative management, surgical technique, and postoperative rehabilitation are described to highlight the technical challenges, these lower limb amputees may present along with review of literature of such rare cases.THR in an above-knee amputee with posttraumatic hip arthritis using MIS technique is an encouraging surgical option for early functional recovery and minimizing surgical complications.
Project description:Objective The objective of this cross-sectional case-control study was to determine the prevalence and size of marginal and subarticular osteophytes in patients with osteoarthritis (OA), and to compare these to that of a control group. Design We investigated femoral heads from 25 patients with OA following hip replacement surgery, and 25 femoral heads from a control group obtained post-mortem. The area and boundary length of the femoral head, marginal osteophytes, and subarticular osteophytes were determined with histomorphometry. Marginal osteophytes were defined histologically as bony projections at the peripheral margin of the femoral head, while subarticular osteophytes were defined as areas of bone that expanded from the normal curvature of the femoral head into the articular cartilage. Results The prevalence of OA patients with marginal- and subarticular osteophytes were 100 and 84%, respectively. Whereas the prevalence of the participants in the control group with marginal- and subarticular osteophytes were 56 and 28%, respectively. The area and boundary length of marginal osteophytes was (median (Interquartile range)) 165.3mm2 (121.4–254.0) mm2 and 75.1?mm (50.8–99.3) mm for patients with OA compared to 0?mm2 (0–0.5) mm2 and 0?mm (0–0.5) mm for the control group (P?<? 0.001). For the subarticular osteophytes, the area and boundary length was 1.0?mm2 (0–4.4) mm2 and 1.4?mm (0–6.5) mm for patients with OA compared to 0?mm2 (0–0.5) mm2 and 0?mm (0–0.5) mm for the control group (P?<? 0.001). Conclusion As expected, both marginal- and subarticular osteophytes at the femoral head, were more frequent and larger in patients with OA than in the control group. However, in the control group, subarticular osteophytes were more prevalent than expected from the minor osteophytic changes at the femoral head margin, which may suggest that subarticular osteophytes are an early degenerative phenomenon that ultimately might develop into clinical osteoarthritis.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>The direct anterior approach (DAA) to total hip arthroplasty (THA) has a known learning curve, largely due to difficulty achieving exposure and visualization of the acetabulum and proximal femur for joint preparation. There is paucity of information on limb positioning and the degree of angulation at which the limb is positioned for adequate visualization. This study aimed to identify the mean angles of limb positioning necessary for adequate exposure when using two Mueller retractors for femoral preparation using traditional table.<h4>Materials & methods</h4>A surgeon performed a DAA THA on 11 cadaveric hemipelves, exposing the femoral canal with two simple, robust Mueller retractors. The degree of external rotation and extension of the hip was measured.<h4>Results</h4>Of the 11, the mean age was 77.6 years and mean BMI was 27.95. The mean external rotation angle was 56.5?±?13.5°. The mean extension angle was 19.9?±?6.6°.<h4>Discussion & conclusion</h4>The key technical step in this study incorporated a second robust Mueller retractor on the posterior aspect of the greater trochanter, providing maximum leverage to deliver the femur and achieve visibility while reducing angles of limb positioning thereby reducing complications, and ultimately lessening the learning curve.
Project description:Vascular injuries after total knee arthroplasty are highly infrequent, especially in the femoral artery. These lesions can cause severe damage. Early diagnosis is important to prevent catastrophic complications (such as loss of limb) and to offer adequate treatment. This study reports a patient with femoral artery injury of unknown etiology after total knee arthroplasty. Progressive and insidious symptoms from deep vein thrombosis to compartment syndrome made management even more challenging, requiring amputation of the extremity.
Project description:Sciatic nerve injuries associated with acetabular fractures may be a result of the initial trauma or injury at the time of surgical reconstruction. Patients may present with a broad range of symptoms ranging from radiculopathy to foot drop. There are several posttraumatic, perioperative, and postoperative causes for sciatic nerve palsy including fracture-dislocation of the hip joint, excessive tension or inappropriate placement of retractors, instrument- or implant-related complications, heterotopic ossification, hematoma, and scarring. Natural history studies suggest that nerve recovery depends on several factors. Prevention requires attention to intraoperative limb positioning, retractor placement, and instrumentation. Somatosensory evoked potentials and spontaneous electromyography may help minimize iatrogenic nerve injury. Heterotopic ossification prophylaxis can help reduce delayed sciatic nerve entrapment. Reports on sciatic nerve decompression are not uniformly consistent but appear to have better outcomes for sensory than motor neuropathy.
Project description:We report on a female patient who underwent a standard radical mastectomy and radiation therapy for right breast cancer at the age of 50 years without recurrence. At the age of 76 years, she started to experience fatigue in the right upper limb. The symptom gradually worsened and she was admitted to our hospital for further investigation. With computed tomography scan and angiography, we observed a high degree of subclavian artery (SCA) stenosis and asymptomatic right common carotid artery (CCA) stenosis. After undergoing carotid artery stenting to the right CCA stenosis at another hospital, we performed percutaneous transluminal angioplasty to SCA. Although we chose to treat the highly calcified lesion only with a balloon and slightly decreased the degree of stenosis, her symptoms clearly improved. Since arterial severely stenotic lesions were limited in the area of radiation exposure while other part of the arteries looked smooth and relatively free of sclerosis, it was highly suspected that arterial injury was induced by radiation. There are few reports of radiation-induced injury of upper limbs. However, this case suggests that we need to consider the possibility of radiation-induced arterial injury in patients with a history of radiation therapy. <Learning objective: There are few reports regarding upper limb arterial stenosis and occlusion due to radiation-induced arterial injury. However, the underlying mechanism might be overlooked because the symptoms such as fatigue and numbness of the upper limb caused by arterial stenosis and occlusion resembled those of lymphedema and nerve disorders that frequently occur after mastectomy. This case suggests that we need to consider the possibility of radiation-induced arterial injury in the patients with a history of radiation therapy.>.
Project description:Vascular injuries around the hip are uncommon with hip arthroplasty. However, given the close proximity of the external iliac and femoral vessels to the hip, iatrogenic injury may occur. We describe a case of superficial femoral artery injury occurring during revision THA using an extended trochanteric osteotomy, bulk allograft, and cerclage wires. We review the available literature on vascular injury in hip arthroplasty and illustrate the great care necessary when placing cerclage wires and the importance of prompt recognition of these potentially devastating complications.
Project description:To describe differences in radiographic features of hip osteoarthritis (OA) between African American and white men and women.We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of radiographic hip OA using baseline data from the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project, using Kellgren/Lawrence (K/L) grade, and the presence, location, and severity of 4 individual radiographic features (joint space narrowing [JSN], subchondral cysts, sclerosis, and osteophytes). Sex-specific logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between race and individual radiographic features, adjusting for age, body mass index, education, and prior hip injury. Robust variance estimators via generalized estimating equations were used to account for correlation between hips from the same individual.The sample (n = 2,739) comprised 57% women and 31% African American participants. Among women, African Americans and whites had a similar prevalence of hip OA, defined as K/L grade > or =2 (23% versus 22%), but African American women were significantly more likely to have superior or medial JSN, moderate or severe axial JSN, medial or lateral osteophytes, and subchondral cysts. Among men, 21% of African Americans and 17% of whites had hip OA; African American men were more likely to have superior or medial JSN and lateral osteophytes, but were less likely to have axial JSN.Individual radiographic features and patterns of hip OA differed by race among women and men, suggesting the possibility of anatomic and/or developmental variation in the hip joint. African Americans have an increased frequency of features that have been predictive of hip replacement in other populations, a finding worthy of further study.
Project description:The aetiology of knee pain in osteoarthritis (OA) is heterogeneous and its relationship with structural changes and function is unclear. Our goal was to determine the prevalence of wide-area scanned ultrasound-defined knee OA structural features and their association with pain and functional impairment in 79 symptomatic and 63 asymptomatic subjects. All subjects underwent ultrasound knee wide-area scanning and the severity of articular cartilage degeneration, the presence and size of osteophytes, and meniscal extrusion were evaluated. Subjects filled in a self-administrated questionnaire on present knee pain, and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) on clinical symptoms and function over the past week. Cartilage changes were the most prevalent followed by lateral meniscal extrusion, osteophytes and medial meniscal extrusion. The global femoral cartilage grade associated strongly with pain and the WOMAC index. Site-specifically, early medial cartilage changes and thinning in sulcus and lateral site were associated with symptoms. The presence of femoral lateral osteophytes was also associated with both outcomes. Using the novel wide-area ultrasound scanning technique, we were able to confirm the negative impact of femoral cartilage OA changes on clinical symptoms. Presence, not necessarily size, of lateral femoral osteophytes was also associated with increased pain and disability.