Neuronal nitric oxide synthase and affective disorders.
ABSTRACT: Affective disorders including major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BPD), and general anxiety affect more than 10% of population in the world. Notably, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), a downstream signal molecule of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) activation, is abundant in many regions of the brain such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus, amygdala, dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), locus coeruleus (LC), and hypothalamus, which are closely associated with the pathophysiology of affective disorders. Decreased levels of the neurotransmitters including 5-hydroxytryptamine or serotonin (5-HT), noradrenalin (NA), and dopamine (DA) as well as hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are common pathological changes of MDD, BPD, and anxiety. Increasing data suggests that nNOS in the hippocampus play a crucial role in the etiology of MDD whereas nNOS-related dysregulation of the nitrergic system in the LC is closely associated with the pathogenesis of BPD. Moreover, hippocampal nNOS is implicated in the role of serotonin receptor 1?A (5-HTR1?A) in modulating anxiety behaviors. Augment of nNOS and its carboxy-terminal PDZ ligand (CAPON) complex mediate stress-induced anxiety and disrupting the nNOS-CAPON interaction by small molecular drug generates anxiolytic effect. To date, however, the function of nNOS in affective disorders is not well reviewed. Here, we summarize works about nNOS and its signal mechanisms implicated in the pathophysiology of affective disorders. On the basis of this review, it is suggested that future research should more fully focus on the role of nNOS in the pathomechanism and treatment of affective disorders.
Project description:In neurons, increased protein-protein interactions between neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and its carboxy-terminal PDZ ligand (CAPON) contribute to excitotoxicity and abnormal dendritic spine development, both of which are involved in the development of Alzheimer's disease. In models of Alzheimer's disease, increased nNOS-CAPON interaction was detected after treatment with amyloid-? in vitro, and a similar change was found in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice (a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease), compared with age-matched background mice in vivo. After blocking the nNOS-CAPON interaction, memory was rescued in 4-month-old APP/PS1 mice, and dendritic impairments were ameliorated both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, we demonstrated that S-nitrosylation of Dexras1 and inhibition of the ERK-CREB-BDNF pathway might be downstream of the nNOS-CAPON interaction.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Disruptions in the dopamine system have been observed in psychiatric disorders. Since dopamine is mainly produced in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), elucidating the differences in the VTA neural network across psychiatric disorders would facilitate a greater understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these disorders. However, no study has compared VTA-seed-based functional connectivity across psychiatric disorders. Therefore, we conducted a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) study to perform a seed-based fMRI analysis, using the VTA as a seed.<h4>Methods</h4>We included participants with major depressive disorder (MDD; n = 45), schizophrenia (n = 32), and bipolar disorder (BPD; n = 30), along with healthy control participants (n = 46) who were matched for age, gender, and handedness.<h4>Results</h4>The results showed that patients with MDD and BPD had altered VTA-related connectivity in the superior frontal gyrus, frontal pole regions, hippocampus, cerebellum, and posterior cingulate cortex. Some of these differences in connectivity were also found between affective disorders and schizophrenia; however, there were no differences between the schizophrenia and control groups. Connectivity between the VTA and the hippocampus was correlated with positive symptoms in the schizophrenia group. The connectivity was not associated with medication dose, and the results remained significant after controlling for dose.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The results suggest that altered brain functional connectivity related to VTA networks could be associated with the distinctive pathophysiologies of psychiatric disorders, especially affective disorders.
Project description:To understand the molecular processes that link A? amyloidosis, tauopathy and neurodegeneration, we screened for tau-interacting proteins by immunoprecipitation/LC-MS. We identified the carboxy-terminal PDZ ligand of nNOS (CAPON) as a novel tau-binding protein. CAPON is an adaptor protein of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and activated by the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. We observed accumulation of CAPON in the hippocampal pyramidal cell layer in the AppNL-G-F -knock-in (KI) brain. To investigate the effect of CAPON accumulation on Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, CAPON was overexpressed in the brain of AppNL-G-F mice crossbred with MAPT (human tau)-KI mice. This produced significant hippocampal atrophy and caspase3-dependent neuronal cell death in the CAPON-expressing hippocampus, suggesting that CAPON accumulation increases neurodegeneration. CAPON expression also induced significantly higher levels of phosphorylated, oligomerized and insoluble tau. In contrast, CAPON deficiency ameliorated the AD-related pathological phenotypes in tauopathy model. These findings suggest that CAPON could be a druggable AD target.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:There is limited information on the specificity of associations between parental bipolar disorder (BPD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) and the risk of psychopathology in offspring. The chief aim of the present study was to investigate the association between mood disorder subtypes in the two parents and mental disorders in the offspring. METHODS:A total of 376 offspring (aged 6.0-17.9 years; mean=11.5years) of 72 patients with BPD (139 offspring), 56 patients with MDD (110 offspring), and 66 controls (127 offspring) participated in a family study conducted in two university hospital centers in Switzerland. Probands, offspring, and biological co-parents were interviewed by psychologists blind to proband diagnoses, using a semi-structured diagnostic interview. RESULTS:Rates of mood and anxiety disorders were elevated among offspring of BPD probands (34.5% any mood; 42.5% any anxiety) and MDD probands (25.5% any mood; 44.6% any anxiety) as compared to those of controls (12.6% any mood; 22.8% any anxiety). Moreover, recurrent MDD was more frequent among offspring of BPD probands (7.9%) than those of controls (1.6%). Parental concordance for bipolar spectrum disorders was associated with a further elevation in the rates of mood disorders in offspring (64.3% both parents versus 27.2% one parent). CONCLUSIONS:? These findings provide unique information on the broad manifestations of parental mood disorders in their offspring. The earlier onset and increased risk of recurrent MDD in the offspring of parents with BPD compared to those of controls suggests that the episodicity characterizing BPD may emerge in childhood and adolescence.
Project description:Both gene expression profiling in postmortem human brain and studies using animal models have implicated the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family in affect regulation and suggest a potential role in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). FGF2, the most widely characterized family member, is down-regulated in the depressed brain and plays a protective role in rodent models of affective disorders. By contrast, using three microarray analyses followed by quantitative RT-PCR confirmation, we show that FGF9 expression is up-regulated in the hippocampus of individuals with MDD, and that FGF9 expression is inversely related to the expression of FGF2. Because little is known about FGF9's function in emotion regulation, we used animal models to shed light on its potential role in affective function. We found that chronic social defeat stress, an animal model recapitulating some aspects of MDD, leads to a significant increase in hippocampal FGF9 expression, paralleling the elevations seen in postmortem human brain tissue. Chronic intracerebroventricular administration of FGF9 increased both anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. In contrast, knocking down FGF9 expression in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus using a lentiviral vector produced a decrease in FGF9 expression and ameliorated anxiety-like behavior. Collectively, these results suggest that high levels of hippocampal FGF9 play an important role in the development or expression of mood and anxiety disorders. We propose that the relative levels of FGF9 in relation to other members of the FGF family may prove key to understanding vulnerability or resilience in affective disorders.
Project description:Individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have also been shown to have comorbid lifetime diagnoses of major depressive disorder (MDD; rates greater than 70%), bipolar disorder (rates greater than 10%) and other anxiety disorders (e.g. panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)). In addition, overlap exists in some common genetic variants (e.g. the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4), the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene), and rare variants in genes/chromosomal abnormalities (e.g. the 22q11 microdeletion syndrome) found across the affective/anxiety disorder spectrums. OCD has been proposed as a possible independent entity for DSM-5, but by others thought best retained as an anxiety disorder subtype (its current designation in DSM-IV), and yet by others considered best in the affective disorder spectrum. This review focuses on OCD, a well-studied but still puzzling heterogeneous disorder, regarding alterations in serotonergic, dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in addition to other systems involved, and how related genes may be involved in the comorbidity of anxiety and affective disorders. OCD resembles disorders such as depression, in which gene × gene interactions, gene × environment interactions and stress elements coalesce to yield OC symptoms and, in some individuals, full-blown OCD with multiple comorbid disorders.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Affective disturbances and difficulty in affect regulation are core features of major depressive disorder (MDD) as well as borderline personality disorder (BPD). Whereas depressed individuals are characterised by affective inertia, individuals with BPD are characterised by affective instability. Both groups have been found to use more maladaptive affect regulation strategies than healthy controls. Surprisingly, however, there have been hardly any studies directly comparing these two disorders to disentangle shared and disorder-specific deficits in affective dynamics and affect regulation.Furthermore, theoretical models link deficits in affect regulation to deficits in cognitive control functions. Given that individuals with MDD or BPD are both characterised by impairments in cognitive control, the present study will further examine the link between individual differences in cognitive control and disturbances in affect dynamics and regulation in the daily life of individuals with MDD or BPD.<h4>Methods and analyses</h4>We will use a smartphone application to assess negative and positive affect as well as affect regulation strategies at eight times a day for 7?days. We will further employ four computerised tasks to assess two cognitive control functions, namely interference control and discarding irrelevant information from working memory. Our hypotheses will be tested using a multimethod approach. Power analyses determined a sample size of 159 (53 MDD, 53 BPD, 53 controls) to detect medium effect sizes.<h4>Ethics and dissemination</h4>Ethics approval has been obtained from the Freie Universität Berlin. Data collection started in January 2017 and will last until the end of 2018. Results will be disseminated to relevant psychotherapeutic and patient communities in peer-reviewed journals, and at scientific conferences.
Project description:Previously, we showed an enhanced excitatory (N-methyl d-aspartate receptor-NR(1)) and decreased inhibitory neuronal nitric oxide (NO) synthase (nNOS) influence within the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of rats with chronic heart failure (CHF). Although NR(1) and nNOS are normally linked, they can be disconnected by nNOS sequestering with nNOS-associated protein (CAPON). The aim of this study was to elucidate the underlying mechanism for the disconnection between increased expression of NR(1) and decreased nNOS in the PVN of rats with CHF which leads to enhanced sympathoexcitation.CAPON expression was augmented while nNOS expression was decreased in the PVN of rats with CHF (6-8 weeks after left coronary artery ligation). Angiotensin II (Ang II) type I receptor (AT(1)) antagonist losartan (Los) treatment in rats with CHF reduced renal sympathetic nerve activity with concomitant normalization of protein expression of CAPON and nNOS in the PVN. Los treatment also reversed the blunting of endogenous NO-mediated sympatho-inhibition in rats with CHF. Moreover, Ang II-induced increase in CAPON expression in NG108 neuronal cells was also ameliorated by Los.Blocking AT(1) receptors prevents the overexpression of CAPON and concomitant decrease in nNOS in the PVN, resulting in attenuation of sympathoexcitation commonly observed in CHF. Taken together, our data highlight the importance of altered expression and subsequent interaction of nNOS and CAPON within the PVN, leading to increased sympathoexcitation in CHF. Identifying this crucial nNOS/CAPON interaction regulated by AT(1) receptors may provide an important potential therapeutic target in CHF.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Borderline personality disorder (BPD) and avoidant personality disorder (AvPD) are characterized by hyper-reactivity to negatively-perceived interpersonal cues, yet they differ in degree of affective instability. Recent work has begun to elucidate the neural (structural and functional) and cognitive-behavioral underpinnings of BPD, although some initial studies of brain structure have reached divergent conclusions. AvPD, however, has been almost unexamined in the cognitive neuroscience literature. METHODS:In the present study we investigated group differences among 29 BPD patients, 27 AvPD patients, and 29 healthy controls (HC) in structural brain volumes using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in five anatomically-defined regions of interest: amygdala, hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). We also examined the relationship between individual differences in brain structure and self-reported anxiety and affective instability in each group. RESULTS:We observed reductions in MPFC and ACC volume in BPD relative to HC, with no significant difference among patient groups. No group differences in amygdala volume were found. However, BPD and AvPD patients each showed a positive relationship between right amygdala volume and state-related anxiety. By contrast, in HC there was an inverse relationship between MPFC volume and state and trait-related anxiety as well as between bilateral DLPFC volume and affective instability. LIMITATIONS:Current sample sizes did not permit examination of gender effects upon structure-symptom correlations. CONCLUSIONS:These results shed light on potentially protective, or compensatory, aspects of brain structure in these populations-namely, relatively reduced amygdala volume or relatively enhanced MPFC and DLPFC volume.
Project description:There is a decreased serotonergic function in impulsive aggression and borderline personality disorder (BPD), and genetic association studies suggest a role of serotonergic genes in impulsive aggression and BPD. Only one study has analyzed the association between the tryptophan-hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) gene and BPD. A TPH2 "risk" haplotype has been described that is associated with anxiety, depression and suicidal behavior.We assessed the relationship between the previously identified "risk" haplotype at the TPH2 locus and BPD diagnosis, impulsive aggression, affective lability, and suicidal/parasuicidal behaviors, in a well-characterized clinical sample of 103 healthy controls (HCs) and 251 patients with personality disorders (109 with BPD). A logistic regression including measures of depression, affective lability and aggression scores in predicting "risk" haplotype was conducted.The prevalence of the "risk" haplotype was significantly higher in patients with BPD compared to HCs. Those with the "risk" haplotype have higher aggression and affect lability scores and more suicidal/parasuicidal behaviors than those without it. In the logistic regression model, affect lability was the only significant predictor and it correctly classified 83.1% of the subjects as "risk" or "non-risk" haplotype carriers.We found an association between the previously described TPH2 "risk" haplotype and BPD diagnosis, affective lability, suicidal/parasuicidal behavior, and aggression scores.