Mutation profile of FLNC gene and its prognostic relevance in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Filamin C (FLNC) mutation was reported as a cause of HCM, with a high probability of sudden cardiac death. However, the mutation profile of FLNC, and its relationship with phenotypic expression in HCM, remains to be elucidated. METHODS:In this study, FLNC gene was sequenced in 540 HCM patients and 307 healthy controls. RESULTS:We found that 39 (7.2%) patients carried FLNC mutations, with a similar frequency to that of controls (4.2%, p = 0.101). Pedigree analysis showed that mutations were not well segregated with HCM. The baseline characteristics between HCM patients, with and without mutations, were comparable. FLNC mutations did not increase the risk for either all-cause mortality (HR 0.746, 95% CI 0.222-2.295, p = 0.575) or cardiac mortality (HR 0.615, 95% CI 0.153-1.947, p = 0.354) in HCM patients during a follow-up of 4.7 ± 3.2 years. Moreover, there was no significant difference in survival free from sudden cardiac arrest (HR 0.721, 95% CI 0.128-3.667, p = 0.660) and heart failure (HR 0.757, 95% CI 0.318-1.642, p = 0.447). CONCLUSIONS:FLNC mutations were common in both HCM patients and healthy population. The pathogenicity of FLNC mutations detected in HCM patients and its association with the clinical outcomes should be cautiously interpreted.
Project description:Filamin C (FLNC) variants are associated with cardiac and muscular phenotypes. Originally, FLNC variants were described in myofibrillar myopathy (MFM) patients. Later, high-throughput screening in cardiomyopathy cohorts determined a prominent role for FLNC in isolated hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathies (HCM and DCM). FLNC variants are now among the more prevalent causes of genetic DCM. FLNC-associated DCM is associated with a malignant clinical course and a high risk of sudden cardiac death. The clinical spectrum of FLNC suggests different pathomechanisms related to variant types and their location in the gene. The appropriate functioning of FLNC is crucial for structural integrity and cell signaling of the sarcomere. The secondary protein structure of FLNC is critical to ensure this function. Truncating variants with subsequent haploinsufficiency are associated with DCM and cardiac arrhythmias. Interference with the dimerization and folding of the protein leads to aggregate formation detrimental for muscle function, as found in HCM and MFM. Variants associated with HCM are predominantly missense variants, which cluster in the ROD2 domain. This domain is important for binding to the sarcomere and to ensure appropriate cell signaling. We here review FLNC genotype-phenotype correlations based on available evidence.
Project description:Rationale There is a need for new and better biomarkers for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) which correlate more closely with disease progression as determined by clinical imaging and biohumoral information. We have used a combination of heart tissue and plasma proteomics to identify potential biomarkers for HCM and developed them into an exploratory targeted proteomic assay. Objective To identify informative staging biomarkers for HCM and develop them into a blood test. The test using 10 µl of plasma, was developed into a 10 min liquid chromatography-tandem/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay to analyze multiple candidate biomarkers and evaluate their association with clinical phenotypes in patients with HCM. Methods and Results Myocardial tissue and plasma samples from patients with HCM and healthy volunteers (controls) were screened using a combined gel- and nano-LC quadrupole time of flight MS approach. Twenty-six potential biomarkers were identified from the proteomics screens and developed into a multiplexed targeted proteomic assay. Their association with clinical phenotypes was tested in plasma samples collected from 207 prospectively recruited participants: 110 patients with HCM (50.1 ± 15.0 years, 70% male; 48 [44%] with identified genetic mutations) and 97 controls (49.6 ± 13.4 years, 58% male), randomly split into training (80 HCM, 67 controls) and validation datasets (30 HCM, 30 controls). Six markers (Aldolase Fructose-Bisphosphate A, Complement C3, Glutathione S-Transferase Omega 1, Ras Suppressor Protein 1, Talin 1, and Thrombospondin 1) were significantly increased (P<0.006) in the plasma of HCM patients compared to controls in the training dataset. These markers correlated with left ventricular (LV) wall thickness, LV mass and % myocardial scar on cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. Using supervized machine learning (ML) this panel differentiated HCM from controls (area under the curve: 0.89 in the training dataset, sensitivity 96%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 77–93; specificity 87%, 95%CI 77–94; and 0.87 in the validation dataset, sensitivity 97%, 95%CI 83–100; specificity 77%, 95%CI 58–90). Four of the biomarkers as well as the composite ML score of the plasma proteome correlated with the presence of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia and the estimated 5-year risk of sudden cardiac death. Conclusion By developing a high-throughput, multiplex, and targeted proteomic plasma assay we identified 6 biomarkers that correlate with the presence of disease and with clinical risk score for sudden cardiac death.
Project description:Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder but data on survival rates are still conflicting and have not so far been quantitatively reviewed. The aim of this study is to conduct a meta-analysis of cohort studies to assess pooled survival rates and prognostic factors for survival in patients with HCM. Nineteen studies were included representing 12,146 HCM patients. The pooled 1-, 3-, 5- and 10-year survival rates were 98.0%, 94.3%, 82.2% and 75.0%, respectively. Among patients with HCM, age, NYHA functional class, family history of sudden death (FHSD), syncope, atrial fibrillation, non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (nsVT), maximum left ventricular wall thickness and obstruction were significant prognostic factors for cardiovascular death. For sudden cardiac death, FHSD, nsVT, and obstruction showed significant predictive values. Moreover, estimation of population attributable risk (PAR) suggested that nsVT was the strongest predictor for cardiovascular death (13.02%, 95% CI 3.60-25.91%), while left ventricular outflow tract obstruction/mid-ventricular obstruction (LVO/MVO) was the strongest predictor for all-cause death and sudden cardiac death (10.09%, 95% CI 4.72-20.42% and 16.44%, 95% CI 7.45-31.55%, respectively). These risk factors may thus be useful for identifying HCM patients who might benefit from early diagnosis and therapeutic interventions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The term "end stage" has been used to describe hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD), defined as occurring when left ventricular ejection fraction is <50%. The prognosis of HCM-LVSD has reportedly been poor, but because of its relative rarity, the natural history remains incompletely characterized. METHODS:Data from 11 high-volume HCM specialty centers making up the international SHaRe Registry (Sarcomeric Human Cardiomyopathy Registry) were used to describe the natural history of patients with HCM-LVSD. Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify predictors of prognosis and incident development. RESULTS:From a cohort of 6793 patients with HCM, 553 (8%) met the criteria for HCM-LVSD. Overall, 75% of patients with HCM-LVSD experienced clinically relevant events, and 35% met the composite outcome (all-cause death [n=128], cardiac transplantation [n=55], or left ventricular assist device implantation [n=9]). After recognition of HCM-LVSD, the median time to composite outcome was 8.4 years. However, there was substantial individual variation in natural history. Significant predictors of the composite outcome included the presence of multiple pathogenic/likely pathogenic sarcomeric variants (hazard ratio [HR], 5.6 [95% CI, 2.3-13.5]), atrial fibrillation (HR, 2.6 [95% CI, 1.7-3.5]), and left ventricular ejection fraction <35% (HR, 2.0 [95% CI, 1.3-2.8]). The incidence of new HCM-LVSD was ?7.5% over 15 years. Significant predictors of developing incident HCM-LVSD included greater left ventricular cavity size (HR, 1.1 [95% CI, 1.0-1.3] and wall thickness (HR, 1.3 [95% CI, 1.1-1.4]), left ventricular ejection fraction of 50% to 60% (HR, 1.8 [95% CI, 1.2, 2.8]-2.8 [95% CI, 1.8-4.2]) at baseline evaluation, the presence of late gadolinium enhancement on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (HR, 2.3 [95% CI, 1.0-4.9]), and the presence of a pathogenic/likely pathogenic sarcomeric variant, particularly in thin filament genes (HR, 1.5 [95% CI, 1.0-2.1] and 2.5 [95% CI, 1.2-5.1], respectively). CONCLUSIONS:HCM-LVSD affects ?8% of patients with HCM. Although the natural history of HCM-LVSD was variable, 75% of patients experienced adverse events, including 35% experiencing a death equivalent an estimated median time of 8.4 years after developing systolic dysfunction. In addition to clinical features, genetic substrate appears to play a role in both prognosis (multiple sarcomeric variants) and the risk for incident development of HCM-LVSD (thin filament variants).
Project description:Severe right ventricular hypertrophy (SRVH) is a rare phenotype in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) for which limited information is available. This study was undertaken to investigate the clinical, prognostic and genetic characteristics of HCM patients with SRVH.HCM with SRVH was defined as HCM with a maximum right ventricular wall thickness ?10 mm. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was performed in HCM patients with SRVH. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to identify risk factors for cardiac death and events in HCM with SRVH. Patients with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (ApHCM) were selected as a comparison group. The clinical features and outcomes of 34 HCM patients with SRVH and 273 ApHCM patients were compared.Compared with the ApHCM group, the HCM with SRVH group included younger patients and a higher proportion of female patients and also displayed higher cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models identified 2 independent predictors of cardiovascular death in HCM patients with SRVH, a New York Heart Association class ?III (hazard ratio [HR] = 8.7, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.43-52.87, p = 0.019) and an age at the time of HCM diagnosis ?18 (HR = 5.5, 95% CI: 1.24-28.36, p = 0.026). Among the 11 HCM patients with SRVH who underwent WGS, 10 (90.9%) were identified as carriers of at least one specific sarcomere gene mutation. MYH7 and TTN mutations were the most common sarcomere mutations noted in this study. Two or more HCM-related gene mutations were observed in 9 (82%) patients, and mutations in either other cardiomyopathy-related genes or ion-channel disease-related genes were found in 8 (73%) patients.HCM patients with SRVH were characterized by poor clinical outcomes and the presentation of multiple gene mutations.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) is a rare cardiomyopathy characterized by impaired diastolic ventricular function resulting in a poor clinical prognosis. Rarely, heritable forms of RCM have been reported, and mutations underlying RCM have been identified in genes that govern the contractile function of the cardiomyocytes. METHODS AND RESULTS:We evaluated 8 family members across 4 generations by history, physical examination, electrocardiography, and echocardiography. Affected individuals presented with a pleitropic syndrome of progressive RCM, atrioventricular septal defects, and a high prevalence of atrial fibrillation. Exome sequencing of 5 affected members identified a single novel missense variant in a highly conserved residue of FLNC (filamin C; p.V2297M). FLNC encodes filamin C-a protein that acts as both a scaffold for the assembly and organization of the central contractile unit of striated muscle and also as a mechanosensitive signaling molecule during cell migration and shear stress. Immunohistochemical analysis of FLNC localization in cardiac tissue from an affected family member revealed a diminished localization at the z disk, whereas traditional localization at the intercalated disk was preserved. Stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes mutated to carry the effect allele had diminished contractile activity when compared with controls. CONCLUSION:We have identified a novel variant in FLNC as pathogenic variant for familial RCM-a finding that further expands on the genetic basis of this rare and morbid cardiomyopathy.
Project description:Importance:Patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) are prone to body weight increase and obesity. Whether this predisposes these individuals to long-term adverse outcomes is still unresolved. Objective:To describe the association of body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) with long-term outcomes in patients with HCM in terms of overall disease progression, heart failure symptoms, and arrhythmias. Design, Setting, and Participants:In this cohort study, retrospective data were analyzed from the ongoing prospective Sarcomeric Human Cardiomyopathy Registry, an international database created by 8 high-volume HCM centers that includes more than 6000 patients who have been observed longitudinally for decades. Records from database inception up to the first quarter of 2018 were analyzed. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to BMI class (normal weight group, <25; preobesity group, 25-30; and obesity group, >30). Patients with 1 or more follow-up visits were included in the analysis. Data were analyzed from April to October 2018. Exposures:Association of baseline BMI with outcome was assessed. Main Outcome and Measures:Outcome was measured against overall and cardiovascular mortality, a heart failure outcome (ejection fraction less than 35%, New York Heart Association class III/IV symptoms, cardiac transplant, or assist device implantation), a ventricular arrhythmic outcome (sudden cardiac death, resuscitated cardiac arrest, or appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy), and an overall composite outcome (first occurrence of any component of the ventricular arrhythmic or heart failure composite end point, all-cause mortality, atrial fibrillation, or stroke). Results:Of the 3282 included patients, 2019 (61.5%) were male, and the mean (SD) age at diagnosis was 47 (15) years. These patients were observed for a median (interquartile range) of 6.8 (3.3-13.3) years. There were 962 patients in the normal weight group (29.3%), 1280 patients in the preobesity group (39.0%), and 1040 patients in the obesity group (31.7%). Patients with obesity were more symptomatic (New York Heart Association class of III/IV: normal weight, 87 [9.0%]; preobesity, 138 [10.8%]; obesity, 215 [20.7%]; P?<?.001) and more often had obstructive physiology (normal weight, 201 [20.9%]; preobesity, 327 [25.5%]; obesity, 337 [32.4%]; P?<?.001). At follow-up, obesity was independently associated with the HCM-related overall composite outcome (preobesity vs normal weight: hazard ratio [HR], 1.102; 95% CI, 0.920-1.322; P?=?.29; obesity vs normal weight: HR, 1.634; 95% CI, 1.332-1.919; P?<?.001) and the heart failure composite outcome (preobesity vs normal weight: HR, 1.192; 95% CI, 0.930-1.1530; P?=?.20; obesity vs normal weight: HR, 1.885; 95% CI, 1.485-2.393; P?<?.001) irrespective of age, sex, left atrium diameter, obstruction, and genetic status. Obesity increased the likelihood of atrial fibrillation but not of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Conclusions and Relevance:Obesity is highly prevalent among patients with HCM and is associated with increased likelihood of obstructive physiology and adverse outcomes. Strategies aimed at preventing obesity and weight increase may play an important role in management and prevention of disease-related complications.
Project description:A novel FLNC c.5161delG (p.Gly1722ValfsTer61) mutation was identified in two members of a French family affected by distal myopathy and in one healthy relative. This FLNC c.5161delG mutation is one nucleotide away from a previously reported FLNC mutation (c.5160delC) that was identified in patients and in asymptomatic carriers of three Bulgarian families with distal muscular dystrophy, indicating a low penetrance of the FLNC frameshift mutations. Given these similarities, we believe that the two FLNC mutations alone can be causative of distal myopathy without full penetrance. Moreover, comparative analysis of the clinical manifestations indicates that patients of the French family show an earlier onset and a complete segregation of the disease. As a possible explanation of this, the two French patients also carry a OBSCN c.13330C>T (p.Arg4444Trp) mutation. The p.Arg4444Trp variant is localized within the OBSCN Ig59 domain that, together with Ig58, binds to the ZIg9/ZIg10 domains of titin at Z-disks. Structural and functional studies indicate that this OBSCN p.Arg4444Trp mutation decreases titin binding by ~15-fold. On this line, we suggest that the combination of the OBSCN p.Arg4444Trp variant and of the FLNC c.5161delG mutation, can cooperatively affect myofibril stability and increase the penetrance of muscular dystrophy in the French family.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Identifying the patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) in whom the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) justifies the implantation of a cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) in primary prevention remains challenging. Different risk stratification and criteria are used by the European and American guidelines in this setting. We sought to evaluate the role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) in improving these risk stratification strategies. METHODS:We conducted a multicentric retrospective analysis of HCM patients who underwent CMR for diagnostic confirmation and/or risk stratification. Eligibility for ICD was assessed according to the HCM Risk-SCD score and the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association (ACCF/AHA) algorithm. The amount of LGE was quantified (LGE%) and categorized as 0%, 0.1-10%, 10.1-19.9% and ≥ 20%. The primary endpoint was a composite of SCD, aborted SCD, sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT), or appropriate ICD discharge. RESULTS:A total of 493 patients were available for analysis (58% male, median age 46 years). LGE was present in 79% of patients, with a median LGE% of 2.9% (IQR 0.4-8.4%). The concordance between risk assessment by the HCM Risk-SCD, ACCF/AHA and LGE was relatively weak. During a median follow-up of 3.4 years (IQR 1.5-6.8 years), 23 patients experienced an event (12 SCDs, 6 appropriate ICD discharges and 5 sustained VTs). The amount of LGE was the only independent predictor of outcome (adjusted HR: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.04-1.12; p < 0.001) after adjustment for the HCM Risk-SCD and ACCF/AHA criteria. The amount of LGE showed greater discriminative power (C-statistic 0.84; 95% CI: 0.76-0.91) than the ACCF/AHA (C-statistic 0.61; 95% CI: 0.49-0.72; p for comparison < 0.001) and the HCM Risk-SCD (C-statistic 0.68; 95% CI: 0.59-0.78; p for comparison = 0.006). LGE was able to increase the discriminative power of the ACCF/AHA and HCM Risk-SCD criteria, with net reclassification improvements of 0.36 (p = 0.021) and 0.43 (p = 0.011), respectively. CONCLUSIONS:The amount of LGE seems to outperform the HCM Risk-SCD score and the ACCF/AHA algorithm in the identification of HCM patients at increased risk of SCD and reclassifies a relevant proportion of patients.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To identify novel dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) causing genes, and to elucidate the pathological mechanism leading to DCM by utilizing zebrafish as a model organism. BACKGROUND:DCM, a major cause of heart failure, is frequently familial and caused by a genetic defect. However, only 50% of DCM cases can be attributed to a known DCM gene variant, motivating the ongoing search for novel disease genes. METHODS:We performed whole exome sequencing (WES) in two multigenerational Italian families and one US family with arrhythmogenic DCM without skeletal muscle defects, in whom prior genetic testing had been unrevealing. Pathogenic variants were sought by a combination of bioinformatic filtering and cosegregation testing among affected individuals within the families. We performed function assays and generated a zebrafish morpholino knockdown model. RESULTS:A novel filamin C gene splicing variant (FLNC c.7251+1 G>A) was identified by WES in all affected family members in the two Italian families. A separate novel splicing mutation (FLNC c.5669-1delG) was identified in the US family. Western blot analysis of cardiac heart tissue from an affected individual showed decreased FLNC protein, supporting a haploinsufficiency model of pathogenesis. To further analyze this model, a morpholino knockdown of the ortholog filamin Cb in zebrafish was created which resulted in abnormal cardiac function and ultrastructure. CONCLUSIONS:Using WES, we identified two novel FLNC splicing variants as the likely cause of DCM in three families. We provided protein expression and in vivo zebrafish data supporting haploinsufficiency as the pathogenic mechanism leading to DCM.