HGF-induced migration depends on the PI(3,4,5)P3-binding microexon-spliced variant of the Arf6 exchange factor cytohesin-1.
ABSTRACT: Differential inclusion or skipping of microexons is an increasingly recognized class of alternative splicing events. However, the functional significance of microexons and their contribution to signaling diversity is poorly understood. The Met receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) modulates invasive growth and migration in development and cancer. Here, we show that microexon switching in the Arf6 guanine nucleotide exchange factor cytohesin-1 controls Met-dependent cell migration. Cytohesin-1 isoforms, differing by the inclusion of an evolutionarily conserved three-nucleotide microexon in the pleckstrin homology domain, display differential affinity for PI(4,5)P2 (triglycine) and PI(3,4,5)P3 (diglycine). We show that selective phosphoinositide recognition by cytohesin-1 isoforms promotes distinct subcellular localizations, whereby the triglycine isoform localizes to the plasma membrane and the diglycine to the leading edge. These data highlight microexon skipping as a mechanism to spatially restrict signaling and provide a mechanistic link between RTK-initiated phosphoinositide microdomains and Arf6 during signal transduction and cancer cell migration.
Project description:ARL4D is a developmentally regulated member of the ADP-ribosylation factor/ARF-like protein (ARF/ARL) family of Ras-related GTPases. Although the primary structure of ARL4D is very similar to that of other ARF/ARL molecules, its function remains unclear. Cytohesin-2/ARF nucleotide-binding-site opener (ARNO) is a guanine nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF) for ARF, and, at the plasma membrane, it can activate ARF6 to regulate actin reorganization and membrane ruffling. We show here that ARL4D interacts with the C-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) and polybasic c domains of cytohesin-2/ARNO in a GTP-dependent manner. Localization of ARL4D at the plasma membrane is GTP- and N-terminal myristoylation-dependent. ARL4D(Q80L), a putative active form of ARL4D, induced accumulation of cytohesin-2/ARNO at the plasma membrane. Consistent with a known action of cytohesin-2/ARNO, ARL4D(Q80L) increased GTP-bound ARF6 and induced disassembly of actin stress fibers. Expression of inactive cytohesin-2/ARNO(E156K) or small interfering RNA knockdown of cytohesin-2/ARNO blocked ARL4D-mediated disassembly of actin stress fibers. Similar to the results with cytohesin-2/ARNO or ARF6, reduction of ARL4D suppressed cell migration activity. Furthermore, ARL4D-induced translocation of cytohesin-2/ARNO did not require phosphoinositide 3-kinase activation. Together, these data demonstrate that ARL4D acts as a novel upstream regulator of cytohesin-2/ARNO to promote ARF6 activation and modulate actin remodeling.
Project description:The formation of primitive adipose tissue is the initial process in adipose tissue development followed by the migration of preadipocytes into adipocyte clusters. Comparatively little is known about the molecular mechanism controlling preadipocyte migration. Here, we show that cytohesin-2, the guanine-nucleotide exchange factor for the Arf family GTP-binding proteins, regulates migration of mouse preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells through Arf6. SecinH3, a specific inhibitor of the cytohesin family, markedly inhibits migration of 3T3-L1 cells. 3T3-L1 cells express cytohesin-2 and cytohesin-3, and knockdown of cytohesin-2 with its small interfering RNA effectively decreases cell migration. Cytohesin-2 preferentially acts upstream of Arf6 in this signaling pathway. Furthermore, we find that the focal adhesion protein paxillin forms a complex with cytohesin-2. Paxillin colocalizes with cytohesin-2 at the leading edges of migrating cells. This interaction is mediated by the LIM2 domain of paxillin and the isolated polybasic region of cytohesin-2. Importantly, migration is inhibited by expression of the constructs containing these regions. These results suggest that cytohesin-2, through a previously unexplored complex formation with paxillin, regulates preadipocyte migration and that paxillin plays a previously unknown role as a scaffold protein of Arf guanine-nucleotide exchange factor.
Project description:ADP-ribosylation actor 6 (ARF6) regulates the endocytosis and recycling of a variety of proteins and also promotes peripheral actin rearrangements and cell motility. ARF6 is activated by a large number of guanine nucleotide exchange factors, which likely regulate ARF6 at different locations and during different processes. In this study we investigate the roles of the cytohesin ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF)-guanine nucleotide exchange factors during the recycling of integrin beta1. Intriguingly, we find that knockdown and overexpression of ARNO/cytohesin 2 and GRP1/cytohesin 3 have opposing effects on cell adhesion and spreading on fibronectin and on cell migration. We find that ARNO/cytohesin 2 is required for integrin beta1 recycling, whereas GRP1/cytohesin 3 is dispensable for this process. This is the first demonstration of unique roles for these proteins.
Project description:Purpose: The goal of this study was to assess the status of splicing changes in microexons in the cortex of individuals with autism. Methods: We performed RiboZero Gold (rRNA depleted) 50bp PE RNA-seq in a larger set of case and control samples to define 12 autism and 12 control samples showing the greatest global differential gene expression change. These samples, which show differential expression of the splicing regulator SRRM4, were used to evaluate global splicing changes. Results: Within these samples, 126 of 504 (30%) detected alternative microexons display a mean ?PSI > 10 between ASD and control subjects of which 113 (90%) also display neural-differential regulation. By contrast, only 825 of 15,405 (5.4%) longer (i.e. >27 nt) exons show such misregulation, of which 285 (35%) correspond to neural-regulated exons. Notably, we also observe significantly higher correlations between microexon inclusion and nSR100 mRNA expression levels across the stratified ASD samples and controls, for those microexons regulated by nSR100 relative to those microexons that are not regulated by this factor (p=1.4×10-7, Wilcoxon Sum Rank test). Conclusions: These data suggest microexon regulation is a potentially important mechanism underlying ASD and likely other neurodevelopmental disorders 12 case samples representing a more extreme autism gene expression signature and 12 representative controls; raw data have been submitted to dbGaP
Project description:The small GTPase ARL4C participates in the regulation of cell migration, cytoskeletal rearrangements, and vesicular trafficking in epithelial cells. The ARL4C signaling cascade starts by the recruitment of the ARF-GEF cytohesins to the plasma membrane, which, in turn, bind and activate the small GTPase ARF6. However, the role of ARL4C-cytohesin-ARF6 signaling during hippocampal development remains elusive. Here, we report that the E3 ubiquitin ligase Cullin 5/RBX2 (CRL5) controls the stability of ARL4C and its signaling effectors to regulate hippocampal morphogenesis. Both RBX2 knockout and Cullin 5 knockdown cause hippocampal pyramidal neuron mislocalization and development of multiple apical dendrites. We used quantitative mass spectrometry to show that ARL4C, Cytohesin-1/3, and ARF6 accumulate in the RBX2 mutant telencephalon. Furthermore, we show that depletion of ARL4C rescues the phenotypes caused by Cullin 5 knockdown, whereas depletion of CYTH1 or ARF6 exacerbates overmigration. Finally, we show that ARL4C, CYTH1, and ARF6 are necessary for the dendritic outgrowth of pyramidal neurons to the superficial strata of the hippocampus. Overall, we identified CRL5 as a key regulator of hippocampal development and uncovered ARL4C, CYTH1, and ARF6 as CRL5-regulated signaling effectors that control pyramidal neuron migration and dendritogenesis.
Project description:Oligodendrocyte precursor cells differentiate to produce myelin sheaths that insulate axons to ensure fast propagation of action potentials. Many aspects of differentiation are regulated by multiple extracellular signals. However, their intracellular signalings remain elusive. We show that Rab35 and its effector, ACAP2, a GTPase-activating protein that switches off Arf6 activity, negatively regulate oligodendrocyte morphological differentiation. Knockdown of Rab35 or ACAP2 with their respective small interfering RNAs promotes differentiation. As differentiation initiates, the activities of Rab35 and ACAP2 are down-regulated. The activity of Arf6, in contrast, is up-regulated. Arf6 knockdown inhibits differentiation, indicating that Rab35 and ACAP2 negatively regulate differentiation by down-regulating Arf6. Importantly, as differentiation proceeds, the activity of cytohesin-2, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor that switches on Arf6 activity, is up-regulated. Pharmacological inhibition of cytohesin-2 inhibits differentiation, suggesting that cytohesin-2 promotes differentiation by activating Arf6. Furthermore, using oligodendrocyte-neuronal cocultures, we find that knockdown of Rab35 or ACAP2 promotes myelination, whereas inhibition of cytohesin-2 or knockdown of Arf6 inhibits myelination. Thus Rab35/ACAP2 and cytohesin-2 antagonistically control oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination through Arf6 regulation, presenting a unique small GTPase on/off switching mechanism.
Project description:Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a potent signaling factor that acts on epithelial cells, causing them to dissociate and scatter. This migration is coordinated by a number of small GTPases, such as ARF6 and Rac1. Active ARF6 is required for HGF-stimulated migration and intracellular levels of ARF6-GTP and Rac1-GTP increase following HGF treatment. During migration, cross talk between ARF6 and Rac1 occurs through formation of a multi-protein complex containing the ARF-GEF cytohesin-2, the scaffolding protein GRASP/Tamalin, and the Rac1-GEF Dock180. Previously, the role of ARF6 in this process was unclear. We have now found that ARF6 and ARF1 regulate trafficking of GRASP and Dock180 to the plasma membrane following HGF treatment. Trafficking of GRASP and Dock180 is impaired by blocking ARF6-mediated recycling pathways and is required for HGF-stimulated Rac1 activation. Finally, HGF treatment stimulates association of GRASP and Dock180. Inhibition of ARF6 trafficking pathways traps GRASP and Dock180 as a complex in the cell.
Project description:Entry into cells is critical for virulence of the human bacterial pathogens Shigella spp. Shigella spp. induce membrane ruffle formation and macropinocytic uptake, but the events instigating this process are incompletely understood. The host small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6) functions in membrane trafficking at the plasma membrane and activates membrane ruffle formation. We demonstrate that ARF6 is required for efficient Shigella flexneri entry, is activated by S. flexneri dependent on the phosphatase activity of the type III secreted effector IpgD, and depends on cytohesin guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for recruitment to entry sites. The cytohesin GEF ARF nucleotide binding site opener (ARNO) is recruited to these sites, also dependent on IpgD phosphatase activity. ARNO recruitment is independent of ARF6, indicating that, in addition to the described recruitment of ARNO by ARF6, ARNO is recruited upstream of ARF6. Our data provide evidence that ARF6, IpgD, phosphoinositide species, and ARNO constitute a previously undescribed positive feedback loop that amplifies ARF6 activation at bacterial entry sites, thereby promoting efficient S. flexneri uptake.Shigella spp. cause diarrhea and dysentery by infection of epithelial cells in the human colon. Critical to disease is the ability of Shigella to enter into cells, yet the mechanisms involved in entry are incompletely understood. We demonstrate that the small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6) is required for efficient cellular entry of Shigella flexneri and that activation of ARF6 depends on the phosphatase activity of the Shigella protein IpgD, which is introduced into cells via the bacterial type III secretion system. We further show that IpgD phosphatase activity is required for recruitment of the ARF6 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) ARF nucleotide binding site opener (ARNO) to bacterial entry sites and that ARNO lies upstream of ARF6 activation. These relationships define a positive feedback loop that contributes to activation of ARF6 at S. flexneri entry sites and leads to local amplification of signals that promote bacterial entry.
Project description:Alternative splicing (AS) generates vast transcriptomic and proteomic complexity. However, which of the myriad of detected AS events provide important biological functions is not well understood. Here, we define the largest program of functionally coordinated, neural-regulated AS described to date in mammals. Relative to all other types of AS within this program, 3-15 nucleotide "microexons" display the most striking evolutionary conservation and switch-like regulation. These microexons modulate the function of interaction domains of proteins involved in neurogenesis. Most neural microexons are regulated by the neuronal-specific splicing factor nSR100/SRRM4, through its binding to adjacent intronic enhancer motifs. Neural microexons are frequently misregulated in the brains of individuals with autism spectrum disorder, and this misregulation is associated with reduced levels of nSR100. The results thus reveal a highly conserved program of dynamic microexon regulation associated with the remodeling of protein-interaction networks during neurogenesis, the misregulation of which is linked to autism.
Project description:The mechanism of neurite growth is complicated, involving continuous cytoskeletal rearrangement and vesicular trafficking. Cytohesin-2 is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Arf6, an Arf family molecular switch protein, controlling cell morphological changes such as neuritogenesis. Here, we show that cytohesin-2 binds to a protein with a previously unknown function, CCDC120, which contains three coiled-coil domains, and is transported along neurites in differentiating N1E-115 cells. Transfection of the small interfering RNA (siRNA) specific for CCDC120 into cells inhibits neurite growth and Arf6 activation. When neurites start to extend, vesicles containing CCDC120 and cytohesin-2 are transported in an anterograde manner rather than a retrograde one. As neurites continue extension, anterograde vesicle transport decreases. CCDC120 knockdown inhibits cytohesin-2 localization into vesicles containing CCDC120 and diffuses cytohesin-2 in cytoplasmic regions, illustrating that CCDC120 determines cytohesin-2 localization in growing neurites. Reintroduction of the wild type CCDC120 construct into cells transfected with CCDC120 siRNA reverses blunted neurite growth and Arf6 activity, whereas the cytohesin-2-binding CC1 region-deficient CCDC120 construct does not. Thus, cytohesin-2 is transported along neurites by vesicles containing CCDC120, and it mediates neurite growth. These results suggest a mechanism by which guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Arf6 is transported to mediate neurite growth.