Terrestrial Plants Evolve Highly Assembled Photosystem Complexes in Adaptation to Light Shifts.
ABSTRACT: It has been known that PSI and PSII supercomplexes are involved in the linear and cyclic electron transfer, dynamics of light capture, and the repair cycle of PSII under environmental stresses. However, evolutions of photosystem (PS) complexes from evolutionarily divergent species are largely unknown. Here, we improved the blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) separation method and successfully separated PS complexes from all terrestrial plants. It is well known that reversible D1 protein phosphorylation is an important protective mechanism against oxidative damages to chloroplasts through the PSII photoinhibition-repair cycle. The results indicate that antibody-detectable phosphorylation of D1 protein is the latest event in the evolution of PS protein phosphorylation and occurs exclusively in seed plants. Compared to angiosperms, other terrestrial plant species presented much lower contents of PS supercomplexes. The amount of light-harvesting complexes II (LHCII) trimers was higher than that of LHCII monomers in angiosperms, whereas it was opposite in gymnosperms, pteridophytes, and bryophytes. LHCII assembly may be one of the evolutionary characteristics of vascular plants. In vivo chloroplast fluorescence measurements indicated that lower plants (bryophytes especially) showed slower changes in state transition and nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) in response to light shifts. Therefore, the evolution of PS supercomplexes may be correlated with their acclimations to environments.
Project description:Grana are a characteristic feature of higher plants' thylakoid membranes, consisting of stacks of appressed membranes enriched in Photosystem II (PSII) and associated light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) proteins, together forming the PSII-LHCII supercomplex. Grana stacks undergo light-dependent structural changes, mainly by reorganizing the supramolecular structure of PSII-LHCII supercomplexes. LHCII is vital for grana formation, in which also PSII-LHCII supercomplexes are involved. By combining top-down and crosslinking mass spectrometry we uncover the spatial organization of paired PSII-LHCII supercomplexes within thylakoid membranes. The resulting model highlights a basic molecular mechanism whereby plants maintain grana stacking at changing light conditions. This mechanism relies on interactions between stroma-exposed N-terminal loops of LHCII trimers and Lhcb4 subunits facing each other in adjacent membranes. The combination of light-dependent LHCII N-terminal trimming and extensive N-terminal α-acetylation likely affects interactions between pairs of PSII-LHCII supercomplexes across the stromal gap, ultimately mediating membrane folding in grana stacks.
Project description:In higher plant thylakoids, the heterogeneous distribution of photosynthetic protein complexes is a determinant for the formation of grana, stacks of membrane discs that are densely populated with Photosystem II (PSII) and its light harvesting complex (LHCII). PSII associates with LHCII to form the PSII-LHCII supercomplex, a crucial component for solar energy conversion. Here, we report a biochemical, structural and functional characterization of pairs of PSII-LHCII supercomplexes, which were isolated under physiologically-relevant cation concentrations. Using single-particle cryo-electron microscopy, we determined the three-dimensional structure of paired C2S2M PSII-LHCII supercomplexes at 14?Å resolution. The two supercomplexes interact on their stromal sides through a specific overlap between apposing LHCII trimers and via physical connections that span the stromal gap, one of which is likely formed by interactions between the N-terminal loops of two Lhcb4 monomeric LHCII subunits. Fast chlorophyll fluorescence induction analysis showed that paired PSII-LHCII supercomplexes are energetically coupled. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed that additional flexible physical connections may form between the apposing LHCII trimers of paired PSII-LHCII supercomplexes in appressed thylakoid membranes. Our findings provide new insights into how interactions between pairs of PSII-LHCII supercomplexes can link adjacent thylakoids to mediate the stacking of grana membranes.
Project description:Thylakoid phosphorylation is predominantly mediated by the protein kinases STN7 and STN8. While STN7 primarily catalyzes LHCII phosphorylation, which enables LHCII to migrate from photosystem (PS) II to PSI, STN8 mainly phosphorylates PSII core proteins. The reversible phosphorylation of PSII core proteins is thought to regulate the PSII repair cycle and PSII supercomplex stability, and play a role in modulating the folding of thylakoid membranes. Earlier studies clearly demonstrated a considerable substrate overlap between the two STN kinases, raising the possibility of a balanced interdependence between them at either the protein or activity level. Here, we show that such an interdependence of the STN kinases on protein level does not seem to exist as neither knock-out nor overexpression of STN7 or STN8 affects accumulation of the other. STN7 and STN8 are both shown to be integral thylakoid proteins that form part of molecular supercomplexes, but exhibit different spatial distributions and are subject to different modes of regulation. Evidence is presented for the existence of a second redox-sensitive motif in STN7, which seems to be targeted by thioredoxin f. Effects of altered STN8 levels on PSII core phosphorylation, supercomplex formation, photosynthetic performance and thylakoid ultrastructure were analyzed in Arabidopsis thaliana using STN8-overexpressing plants (oeSTN8). In general, oeSTN8 plants were less sensitive to intense light and exhibited changes in thylakoid ultrastructure, with grana stacks containing more layers and reduced amounts of PSII supercomplexes. Hence, we conclude that STN8 acts in an amount-dependent manner similar to what was shown for STN7 in previous studies. However, the modes of regulation of the STN kinases appear to differ significantly.
Project description:Photosystem II (PSII) complexes are organized into large supercomplexes with variable amounts of light-harvesting proteins (Lhcb). A typical PSII supercomplex in plants is formed by four trimers of Lhcb proteins (LHCII trimers), which are bound to the PSII core dimer via monomeric antenna proteins. However, the architecture of PSII supercomplexes in Norway spruce[Picea abies (L.) Karst.] is different, most likely due to a lack of two Lhcb proteins, Lhcb6 and Lhcb3. Interestingly, the spruce PSII supercomplex shares similar structural features with its counterpart in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii [Kou?il et al. (2016) New Phytol. 210, 808-814]. Here we present a single-particle electron microscopy study of isolated PSII supercomplexes from Norway spruce that revealed binding of a variable amount of LHCII trimers to the PSII core dimer at positions that have never been observed in any other plant species so far. The largest spruce PSII supercomplex, which was found to bind eight LHCII trimers, is even larger than the current largest known PSII supercomplex from C. reinhardtii. We have also shown that the spruce PSII supercomplexes can form various types of PSII megacomplexes, which were also identified in intact grana membranes. Some of these large PSII supercomplexes and megacomplexes were identified also in Pinus sylvestris, another representative of the Pinaceae family. The structural variability and complexity of LHCII organization in Pinaceae seems to be related to the absence of Lhcb6 and Lhcb3 in this family, and may be beneficial for the optimization of light-harvesting under varying environmental conditions.
Project description:An intriguing molecular architecture called the "semi-crystalline photosystem II (PSII) array" has been observed in the thylakoid membranes in vascular plants. It is an array of PSII-light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) supercomplexes that only appears in low light, but its functional role has not been clarified. Here, we identified PSII-LHCII supercomplexes in their monomeric and multimeric forms in low light-acclimated spinach leaves and prepared them using sucrose-density gradient ultracentrifugation in the presence of amphipol A8-35. When the leaves were acclimated to high light, only the monomeric forms were present, suggesting that the multimeric forms represent a structural adaptation to low light and that disaggregation of the PSII-LHCII supercomplex represents an adaptation to high light. Single-particle EM revealed that the multimeric PSII-LHCII supercomplexes are composed of two ("megacomplex") or three ("arraycomplex") units of PSII-LHCII supercomplexes, which likely constitute a fraction of the semi-crystalline PSII array. Further characterization with fluorescence analysis revealed that multimeric forms have a higher light-harvesting capability but a lower thermal dissipation capability than the monomeric form. These findings suggest that the configurational conversion of PSII-LHCII supercomplexes may serve as a structural basis for acclimation of plants to environmental light.
Project description:In plants, photosystem II (PSII) associates with light-harvesting complexes II (LHCII) to form PSII-LHCII supercomplexes. They are multi-subunit supramolecular systems embedded in the thylakoid membrane of chloroplast, functioning as energy-converting and water-splitting machinery powered by light energy. The high-resolution structure of a PSII-LHCII supercomplex, previously solved through cryo-electron microscopy, revealed 34 well-defined lipid molecules per monomer of the homodimeric system. Here we characterize the distribution of lipid-binding sites in plant PSII-LHCII supercomplex and summarize their arrangement pattern within and across the membrane. These lipid molecules have crucial roles in stabilizing the oligomerization interfaces of plant PSII dimer and LHCII trimer. Moreover, they also mediate the interactions among PSII core subunits and contribute to the assembly between peripheral antenna complexes and PSII core. The detailed information of lipid-binding sites within PSII-LHCII supercomplex may serve as a framework for future researches on the functional roles of lipids in plant photosynthesis.
Project description:The light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis take place in the plant chloroplast thylakoid membrane, a complex three-dimensional structure divided into the stacked grana and unstacked stromal lamellae domains. Plants regulate the macro-organization of photosynthetic complexes within the thylakoid membrane to adapt to changing environmental conditions and avoid oxidative stress. One such mechanism is the state transition that regulates photosynthetic light harvesting and electron transfer. State transitions are driven by changes in the phosphorylation of light harvesting complex II (LHCII), which cause a decrease in grana diameter and stacking, a decrease in energetic connectivity between photosystem II (PSII) reaction centers, and an increase in the relative LHCII antenna size of photosystem I (PSI) compared to PSII. Phosphorylation is believed to drive these changes by weakening the intramembrane lateral PSII-LHCII and LHCII-LHCII interactions and the intermembrane stacking interactions between these complexes, while simultaneously increasing the affinity of LHCII for PSI. We investigated the relative roles and contributions of these three types of interaction to state transitions using a lattice-based model of the thylakoid membrane based on existing structural data, developing a novel algorithm to simulate protein complex dynamics. Monte Carlo simulations revealed that state transitions are unlikely to lead to a large-scale migration of LHCII from the grana to the stromal lamellae. Instead, the increased light harvesting capacity of PSI is largely due to the more efficient recruitment of LHCII already residing in the stromal lamellae into PSI-LHCII supercomplexes upon its phosphorylation. Likewise, the increased light harvesting capacity of PSII upon dephosphorylation was found to be driven by a more efficient recruitment of LHCII already residing in the grana into functional PSII-LHCII clusters, primarily driven by lateral interactions.
Project description:We investigated the organization of photosystem II (PSII) in agranal bundle sheath thylakoids from a C(4) plant maize. Using blue native/SDS-PAGE and single particle analysis, we show for the first time that PSII in the bundle sheath (BS) chloroplasts exists in a dimeric form and forms light-harvesting complex II (LHCII).PSII supercomplexes. We also demonstrate that a similar set of photosynthetic membrane complexes exists in mesophyll and agranal BS chloroplasts, including intact LHCI.PSI supercomplexes, PSI monomers, PSII core dimers, PSII monomers devoid of CP43, LHCII trimers, LHCII monomers, ATP synthase, and cytochrome b(6)f complex. Fluorescence functional measurements clearly indicate that BS chloroplasts contain PSII complexes that are capable of performing charge separation and are efficiently sensitized by the associated LHCII. We identified a fraction of LHCII present within BS thylakoids that is weakly energetically coupled to the PSII reaction center; however, the majority of BS LHCII is shown to be tightly connected to PSII. Overall, we demonstrate that organization of the photosynthetic apparatus in BS agranal chloroplasts of a model C(4) plant is clearly distinct from that of the stroma lamellae of the C(3) plants. In particular, supramolecular organization of the dimeric LHCII.PSII in the BS thylakoids strongly suggests that PSII in the BS agranal membranes may donate electrons to PSI. We propose that the residual PSII activity may supply electrons to poise cyclic electron flow around PSI and prevent PSI overoxidation, which is essential for the CO(2) fixation in BS cells, and hence, may optimize ATP production within this compartment.
Project description:In plant <i>grana</i> thylakoid membranes Photosystem II (PSII) associates with a variable number of antenna proteins (LHCII) to form different types of supercomplexes (PSII-LHCII), whose organization is dynamically adjusted in response to light cues, with the C<sub>2</sub>S<sub>2</sub> more abundant in high-light and the C<sub>2</sub>S<sub>2</sub>M<sub>2</sub> in low-light. Paired PSII-LHCII supercomplexes interacting at their stromal surface from adjacent thylakoid membranes were previously suggested to mediate <i>grana</i> stacking. Here, we present the cryo-electron microscopy maps of paired C<sub>2</sub>S<sub>2</sub> and C<sub>2</sub>S<sub>2</sub>M<sub>2</sub> supercomplexes isolated from pea plants grown in high-light and low-light, respectively. These maps show a different rotational offset between the two supercomplexes in the pair, responsible for modifying their reciprocal interaction and energetic connectivity. This evidence reveals a different way by which paired PSII-LHCII supercomplexes can mediate <i>grana</i> stacking at diverse irradiances. Electrostatic stromal interactions between LHCII trimers almost completely overlapping in the paired C<sub>2</sub>S<sub>2</sub> can be the main determinant by which PSII-LHCII supercomplexes mediate <i>grana</i> stacking in plants grown in high-light, whereas the mutual interaction of stromal N-terminal loops of two facing Lhcb4 subunits in the paired C<sub>2</sub>S<sub>2</sub>M<sub>2</sub> can fulfil this task in plants grown in low-light. The high-light induced accumulation of the Lhcb4.3 protein in PSII-LHCII supercomplexes has been previously reported. Our cryo-electron microscopy map at 3.8 Å resolution of the C<sub>2</sub>S<sub>2</sub> supercomplex isolated from plants grown in high-light suggests the presence of the Lhcb4.3 protein revealing peculiar structural features of this high-light-specific antenna important for photoprotection.
Project description:Plants and green algae maintain efficient photosynthesis under changing light environments by adjusting their light-harvesting capacity. It has been suggested that energy redistribution is brought about by shuttling the light-harvesting antenna complex II (LHCII) between photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI) (state transitions), but such molecular remodeling has never been demonstrated in vivo. Here, using chlorophyll fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, we visualized phospho-LHCII dissociation from PSII in live cells of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Induction of energy redistribution in wild-type cells led to an increase in, and spreading of, a 250-ps lifetime chlorophyll fluorescence component, which was not observed in the stt7 mutant incapable of state transitions. The 250-ps component was also the dominant component in a mutant containing the light-harvesting antenna complexes but no photosystems. The appearance of the 250-ps component was accompanied by activation of LHCII phosphorylation, supporting the visualization of phospho-LHCII dissociation. Possible implications of the unbound phospho-LHCII on energy dissipation are discussed.