Metabolomics Biomarkers: A Strategy Toward Therapeutics Improvement in ALS.
ABSTRACT: Biomarkers research in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) holds the promise of improving ALS diagnosis, follow-up of patients, and clinical trials outcomes. Metabolomics have a big impact on biomarkers identification. In this mini-review, we provide the main findings of metabolomics studies in ALS and discuss the most relevant therapeutics attempts that targeted some prominent alterations found in ALS, like glutamate excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, alterations in energetic metabolism, and creatinine levels. Metabolomics studies have reported putative diagnosis or prognosis biomarkers, but discrepancies among these studies did not allow validation of metabolic biomarkers for clinical use in ALS. In this context, we wonder whether metabolomics knowledge could improve ALS therapeutics. As metabolomics identify specific metabolic pathways modified by disease progression and/or treatment, we support that adjuvant or combined treatment should be used to rescue these pathways, creating a new perspective for ALS treatment. Some ongoing clinical trials are already trying to target these pathways. As clinical trials in ALS have been disappointing and considering the heterogeneity of the disease presentation, we support the application of a pharmacometabolomic approach to evaluate the individual response to drug treatments and their side effects, enabling the development of personalized treatments for ALS. We suggest that the best strategy to apply metabolomics for ALS therapeutics progress is to establish a metabolic signature for ALS patients in order to improve the knowledge of patient metabotypes, to choose the most adequate pharmacological treatment, and to follow the drug response and side effects, based on metabolomics biomarkers.
Project description:A prospective cohort study was performed in preterm infants less than 32 weeks gestation at birth who were treated with dexamethasone for developing or established bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Respiratory phenotype (Respiratory Severity Score (RSS)), serum, and urine metabolomics were assessed before and after treatment. Ten infants provided nine matched serum and nine matched urine samples. There was a significant decrease in RSS with steroid treatment. Serum gluconic acid had the largest median fold change (140 times decreased, P = 0.008). In metabolite set enrichment analysis, in both serum and urine, the urea cycle, ammonia recycling, and malate-aspartate shuttle pathways were most significantly enriched when comparing pretreatment and post-treatment (P value < 0.05). In regression analyses, 6 serum and 28 urine metabolites were significantly associated with change in RSS. Urine gluconic acid lactone was the most significantly correlated with clinical response (correlational coefficient 0.915). Pharmacometabolomic discovery of drug response biomarkers in preterm infants may allow precision therapeutics in BPD treatment.
Project description:Upon dietary exposure, the endogenous metabolism responds to the diet-derived nutrients and bioactive compounds, such as phytochemicals. However, the responses vary remarkably due to the interplay with other dietary components, lifestyle exposures, and intrinsic factors, which lead to differences in endogenous regulatory metabolism. These physiological processes are evidenced as a signature profile composed of various metabolites constituting metabolic phenotypes, or metabotypes. The metabolic profiling of biological samples following dietary intake hence would provide information about diet-that is, as the intake biomarkers and the ongoing physiological reactions triggered by this intake-thereby enable evaluation of the metabolic basis required to distinguish the different metabotypes. The capacity of nontargeted metabolomics to also encompass the unprecedented metabolite species has enabled the profiling of multiple metabolites and the corresponding metabotypes with a single analysis, decoding the complex interplay between diet, other relevant factors, and health. In this systematic review, we screened 345 articles published in English in January 2007-July 2018, which applied the metabolomics approach to profile the changes of endogenous metabolites in the blood related to dietary interventions, either derived by metabolism of gut microbiota or the human host. We excluded all the compounds that were directly derived from diet, and also the dietary interventions focusing on supplementation with individual compounds. After the removal of less relevant studies and assessment of eligibility, 49 articles were included in this review. First, we mention the contribution of individual factors, either modifiable or nonmodifiable factors, in shaping metabolic profile. Then, how different aspects of the diet would affect the metabolic profiles are disentangled. Next, the classes of endogenous metabolites altered following included dietary interventions are listed. We also discuss the current challenges in the field, along with future research opportunities.
Project description:Genome-wide association studies with metabolomics (mGWAS) identify genetically influenced metabotypes (GIMs), their ensemble defining the heritable part of every human's metabolic individuality. Knowledge of genetic variation in metabolism has many applications of biomedical and pharmaceutical interests, including the functional understanding of genetic associations with clinical end points, design of strategies to correct dysregulations in metabolic disorders and the identification of genetic effect modifiers of metabolic disease biomarkers. Furthermore, it has been shown that GIMs provide testable hypotheses for functional genomics and metabolomics and for the identification of novel gene functions and metabolite identities. mGWAS with growing sample sizes and increasingly complex metabolic trait panels are being conducted, allowing for more comprehensive and systems-based downstream analyses. The generated large datasets of genetic associations can now be mined by the biomedical research community and provide valuable resources for hypothesis-driven studies. In this review, we provide a brief summary of the key aspects of mGWAS, followed by an update of recently published mGWAS. We then discuss new approaches of integrating and exploring mGWAS results and finish by presenting selected applications of GIMs in recent studies.
Project description:Pharmacometabolomics (PMx) studies use information contained in metabolic profiles (or metabolome) to inform about how a subject will respond to drug treatment. Genome, gut microbiome, sex, nutrition, age, stress, health status, and other factors can impact the metabolic profile of an individual. Some of these factors are known to influence the individual response to pharmaceutical compounds. An individual's metabolic profile has been referred to as his or her "metabotype." As such, metabolomic profiles obtained prior to, during, or after drug treatment could provide insights about drug mechanism of action and variation of response to treatment. Furthermore, there are several types of PMx studies that are used to discover and inform patterns associated with varied drug responses (i.e., responders vs. non-responders; slow or fast metabolizers). The PMx efforts could simultaneously provide information related to an individual's pharmacokinetic response during clinical trials and be used to predict patient response to drugs making pharmacometabolomic clinical research valuable for precision medicine. PMx biomarkers can also be discovered and validated during FDA clinical trials. Using biomarkers during medical development is described in US Law under the 21st Century Cures Act. Information on how to submit biomarkers to the FDA and their context of use is defined herein.
Project description:Endothelial dysfunction contributes to sepsis outcome. Metabolic phenotypes associated with endothelial dysfunction are not well characterised in part due to difficulties in assessing endothelial metabolism in situ. Here, we describe the construction of iEC2812, a genome scale metabolic reconstruction of endothelial cells and its application to describe metabolic changes that occur following endothelial dysfunction. Metabolic gene expression analysis of three endothelial subtypes using iEC2812 suggested their similar metabolism in culture. To mimic endothelial dysfunction, an in vitro sepsis endothelial cell culture model was established and the metabotypes associated with increased endothelial permeability and glycocalyx loss after inflammatory stimuli were quantitatively defined through metabolomics. These data and transcriptomic data were then used to parametrize iEC2812 and investigate the metabotypes of endothelial dysfunction. Glycan production and increased fatty acid metabolism accompany increased glycocalyx shedding and endothelial permeability after inflammatory stimulation. iEC2812 was then used to analyse sepsis patient plasma metabolome profiles and predict changes to endothelial derived biomarkers. These analyses revealed increased changes in glycan metabolism in sepsis non-survivors corresponding to metabolism of endothelial dysfunction in culture. The results show concordance between endothelial health and sepsis survival in particular between endothelial cell metabolism and the plasma metabolome in patients with sepsis.
Project description:The global burden of arboviral diseases and the limited success in controlling them calls for innovative methods to understand arbovirus infections. Metabolomics has been applied to detect alterations in host physiology during infection. This approach relies on mass spectrometry or nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to evaluate how perturbations in biological systems alter metabolic pathways, allowing for differentiation of closely related conditions. Because viruses heavily depend on host resources and pathways, they present unique challenges for characterizing metabolic changes. Here, we review the literature on metabolomics of arboviruses and focus on the interpretation of identified molecular features. Metabolomics has revealed biomarkers that differentiate disease states and outcomes, and has shown similarities in metabolic alterations caused by different viruses (e.g., lipid metabolism). Researchers investigating such metabolomic alterations aim to better understand host?virus dynamics, identify diagnostically useful molecular features, discern perturbed pathways for therapeutics, and guide further biochemical research. This review focuses on lessons derived from metabolomics studies on samples from arbovirus-infected humans.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal disorder of the motor neuron system with poor prognosis and marginal therapeutic options. Current clinical diagnostic criteria are based on electrophysiological examination and exclusion of other ALS-mimicking conditions. Neuroprotective treatments are, however, most promising in early disease stages. Identification of disease-specific CSF biomarkers and associated biochemical pathways is therefore most relevant to monitor disease progression, response to neuroprotective agents and to enable early inclusion of patients into clinical trials. METHODS AND FINDINGS: CSF from 35 patients with ALS diagnosed according to the revised El Escorial criteria and 23 age-matched controls was processed using paramagnetic bead chromatography for protein isolation and subsequently analyzed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. CSF protein profiles were integrated into a Random Forest model constructed from 153 mass peaks. After reducing this peak set to the top 25%, a classifier was built which enabled prediction of ALS with high accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. Further analysis of the identified peptides resulted in a panel of five highly sensitive ALS biomarkers. Upregulation of secreted phosphoprotein 1 in ALS-CSF samples was confirmed by univariate analysis of ELISA and mass spectrometry data. Further quantitative validation of the five biomarkers was achieved in an 80-plex Multiple Reaction Monitoring mass spectrometry assay. CONCLUSIONS: ALS classification based on the CSF biomarker panel proposed in this study could become a valuable predictive tool for early clinical risk stratification. Of the numerous CSF proteins identified, many have putative roles in ALS-related metabolic processes, particularly in chromogranin-mediated secretion signaling pathways. While a stand-alone clinical application of this classifier will only be possible after further validation and a multicenter trial, it could be readily used to complement current ALS diagnostics and might also provide new insights into the pathomechanisms of this disease in the future.
Project description:<i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i> (<i>P.a</i>) is one of the most critical antibiotic resistant bacteria in the world and is the most prevalent pathogen in cystic fibrosis (CF), causing chronic lung infections that are considered one of the major causes of mortality in CF patients. Although several studies have contributed to understanding <i>P.a</i> within-host adaptive evolution at a genomic level, it is still difficult to establish direct relationships between the observed mutations, expression of clinically relevant phenotypes, and clinical outcomes. Here, we performed a comparative untargeted LC/HRMS-based metabolomics analysis of sequential isolates from chronically infected CF patients to obtain a functional view of <i>P.a</i> adaptation. Metabolic profiles were integrated with expression of bacterial phenotypes and clinical measurements following multiscale analysis methods. Our results highlighted significant associations between <i>P.a</i> "metabotypes", expression of antibiotic resistance and virulence phenotypes, and frequency of clinical exacerbations, thus identifying promising biomarkers and therapeutic targets for difficult-to-treat <i>P.a</i> infections.
Project description:The past decade has seen a dramatic increase in the discovery of candidate biomarkers for ALS. These biomarkers typically can either differentiate ALS from control subjects or predict disease course (slow versus fast progression). At the same time, late-stage clinical trials for ALS have failed to generate improved drug treatments for ALS patients. Incorporation of biomarkers into the ALS drug development pipeline and the use of biologic and/or imaging biomarkers in early- and late-stage ALS clinical trials have been absent and only recently pursued in early-phase clinical trials. Further clinical research studies are needed to validate biomarkers for disease progression and develop biomarkers that can help determine that a drug has reached its target within the central nervous system. In this review we summarize recent progress in biomarkers across ALS model systems and patient population, and highlight continued research directions for biomarkers that stratify the patient population to enrich for patients that may best respond to a drug candidate, monitor disease progression and track drug responses in clinical trials. It is crucial that we further develop and validate ALS biomarkers and incorporate these biomarkers into the ALS drug development process. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ALS complex pathogenesis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Although hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) is a well-established first-line antihypertensive in the United States, <50% of HCTZ treated patients achieve blood pressure (BP) control. Thus, identifying biomarkers that could predict the BP response to HCTZ is critically important. In this study, we utilized metabolomics, genomics, and lipidomics to identify novel pathways and biomarkers associated with HCTZ BP response. METHODS AND RESULTS:First, we conducted a pathway analysis for 13 metabolites we recently identified to be significantly associated with HCTZ BP response. From this analysis, we found the sphingolipid metabolic pathway as the most significant pathway (P=5.8E-05). Testing 78 variants, within 14 genes involved in the sphingolipid metabolic canonical pathway, with the BP response to HCTZ identified variant rs6078905, within the SPTLC3 gene, as a novel biomarker significantly associated with the BP response to HCTZ in whites (n=228). We found that rs6078905 C-allele carriers had a better BP response to HCTZ versus noncarriers (?SBP/?DBP: -11.4/-6.9 versus -6.8/-3.5 mm Hg; ?SBP P=6.7E-04; ?DBP P=4.8E-04). Additionally, in blacks (n=148), we found genetic signals in the SPTLC3 genomic region significantly associated with the BP response to HCTZ (P<0.05). Last, we observed that rs6078905 significantly affects the baseline level of 4 sphingomyelins (N24:2, N24:3, N16:1, and N22:1; false discovery rate <0.05), from which N24:2 sphingomyelin has a significant correlation with both HCTZ DBP-response (r=-0.42; P=7E-03) and SBP-response (r=-0.36; P=2E-02). CONCLUSIONS:This study provides insight into potential pharmacometabolomic and genetic mechanisms underlying HCTZ BP response and suggests that SPTLC3 is a potential determinant of the BP response to HCTZ. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00246519.