Prevalence and occupational risk factors of musculoskeletal diseases and pain among dental professionals in Western countries: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:This review aimed at examining the prevalence of musculoskeletal diseases and pain among dental professionals in Western countries. Furthermore, possible occupational risk factors were analyzed. METHODS:The literature search was conducted from June to July 2016, with an update in December 2017 using the databases MEDLINE, CINAHL, LIVIVO, Science Direct, PubMed, and Web of Science. The quality assessment was performed with a standardized instrument consisting of 10 items. A meta-analysis was carried out to compute pooled prevalence rates for musculoskeletal diseases and pain. RESULTS:A total of 41 studies were included in this review; 30 studies met the criteria for the meta-analysis. Prevalence rates of musculoskeletal diseases and pain among dental professionals ranged from 10.8% to 97.9%. The neck was the body region affected most often (58.5%, 95% CI = 46.0-71.0) followed by the lower back (56.4%, 95% CI = 46.1-66.8), the shoulder (43.1%, 95% CI = 30.7-55.5) and the upper back (41.1%, 95% CI = 32.3-49.9). Potential occupational risk factors included an awkward working posture, high number of treated patients, administrative work, vibration, and repetition. CONCLUSIONS:Musculoskeletal diseases and pain are a significant health burden for dental professionals. This study showed high prevalence rates for several body regions. Therefore, suitable interventions for preventing musculoskeletal diseases and pain among dental professionals are needed.
Project description:Background: A broad, holistic approach was performed among informal waste collectors (IWCs) in Korea to understand their complex multidimensional health and safety problems. Methods: In the quantitative study, a survey of IWCs was conducted at four junk shops in Gangbuk-gu, Seoul, and survey data were used to calculate age-standardized prevalence rates based on comparisons with the general population in Korea. A qualitative study was also performed to provide more details on IWCs' occupational and musculoskeletal injuries and depression. Results: In the quantitative study, the age-standardized prevalence rate (aSPR) of occupational injury was higher than that of the general standard population (aSPR: 10.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.19-18.64) and that of blue-collar workers (aSPR: 4.65, 95% CI 2.32-8.32). Regarding musculoskeletal problems, compared to employed populations, the aSPRs of shoulder pain (aSPR: 2.63, 95% CI 1.60-4.06), wrist pain (aSPR: 3.33, 95% CI 1.33-6.86), knee pain (aSPR: 1.51, 95% CI 1.01-2.17), and ankle pain (aSPR: 3.54, 95% CI 1.14-8.26) were higher. Regarding psychological problems, depression (aSPR: 2.55, 95% CI 1.27-4.56) and suicidal or self-harm ideation (aSPR: 2.09, 95% CI 1.11-3.58) were higher compared to general populations. Through the qualitative study and case study on muscular problems, more details on the work environment problems of IWCs were obtained. Conclusions: IWCs are exposed to various occupational hazards and lack proper protection. They show a high prevalence of occupational injury, musculoskeletal disease, and depression.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>With increasing life expectancy in China, no large population-based studies have been done on the trend for musculoskeletal disorders in China. We have investigated the pattern and trend of five major musculoskeletal disorders in China from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017 and its association with sociodemographic index (SDI).<h4>Methods</h4>The main outcome measures were incidence, prevalence, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, low back pain, neck pain, and gout. Average annual percent change (AAPC) and annual percent change (APC) between 1990 and 2017 were analyzed with Joinpoint regression.<h4>Results</h4>The age-standardized rate of incidence, prevalence, and DALYs for the five major musculoskeletal disorders increased with age. For SDI, the age-standardized rate of DALYs was zigzagged increasing for rheumatoid arthritis and curvilinear increasing for gout, curvilinear decreasing for low back pain, and reaching to the highest point for osteoarthritis and neck pain with an SDI value of 0.61. The AAPC in age-standardized rate of DALYs indicated an increasing trend for rheumatoid arthritis (0.20, 95% CI 0.07, 0.34), osteoarthritis (0.26, 95% CI 0.20, 0.31), neck pain (0.09, 95% CI 0.07, 0.12), and gout (0.25, 95% CI 0.23, 0.27), but a decreasing trend for low back pain (-?0.96, 95% CI -?0.98, -?0.93). The AAPC of risk factors indicated a decreasing trend in smoking (-?0.14, 95% CI -?0.24, -?0.04) for rheumatoid arthritis, smoking (-?0.22, 95% CI -?0.24, -?0.19) and occupational ergonomic factors (-?1.25, 95% CI -?1.29, -?1.21) for low back pain, and impaired kidney function (-?0.95, 95% CI -?1.00, -?0.90) for gout, but an increasing trend in high body-mass index for osteoarthritis (3.10, 95% CI 3.03, 3.17), low back pain (3.07, 95% CI 2.99, 3.14), and gout (3.12, 95% CI 3.04, 3.20). Comparing the burden of five musculoskeletal diseases in China with the 19 countries of G20, China ranked first to second in the number of DALYs, and 12th to 16th in age-standardized rate of DALYs.<h4>Conclusion</h4>There are remarkably complex temporal patterns in disease burden and risk factors for five major musculoskeletal disorders across past three decades. Population-wide initiatives targeting high body-mass index may mitigate the burden of musculoskeletal disorders.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To estimate obesity prevalence among healthcare professionals in England and compare prevalence with those working outside of the health services. DESIGN:Cross-sectional study based on data from 5?years (2008-2012) of the nationally representative Health Survey for England. SETTING:England. PARTICIPANTS:20?103 adults aged 17-65 years indicating they were economically active at the time of survey classified into four occupational groups: nurses (n=422), other healthcare professionals (n=412), unregistered care workers (n=736) and individuals employed in non-health-related occupations (n=18?533). OUTCOME MEASURE:Prevalence of obesity defined as body mass index ?30.0 with 95% CIs and weighted to reflect the population. RESULTS:Obesity prevalence was high across all occupational groups including: among nurses (25.1%, 95%?CI 20.9% to 29.4%); other healthcare professionals (14.4%,?95% CI 11.0% to 17.8%); non-health-related occupations (23.5%,?95% CI 22.9% to 24.1%); and unregistered care workers who had the highest prevalence of obesity (31.9%, 95% CI 28.4% to 35.3%). A logistic regression model adjusted for sociodemographic composition and survey year indicated that, compared with nurses, the odds of being obese were significantly lower for other healthcare professionals (adjusted OR (aOR) 0.52, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.75) and higher for unregistered care workers (aOR 1.46,?95% CI 1.11 to 1.93). There was no significant difference in obesity prevalence between nurses and people working in non-health-related occupations (aOR 0.94,?95% CI 0.74 to 1.18). CONCLUSIONS:High obesity prevalence among nurses and unregistered care workers is concerning as it increases the risks of musculoskeletal conditions and mental health conditions that are the main causes of sickness absence in health services. Further research is required to better understand the reasons for high obesity prevalence among healthcare professionals in England to inform interventions to support individuals to achieve and maintain a healthy weight.
Project description:Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) constitute one of the main occupational hazards among health care workers. However, few epidemiological studies on work related MSD among nursing professionals have been carried out in Africa. The purpose of this study was to assess the work related musculoskeletal disorders and associated risk factors among nursing professionals in Uganda.This was a cross-sectional study of MSD among 880 nursing professionals from five selected hospitals in Uganda. Data was collected using a questionnaire adapted from the Dutch Musculoskeletal and Nordic Musculoskeletal questionnaires. Descriptive (mean, standard deviation and percentages) and inferential (Chi square test and logistic regression analysis) statistics were used to analyse data. Alpha level was set at p?<?0.05.A total of 741 completed questionnaires were analysed (response rate 85.4%). The average age of the respondents was 35.4 (SD 10.7) years and a majority were female (85.7%). The average working hours per week was 43.7 (SD 18.9 hours). The 12-month period-prevalence of MSD at anybody site was 80.8%. The most common site of MSD was the lower back (61.9%). Significant risk factors for reported MSD included often working in a slightly bent posture (adjOR 2.25, 95% CI 1.20-4.26), often working in a slightly twisted posture for long (adjOR 1.97, 95% CI 1.03-3.77), mental exhaustion (adjOR 2.05, 95% CI 1.17-3.5), being absent from the work station for more than 6 months due to illness or an accident (adjO|R, 4.35, 95% CI 1.44-13.08) and feeling rested after a break (adjOR 2.09, 95% CI 1.16-3.76).Musculoskeletal disorders affect more than 80% of nursing professionals in Uganda with the most commonly, affected site being the lower back. Significant risk factors for MSD include; being absent from the work station for more than 6 months due to illness or an accident, working in awkward postures, pushing/pulling of heavy loads and mental exhaustion. There is a need for greater advocacy, better working conditions and adoption of strategies to reduce occupational injuries.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>Studies from western countries show that dentists are vulnerable to work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) of the neck and upper extremities, but little is known about their epidemiology among members of this rapidly growing profession in China. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of WMSDs and identify potential risk factors associated with their occurrence in the dental profession in China.<h4>Setting and participants</h4>A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 52 different hospitals in a large metropolitan city in China. A total of 304 questionnaires were distributed to respondents identified via stratified random sampling and 272 dentists (121 females and 151 males) completed the survey. The response rate was 89.5%.<h4>Outcomes</h4>Visual analogue score was used to record neck and upper limb musculoskeletal symptoms on a body chart. Work-related risk factors, including physical and psychosocial factors, were accounted for in the regression analysis.<h4>Results</h4>88% of the dentists reported at least one musculoskeletal disorder and 83.8% suffered from neck pain. In the multivariate analyses, working hours per day were associated with neck pain (OR=1.43; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.98). Inability to select the appropriate size of dental instrument was associated with shoulder (OR=2.07; 95% CI 1.00 to 4.32) and wrist/hand (OR=2.47; 95% CI 1.15 to 5.32) pain. As for psychosocial factors, high job demand was associated with symptoms in the shoulder (OR=1.09; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.18), elbow (OR=1.11; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.19) and wrist/hand (OR=1.09; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.17). Regular physical exercise was associated with decreased neck pain (OR=0.37; 95% CI 0.14 to 1.00).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The prevalence of WMSDs among Chinese dentists is high. Specifically, long working hours, inability to select the appropriate size of dental instrument and high job demand are the most significant risk factors.
Project description:Musculoskeletal disorders are very common in the dental practice. This cross-sectional study assessed the nature and prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms (MS) and their associated risk factors among dentists in three types of clinics in Riyadh. A structured, self-administered questionnaire about demographic characteristics, nature of work, and prevalence and frequency of MS was completed by 274 male and 241 female dentists. Chi-square and logistic regression were used to determine the association of MS with a number of important variables. Pain in the lower back (64%) and neck (60%) were the most prevalent MS. Working in the dental colleges' clinics was associated with increased risk of MS (adjusted OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.27-4.18). A stronger association was observed for dentists working in the private clinics (adjusted OR 2.58, 95% CI 1.28-5.17) compared to government clinics. Female dentists were at more risk of MS than the male dentists (OR 1.63, 95%CI 1.02-2.59). The OR of MS for dentists treating more than 10 patients/d was 1.53 (95%CI 0.83-2.81). The higher risk of reported MS in females and for those working in the dental colleges and private clinics underscores the importance of recognition and prevention of MS even early in the dental profession.
Project description:Neck pain is a musculoskeletal condition with high prevalence that may affect the physical, social, and psychological aspects of the individual, contributing to the increase in costs in society and business.To determine the prevalence of neck pain and associated factors in a population-based sample of adults aged 20 and more.Cross-sectional study based on a population survey. A total number of 600 individuals were interviewed in their homes, and the following data were collected: (1) participant characteristics (demographic, socioeconomic, and work-related aspects) using a pre-coded questionnaire; (2) physical activity level using the IPAQ; and (3) musculoskeletal symptoms using the Nordic questionnaire. Descriptive, bivariate, and Poisson regression analyses were performed.The prevalence of neck pain was 20.3% (95% CI 17.3-23.7). The adjusted analyses showed that individuals who were widowers or separated (PR=2.26; 1.42-5.88), had a low income (PR=1.32; 1.22-6.27) or low educational level (PR=1.83; 1.02-5.26), worked while sitting and leaning (PR=1.55; 1.08-2.40), and who reported having two or more diseases (PR=1.71; 1.55-6.31) remained associated with neck pain.This study reveals the high prevalence of neck pain and remarkable association with widowed/separated people who have low income and low educational level, who perform their occupational activities in sitting and leaning positions, and who reported having two or more diseases. Knowledge of these risk factors will contribute to the development of forms of assistance in which neck pain can be prevented and better managed.
Project description:Musculoskeletal diseases and pain (MSDs) are prevalent among dental professionals. They cause a growing inability to work and premature leaving of the occupation. Thus, the objective of this review was to summarize the evidence of ergonomic interventions for the prevention of MSDs among dental professionals. This review was conducted using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The literature search was carried out in May 2018, with an update in April 2019. Scientific databases such as MEDLINE, CINAHL, PubMed and Web of Science as well as reference lists of the included studies were used. Relevant data were extracted from the studies and summarized. The quality assessment was performed using a validated standardized instrument. Eleven studies were included in this review, of which four are of high quality. Eight studies focused on setting prevention strategies. Of those, in five studies, magnification loupes or prismatic spectacles were the subject of ergonomic interventions. Further subjects were the dental chair (n = 2) and dental instruments (n = 1). Three studies evaluated ergonomic training. In all studies, the ergonomic interventions had positive effects on the study outcome. Several ergonomic interventions to prevent MSDs among dental professionals were found to exert a positive effect on the prevalence of MSDs or working posture. This systematic review adds current evidence for the use of prismatic spectacles in order to prevent MSDs among dental professionals. Further intervention studies about the role of ergonomics for the prevention of MSDs among dental professionals are warranted.
Project description:Musculoskeletal pain conditions are common and create substantial burden for the individual and society. While research has shown concordance between couples for risk of some diseases, e.g. heart disease or diabetes, little information is available on such effects for musculoskeletal pain conditions. Our aims were to investigate the presence of concordance between couples for consultations about pain, and to examine theoretical influences on such concordance.This was a 1-year cross-sectional study of musculoskeletal pain consultations in a UK primary care database. In total 27,014 patients (13,507 couples) aged between 30 and 74 years were included. The main outcome measure was the presence of a musculoskeletal morbidity read code indicating a consultation for musculoskeletal conditions (any, back, neck, knee, shoulder, foot, osteoarthritis). Logistic regression was used to test associations with odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI).Patients whose partner had a musculoskeletal pain consultation were also more likely to consult for a musculoskeletal condition (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.12-1.32). This association was found to be strongest for shoulder disorders (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.06-3.47). No significant associations were found for other pain conditions.Results show that partner concordance is present for consultations for some musculoskeletal conditions but not others. Possible explanations for concordance include the shared health behaviours between couples leading to potential heightened awareness of symptoms. Given the high prevalence of musculoskeletal pain within populations, it may be worth considering further the mechanisms that explain partner concordance.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Dental caries, dental pain and reported oral problems influence people's oral quality of life and thus their perceived need for dental care. So far there is scant information as to the psychosocial impacts of dental diseases and the perceived treatment need in child populations of sub-Saharan Africa. OBJECTIVES: Focusing on primary school students in Kilwa, Tanzania, a district deprived of dental services and with low fluoride concentration in drinking water, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of dental pain and oral impacts on daily performances (OIDP), and to describe the distribution of OIDP by socio-demographics, dental caries, dental pain and reported oral problems. The relationship of perceived need estimates with OIDP was also investigated. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008. A total of 1745 students (mean age 13.8 yr, sd = 1.67) completed an extensive personal interview and under-went clinical examination. The impacts on daily performances were assessed using a Kiswahili version of the Child-OIDP instrument and caries experience was recorded using WHO (1997) criteria. RESULTS: A total of 36.2% (41.3% urban and 31.4% rural, p < 0.001) reported at least one OIDP. The prevalence of dental caries was 17.4%, dental pain 36.4%, oral problems 54.1% and perceived need for dental treatment 46.8% in urban students. Corresponding estimates in rural students were 20.8%, 24.4%, 43.3% and 43.8%. Adjusted OR for reporting oral impacts if having dental pain ranged from 2.5 (95% CI 1.8-3.6) (problem smiling) to 4.7 (95% CI 3.4-6.5) (problem sleeping),--if having oral problems, from 1.9 (95% CI 1.3-2.6) (problem sleeping) to 3.8 (95% CI 2.7-5.2) (problem eating) and if having dental caries from 1.5 (95% CI 1.1-2.0) (problem eating) to 2.2 (95% CI 1.5-2.9) (problem sleeping). Students who perceived need for dental care were less likely to be females (OR = 0.8, 95% CI 0.6-0.9) and more likely to have impacts on eating (OR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.4-2.7) and tooth cleaning (OR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.6-2.5). CONCLUSION: Substantial proportions of students suffered from untreated dental caries, oral impacts on daily performances and perceived need for dental care. Dental pain and reported oral problems varied systematically with OIDP across the eight impacts considered. Eating and tooth cleaning problems discriminated between subjects who perceived need for dental treatment and those who did not.