Comparative transcriptomic analysis reveals adriamycin-induced apoptosis via p53 signaling pathway in retinal pigment epithelial cells.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:This paper applied a transcriptomic approach to investigate the mechanisms of adriamycin (ADR) in treating proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) using ARPE-19 cells. METHODS:The growth inhibitory effects of ADR on ARPE-19 cells were assessed by sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay and propidium iodide (PI) staining using flow cytometry. The differentially expressed genes between ADR-treated ARPE-19 cells and normal ARPE-19 cells and the signaling pathways involved were investigated by microarray analysis. Mitochondrial function was detected by JC-1 staining using flow cytometry and the Bcl-2/Bax protein family. The phosphorylated histone H2AX (?-H2AX), phosphorylated checkpoint kinase 1 (p-CHK1), and phosphorylated checkpoint kinase 2 (p-CHK2) were assessed to detect DNA damage and repair. RESULTS:ADR could significantly inhibit ARPE-19 cell proliferation and induce caspase-dependent apoptosis in vitro. In total, 4479 differentially expressed genes were found, and gene ontology items and the p53 signaling pathway were enriched. A protein-protein interaction analysis indicated that the TP53 protein molecules regulated by ADR were related to DNA damage and oxidative stress. ADR reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. p53-knockdown restored the activation of c-caspase-3 activity induced by ADR by regulating Bax expression, and it inhibited ADR-induced ARPE-19 cell apoptosis. Finally, the levels of the ?-H2AX, p-CHK1, and p-CHK2 proteins were up-regulated after ADR exposure. CONCLUSIONS:The mechanism of ARPE-19 cell death induced by ADR may be caspase-dependent apoptosis, and it may be regulated by the p53-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction, activating the p53 signaling pathway through DNA damage.
Project description:PUMA is a member of the "BH3-only" branch of the BCL-2 family. Our previous study suggests a therapeutic potential of PUMA in treating ovarian cancer, however, the action mechanism of PUMA remains elusive. In this work, we found that in PUMA adenovirus-infected A2780s ovarian cancer cells, exogenous PUMA was partially accumulated in the cytosol and mainly located to the mitochondria. We further showed that PUMA induces mitochondrial dysfunction-mediated apoptosis and ROS generation through functional BAX in a ROS generating enzyme- and caspase-independent manner irrespective of their p53 status, and results in activation of Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. Furthermore, PUMA induces DNA breaks in ?-H2AX staining, and causes activation of DNA damage-related kinases including ATM, ATR, DNA-PKcs, Chk1 and Chk2, which are correlated with the apoptosis. PUMA also results in ROS-triggered JNK activation. Intriguingly, JNK plays a dual role in both DNA damage response and apoptosis, and has an additional contribution to apoptosis. Taken together, we have provided new insight into the action mechanism by which elevated PUMA first induces ROS generation then results in DNA damage response and JNK activation, ultimately contributing to apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells.
Project description:The current study investigates the cellular events which trigger activation of proapoptotic Bcl-2-associated × protein (Bax) in retinal cell death induced by all-trans-retinal (atRAL). Cellular events which activate Bax, such as DNA damage by oxidative stress and phosphorylation of p53, were evaluated by immunochemical and biochemical methods using ARPE-19 cells, 661 W cells, cultured neural retinas and a retinal degeneration model, Abca4(-/-)Rdh8(-/-) mice. atRAL-induced Bax activation in cultured neural retinas was examined by pharmacological and genetic methods. Other Bax-related cellular events were also evaluated by pharmacological and biochemical methods. Production of 8-OHdG, a DNA damage indicator, and the phosphorylation of p53 at Ser46 were detected prior to Bax activation in ARPE-19 cells incubated with atRAL. Light exposure to Abca4(-/-)Rdh8(-/-) mice also caused the above mentioned events in conditions of short term intense light exposure and regular room lighting conditions. Incubation with Bax inhibiting peptide and deletion of the Bax gene partially protected retinal cells from atRAL toxicity in cultured neural retina. Necrosis was demonstrated not to be the main pathway in atRAL mediated cell death. Bcl-2-interacting mediator and Bcl-2 expression levels were not altered by atRAL in vitro. atRAL-induced oxidative stress results in DNA damage leading to the activation of Bax by phosphorylated p53. This cascade is closely associated with an apoptotic cell death mechanism rather than necrosis.
Project description:The aim of this study was to assess the potential DNA damage response (DDR) to four supravitally used biomarkers Hoechst 33342 (Ho 42), DRAQ5, DyeCycle Violet (DCV), and SYTO 17. A549 cells were exposed to these biomarkers at concentrations generally applied to live cells and their effect on histone H2AX (Ser 139), p53 (Ser15), ATM (Ser1981), and Chk2 (Thr68) phosphorylation was assessed using phospho-specific Abs. Short-term treatment with Ho 42 led to modest degree of ATM activation with no evidence of H2AX, Chk2, or p53 phosphorylation. However, pronounced ATM, Chk2, and p53 phosphorylation and perturbed G(2) progression were seen after 18 h. While short-term treatment with DRAQ5 induced ATM activation with no effect on H2AX, Chk2, and p53, dramatic changes marked by a high degree of H2AX, ATM, Chk2, and p53 phosphorylation, all occurring predominantly in S phase cells, and a block in cell cycle progression, were seen after 18 h exposure. These changes suggest that the DRAQ5-induced DNA lesions may become converted into double-strand DNA breaks during replication. Exposure to DCV also led to an increase in the level of activated ATM and Chk2 as well as of phosphorylated p53 and accumulation of cells in G(2)M and S phase. Exposure to SYTO 17 had no significant effect on any of the measured parameters. The data indicate that supravital use of Ho 42, DRAQ5, and DCV induces various degrees of DDR, including activation of ATM, Chk2 and p53, which may have significant consequences on regulatory cell cycle pathways and apoptosis.
Project description:Three new oxoaporphine Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes 1-3 have been synthesized and fully characterized. 1-3 have similar mononuclear structures with the metal and ligand ratio of 1:2. 1-3 exhibited higher cytotoxicity than the OD ligand and cisplatin against HepG2, T-24, BEL-7404, MGC80-3 and SK-OV-3/DDP cells, with IC50 value of 0.23-4.31??M. Interestingly, 0.5??M 1-3 significantly caused HepG2 arrest at S-phase, which was associated with the up-regulation of p53, p21, p27, Chk1 and Chk2 proteins, and decrease in cyclin A, CDK2, Cdc25A, PCNA proteins. In addition, 1-3 induced HepG2 apoptosis via a caspase-dependent mitochondrion pathway as evidenced by p53 activation, ROS production, Bax up-regulation and Bcl-2 down-regulation, mitochondrial dysfunction, cytochrome c release, caspase activation and PARP cleavage. Furthermore, 3 inhibited tumor growth in HepG2 xenograft model, and displayed more safety profile in vivo than cisplatin.
Project description:2-Ethylphenyl 4-(3-ethylureido)benzenesulfonate (SFOM-0046) is a novel anticancer agent that arrests cell cycle in S-phase and causes DNA replication stress leading to the phosphorylation of H2AX into ?-H2AX. First, using the M21, HT29, HT-1080 and HeLa cell lines, we confirmed that S-phase cell cycle arrest and ?-H2AX foci induction by SFOM-0046 is a general mechanism occurring in diverse cancer cell lines. In addition to ?-H2AX, SFOM-0046 activates preferentially ATR-Chk1 in M21 and HT29 cells while both ATR-Chk1 and ATM-Chk2 pathways are activated in HCT116 cells. Co-localization of SFOM-0046-induced 53BP1 foci with ?-H2AX foci validates that the DNA damage generated corresponds to double-strand-breaks (DSBs). Consistent with an S-phase arrest, SFOM-0046 treatment induces RAD51 foci formation but not DNA-PKcs foci, confirming that homologous recombination is the major DSB repair pathway targeted by the drug. Furthermore, using isogenic HCT116 p53+/+ and HCT116 p53-/- cells, we showed that p53 plays a key role in the survival mechanism to SFOM-0046. Finally, SFOM-0046 exhibits a dose-dependent antitumor activity on human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 tumours grafted onto chick chorioallantoic membranes without showing embryo toxicity even at high doses. Altogether, our results highlight SFOM-0046 as a very promising drug that induces a replication stress response.
Project description:Although the linkage of Chk1 and Chk2 to important cancer signalling suggests that these kinases have functions as tumour suppressors, neither Chk1+/- nor Chk2-/- mice show a predisposition to cancer under unperturbed conditions. We show here that Chk1+/-Chk2-/- and Chk1+/-Chk2+/- mice have a progressive cancer-prone phenotype. Deletion of a single Chk1 allele compromises G2/M checkpoint function that is not further affected by Chk2 depletion, whereas Chk1 and Chk2 cooperatively affect G1/S and intra-S phase checkpoints. Either or both of the kinases are required for DNA repair depending on the type of DNA damage. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts from the double-mutant mice showed a higher level of p53 with spontaneous DNA damage under unperturbed conditions, but failed to phosphorylate p53 at S23 and further induce p53 expression upon additional DNA damage. Neither Chk1 nor Chk2 is apparently essential for p53- or Rb-dependent oncogene-induced senescence. Our results suggest that the double Chk mutation leads to a high level of spontaneous DNA damage, but fails to eliminate cells with damaged DNA, which may ultimately increase cancer susceptibility independently of senescence.
Project description:Radiation-induced DNA damage activates the DNA damage response (DDR). DDR up-regulation may predict radio-resistance and increase the risk of early local recurrence despite radiotherapy in early stage breast cancers. In 1755 early stage breast cancers, DDR signalling [ATM, ATR, total Ckh1, Chk1 phosphorylated at serine(345) (pChk1), Chk2, p53], base excision repair [PARP1, POL?, XRCC1, FEN1, SMUG1], non-homologous end joining (Ku70/Ku80, DNA-PKcs) and homologous recombination [RAD51, BRCA1, ?H2AX, BLM, WRN, RECQL5, PTEN] protein expression was correlated to time to early local recurrence. Pre-clinically, radio-sensitization by inhibition of Chk1 activation by ATR inhibitor (VE-821) and inhibition of Chk1 (V158411) were investigated in MDA-MB-231 (p53 mutant) and MCF-7 (p53 wild-type) breast cancer cells. In the whole cohort, 208/1755 patients (11.9%) developed local recurrence of which 126 (61%) developed local recurrence within 5 years of initiation of primary therapy. Of the 20 markers tested, only pChk1 and p53 significantly associated with early local recurrence (p value = 0.015 and 0.010, respectively). When analysed together, high cytoplasmic pChk1-nuclear pChk1 (p = 0.039), high cytoplasmic pChk1-p53 (p = 0.004) and high nuclear pChk1-p53 (p = 0.029) co-expression remain significantly linked to early local recurrence. In multivariate analysis, cytoplasmic pChk1 level independently predicted early local recurrence (p = 0.025). In patients who received adjuvant local radiotherapy (n = 949), p53 (p = 0.014) and high cytoplasmic pChk1-p53 (p = 0.017) remain associated with early local recurrence. Pre-clinically, radio-sensitisation by VE-821 or V158411 was observed in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells and was more pronounced in MCF-7 cells. We conclude that pChk1 is a predictive biomarker of radiotherapy resistance and early local recurrence.
Project description:The accumulation and formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are related to diabetes and age-related disease. Osteomeles schwerinae C. K. Schneid. (Rosaceae, OSSC) is used traditionally for the treatment of various diseases in Asia. Previous studies have shown that OSSC elicits preventive effects in an in vivo model of diabetes. This study was to evaluate the antiapoptotic effects of dried leaves and twigs of OSSC extract and its major compounds in ARPE-19 cells-spontaneously arising human retinal pigment epithelial cells-under diabetic conditions. To examine the effects of an OSSC extract and its active compounds (acetylvitexin, hyperoside and quercitrin) on apoptosis in methylglyoxal (MG, the active precursor in the formation of AGEs)-treated ARPE-19 cells and the mechanism by which these effects occur, apoptosis was measured using flow cytometry analysis. Protein expression levels of phospho-p53 (p-p53), Bax and Bcl-2 were determined by western blot analyses. The OSSC extract inhibited apoptosis in MG-treated ARPE-19 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The major compounds also reduced the rate of apoptosis. Both the extract and major compounds also inhibited the expression of p-p53 and Bax and increased the levels of Bcl-2 that had been previously reduced by MG treatment. The OSSC extract (0.1 ?g/mL) and its major compounds (0.01 ?M) attenuated apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells under toxic diabetic conditions by downregulating of expression of p-p53 and Bax. OSSC may serve as an alternative therapy to retard the development of diabetic retinopathy.
Project description:TLC388, a camptothecin-derivative targeting topoisomerase I, is a potential anticancer drug. In this study, its effect on A549 and H838 human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells was investigated. Cell viability and proliferation were determined by thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide and clonogenic assays, respectively, and cell cycle analysis and detection of phosphorylated histone H3 (Ser10) were performed by flow cytometry. ?-H2AX protein; G2/M phase-associated molecules ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), CHK1, CHK2, CDC25C, CDC2, and cyclin B1; and apoptosis were assessed with immunofluorescence staining, immunoblotting, and an annexin V assay, respectively. The effect of co-treatment with CHIR124 (a checkpoint kinase 1 [CHK1] inhibitor) was also studied. TLC388 decreased the viability and proliferation of cells of both NSCLC lines in a dose-dependent manner. TLC388 inhibited the viability of NSCLC cell lines with an estimated concentration of 50% inhibition (IC50), which was 4.4 and 4.1 ?M for A549 and H838 cells, respectively, after 24 hours. Moreover, it resulted in the accumulation of cells at the G2/M phase and increased ?-H2AX levels in A549 cells. Levels of the G2 phase-related molecules phosphorylated ATM, CHK1, CHK2, CDC25C, and cyclin B1 were increased in TLC388-treated cells. CHIR124 enhanced the cytotoxicity of TLC388 toward A549 and H838 cells and induced apoptosis of the former. TLC388 inhibits NSCLC cell growth by inflicting DNA damage and activating G2/M checkpoint proteins that trigger G2 phase cell cycle arrest to enable DNA repair. CHIR124 enhanced the cytotoxic effect of TLC388 and induced apoptosis.
Project description:The tumour suppressor p53 is a tetrameric protein that is phosphorylated in its BOX-I transactivation domain by checkpoint kinase 2 (CHK2) in response to DNA damage. CHK2 cannot phosphorylate small peptide fragments of p53 containing the BOX-I motif, indicating that undefined determinants in the p53 tetramer mediate CHK2 recognition. Two peptides derived from the DNA-binding domain of p53 bind to CHK2 and stimulate phosphorylation of full-length p53 at Thr 18 and Ser 20, thus identifying CHK2-docking sites. CHK2 can be fully activated in trans by the two p53 DNA-binding-domain peptides, and can phosphorylate BOX-I transactivation-domain fragments of p53 at Thr 18 and Ser 20. Although CHK2 has a basal Ser 20 kinase activity that is predominantly activated towards Thr 18, CHK1 has constitutive Thr 18 kinase activity that is predominantly activated in trans towards Ser 20. Cell division cycle 25C (CDC25C) phosphorylation by CHK2 is unaffected by the p53 DNA-binding-domain peptides. The CHK2-docking site in the BOX-V motif is the smallest of the two CHK2 binding sites, and mutating certain amino acids in the BOX-V peptide prevents CHK2 activation. A database search identified a p53 BOX-I-homology motif in p21(WAF1) and although CHK2 is inactive towards this protein, the p53 DNA-binding-domain peptides induce phosphorylation of p21(WAF1) at Ser 146. This provides evidence that CHK2 can be activated allosterically towards some substrates by a novel docking interaction, and identify a potential regulatory switch that may channel CHK2 into distinct signalling pathways in vivo.