Short-term mortality in older medical emergency patients can be predicted using clinical intuition: A prospective study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Older emergency department (ED) patients are at risk for adverse outcomes, however, it is hard to predict these. We aimed to assess the discriminatory value of clinical intuition, operationalized as disease perception, self-rated health and first clinical impression, including the 30-day surprise question (SQ: "Would I be surprised if this patient died in the next 30 days" of patients, nurses and physicians. Endpoints used to evaluate the discriminatory value of clinical intuition were short-term (30-day) mortality and other adverse outcomes (intensive/medium care admission, prolonged length of hospital stay, loss of independent living or 30-day readmission). METHODS:In this prospective, multicentre cohort study, older medical patients (?65 years), nurses and physicians filled in scores regarding severity of illness and their concerns (i.e. disease perception and clinical impression scores) immediately after arrival of the patient in the ED. In addition, patients filled in a self-rated health score and nurses and physicians answered the SQ. Area under the curves (AUCs) of receiver operating characteristics (ROCs) were calculated. RESULTS:The median age of the 602 included patients was 79 years and 86.7% were community dwelling. Within 30 days, 66 (11.0%) patients died and 263 (43.7%) patients met the composite endpoint. The severity of concern score of both nurses and physicians yielded the highest AUCs for 30-day mortality (for both 0.75; 95%CI 0.68-0.81). AUCs for the severity of illness score and SQ of nurses and physicians ranged from 0.71 to 0.74 while those for the disease perception and self-rated health of patients ranged from 0.64 to 0.69. The discriminatory value of the scores for the composite endpoint was lower (AUCs ranging from 0.60 to 0.67). We used scores that have not been previously validated which could influence their generalisability. CONCLUSION:Clinical intuition,-disease perception, self-rated health and first clinical impression-documented at an early stage after arrival in the ED, is a useful clinical tool to predict mortality and other adverse outcomes in older ED patients. Highest discriminatory values were found for the nurses' and physicians' severity of concern score. Intuition may be helpful for the implementation of personalised medical care in the future.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Older patients (≥65 years old) experience high rates of adverse outcomes after an emergency department (ED) visit. Reliable tools to predict adverse outcomes in this population are lacking. This manuscript comprises a study protocol for the Risk Stratification in the Emergency Department in Acutely Ill Older Patients (RISE UP) study that aims to identify predictors of adverse outcome (including triage- and risk stratification scores) and intends to design a feasible prediction model for older patients that can be used in the ED. METHODS:The RISE UP study is a prospective observational multicentre cohort study in older (≥65 years of age) ED patients treated by internists or gastroenterologists in Zuyderland Medical Centre and Maastricht University Medical Centre+ in the Netherlands. After obtaining informed consent, patients characteristics, vital signs, functional status and routine laboratory tests will be retrieved. In addition, disease perception questionnaires will be filled out by patients or their caregivers and clinical impression questionnaires by nurses and physicians. Moreover, both arterial and venous blood samples will be taken in order to determine additional biomarkers. The discriminatory value of triage- and risk stratification scores, clinical impression scores and laboratory tests will be evaluated. Univariable logistic regression will be used to identify predictors of adverse outcomes. With these data we intend to develop a clinical prediction model for 30-day mortality using multivariable logistic regression. This model will be validated in an external cohort. Our primary endpoint is 30-day all-cause mortality. The secondary (composite) endpoint consist of 30-day mortality, length of hospital stay, admission to intensive- or medium care units, readmission and loss of independent living. Patients will be followed up for at least 30 days and, if possible, for one year. DISCUSSION:In this study, we will retrieve a broad range of data concerning adverse outcomes in older patients visiting the ED with medical problems. We intend to develop a clinical tool for identification of older patients at risk of adverse outcomes that is feasible for use in the ED, in order to improve clinical decision making and medical care. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Retrospectively registered on clinicaltrials.gov ( NCT02946398 ; 9/20/2016).
Project description:Introduction:Older patients frequently present to the emergency department (ED) with nonspecific complaints (NSC), such as generalized weakness. They are at risk of adverse outcomes, and early risk stratification is crucial. Triage using Emergency Severity Index (ESI) is reliable and valid, but older patients are prone to undertriage, most often at decision point D. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive power of additional clinical parameters in NSC patients. Methods:Baseline demographics, vital signs, and deterioration of activity of daily living (ADL) in patients with NSC were prospectively assessed at four EDs. Physicians scored the coherence of history and their first impression. For prediction of 30-day mortality, we combined vital signs at decision point D (heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation) as "ESI vital," and added "ADL deterioration," "incoherence of history," or "first impression," using logistic regression models. Results:We included 948 patients with a median age of 81 years, 62% of whom were female. The baseline parameters at decision point D (ESI vital) showed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.64 for predicting 30-day mortality in NSC patients. AUCs increased to 0.67 by adding ADL deterioration to 0.66 by adding incoherence of history, and to 0.71 by adding first impression. Maximal AUC was 0.73, combining all parameters. Conclusion:Adding the physicians' first impressions to vital signs at decision point D increases predictive power of 30-day mortality significantly. Therefore, a modified ESI could improve predictive power of triage in older patients presenting with NSCs.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The process of prognostication has not been described for acutely hospitalized older patients. OBJECTIVE: To investigate (1) which factors are associated with 90-day mortality risk in a group of acutely hospitalized older medical patients, and (2) whether adding a clinical impression score of nurses or physicians improves the discriminatory ability of mortality prediction. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Four hundred and sixty-three medical patients 65 years or older acutely admitted from November 1, 2002, through July 1, 2005, to a 1024-bed tertiary university teaching hospital. MEASUREMENTS: At admission, the attending nurse and physician were asked to give a clinical impression score for the illness the patient was admitted for. This score ranged from 1 (high possibility of a good outcome) until 10 (high possibility of a bad outcome, including mortality). Of all patients baseline characteristics and clinical parameters were collected. Mortality was registered up to 90 days after admission. MAIN RESULTS: In total, 23.8% (n = 110) of patients died within 90 days of admission. Four parameters were significantly associated with mortality risk: functional impairment, diagnosis malignancy, co-morbidities and high urea nitrogen serum levels. The AUC for the baseline model which included these risk factors (model 1) was 0.76 (95% CI 0.71 to 0.82). The AUC for the model using the risk factors and the clinical impression score of the physician (model 2) was 0.77 (0.71 to 0.82). The AUC for the model using the risk factors and the clinical impression score of the nurse (model 3) was 0.76 (0.71 to 0.82) and the AUC for the model, including the baseline covariates and the clinical impression score of both nurses and physicians was 0.77 (0.72 to 0.82). Adding clinical impression scores to model 1 did not significantly improve its accuracy. CONCLUSION: A set of four clinical variables predicted mortality risk in acutely hospitalized older patients quite well. Adding clinical impression scores of nurses, physicians or both did not improve the discriminating ability of the model.
Project description:The focus on acute care, time pressure, and lack of resources hamper the delivery of smoking cessation interventions in the emergency department (ED). The aim of this study was to 1) determine the effect of an emergency nurse-initiated intervention on delivery of smoking cessation counseling based on the 5As framework (ask-advise-assess-assist-arrange) and 2) assess ED nurses' and physicians' perceptions of smoking cessation counseling.The authors conducted a pre-post trial in 789 adult smokers (five or more cigarettes/day) who presented to two EDs. The intervention focused on improving delivery of the 5As by ED nurses and physicians and included face-to-face training and an online tutorial, use of a charting/reminder tool, fax referral of motivated smokers to the state tobacco quitline for proactive telephone counseling, and group feedback to ED staff. To assess ED performance of cessation counseling, a telephone interview of subjects was conducted shortly after the ED visit. Nurses' and physicians' self-efficacy, role satisfaction, and attitudes toward smoking cessation counseling were assessed by survey. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the effect of the intervention on performance of the 5As, while adjusting for key covariates.Of 650 smokers who completed the post-ED interview, a greater proportion had been asked about smoking by an ED nurse (68% vs. 53%, adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3 to 2.9), assessed for willingness to quit (31% vs. 9%, adjusted OR= 4.9, 95% CI = 2.9 to 7.9), and assisted in quitting (23% vs. 6%, adjusted OR = 5.1, 95% CI = 2.7 to 9.5) and had arrangements for follow-up cessation counseling (7% vs. 1%, adjusted OR = 7.1, 95% CI = 2.3 to 21) during the intervention compared to the baseline period. A similar increase was observed for emergency physicians (EPs). ED nurses' self-efficacy and role satisfaction in cessation counseling significantly improved following the intervention; however, there was no change in "pros" and "cons" attitudes toward smoking cessation in either ED nurses or physicians.Emergency department nurses and physicians can effectively deliver smoking cessation counseling to smokers in a time-efficient manner. This trial also provides empirical support for expert recommendations that call for nursing staff to play a larger role in delivering public health interventions in the ED.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess nurses' self-reported confidence in their professional skills before and after an extensive Emergency Department (ED) reform in Kanta-Häme Central Hospital. METHODS: Emergency nurses participated in transitional training commencing two years before the establishment of the new organization in 2007. Training was followed by weekly practical educational sessions in the new ED. During this process nurses improved their transition skills, defined house rules for the new clinic and improved their knowledge of new technology and instruments. The main processes involving critically ill ED patients were described and modelled with an electronic flow chart software.During the transitional training nurses compiled lists of practical skills and measures needed in the ED. These were updated after feedback from physicians in primary and secondary care and head physicians in Kanta-Häme Central Hospital. The final 189-item list comprised 15 different categories, each containing from 4 to 35 items. Based on the work described above, a questionnaire was developed to reflect ED nurses' skills in clinical measures but also to estimate the need for professional education and practical training. Nurses working in the ED were asked to fill the questionnaire in January 2007 (response rate 97%) and in January 2011 (response rate 98%). RESULTS: Nurses' self-reported confidence in their professional skills improved significally in eight classes out of fifteen. These classes were cannulations, urinary catheterizations, patient monitoring, cardiac patients, equipment, triage and nurse practising, psychiatric patients as well as infection risk. Best results were noted in urinary catheterizations, patient monitoring and infection risk. When studying the group of nurses participating in both surveys in 2007 and 2011, improvements were observed in all fifteen categories. All but two of these changes were significant (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: During an extensive reform of emergency services, we noted a significant improvement in the professional skills of nurses. This improvement was especially consistent among nurses working in the ED during the whole transition process. Nurses' education and training program in the ED may be successfully put into practice when based on co-operation between nurses and physicians dedicated to emergency services.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Because physicians and nurses are commonly stressed, Bispectral Index™ (BIS) neurofeedback, following trainer instructions, was used to learn to lower the electroencephalography-derived BIS value, indicating that a state of receptive awareness (relaxed alertness) had been achieved. RESULTS:Ten physicians/nurses participated in 21 learning days with 9 undergoing ≤ 3 days. The BIS-nadir for the 21 days was decreased (88.7) compared to baseline (97.0; p < 0.01). From 21 wellbeing surveys, moderately-to-extremely rated stress responses were a feeling of irritation 38.1%; nervousness 14.3%; over-reacting 28.6%; tension 66.7%; being overwhelmed 38.1%; being drained 38.1%; and people being too demanding 52.4% (57.1% had ≥ 2 stress indicators). Quite a bit-to-extremely rated positive-affect responses were restful sleep 28.6%; energetic 0%; and alert 47.6% (90.5% had ≥ 2 positive-affect responses rated as slightly-to-moderately). For 1 subject who underwent 4 learning days, mean BIS was lower on day 4 (95.1) than on day 1 (96.8; p < 0.01). The wellbeing score increased 23.3% on day 4 (37) compared to day 1 (30). Changes in BIS values provide evidence that brainwave self-regulation can be learned and may manifest with wellbeing. These findings suggest that stress and impairments in positive-affect are common in physicians/nurses. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03152331. Registered May 15, 2017.
Project description:The objective was to assess use of a physician handoff tool embedded in the electronic medical record by nurses and other non-physicians. We administered a survey to nurses, physical therapists, discharge planners, social workers, and others to assess integration into daily practice, usefulness, and accuracy of the handoff tool. 231 individuals (61% response) participated. 60% used the tool often or usually/always during a shift. Nurses (46%) used the tool for shift transitions and found it helpful for medical history (79%) but not for acquiring medication, allergy, and responsible physician information. Nurses (96%) and others (75%) rated the tool as accurate. Medical nurses rated the tool more useful than surgical nurses, and pediatric nurses rarely used the tool. The tool was integrated into the daily workflow of non-physicians despite being designed for physician use. Non-physicians should be included in the design and implementation of electronic patient handoff systems.
Project description:We sought to examine the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of emergency department (ED) providers concerning suicidal patient care and to identify characteristics associated with screening for suicidal ideation (SI).Six hundred thirty-one providers at eight EDs completed a voluntary, anonymous survey (79% response rate).The median participant age was 35 (interquartile range: 30-44) years and 57% of the participants were females. Half (48%) were nurses and half were attending (22%) or resident (30%) physicians. More expressed confidence in SI screening skills (81-91%) than in skills to assess risk severity (64-70%), counsel patients (46-56%), or create safety plans (23-40%), with some differences between providers. Few thought mental health provider staffing was almost always sufficient (6-20%) or that suicidal patient treatment was almost always a top ED priority (15-21%). More nurses (37%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 31-42%) than physicians (7%, 95% CI 4-10%) reported screening most or all patients for SI; this difference persisted after multivariable adjustment. In multivariable analysis, other factors associated with screening most or all patients for SI were self-confidence in skills, (odds ratio [OR] 1.60, 95% CI 1.17-2.18), feeling that suicidal patient care was a top ED priority (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.11-2.69) and 5+ postgraduate years of clinical experience (OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.03-4.13).ED providers reported confidence in suicide screening skills but gaps in further assessment, counseling, or referral skills. Efforts to promote better identification of suicidal patients should be accompanied by a commensurate effort to improve risk assessment and management skills, along with improved access to mental health specialists.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Emergency department (ED) physicians and nurses frequently interact with emotionally evocative patients, which can impact clinical decision-making and behaviour. This study introduces well-established methods from social psychology to investigate ED providers' reported emotional experiences and engagement in their own recent patient encounters, as well as perceived effects of emotion on patient care. METHODS:Ninety-four experienced ED providers (50 physicians and 44 nurses) vividly recalled and wrote about three recent patient encounters (qualitative data): one that elicited anger/frustration/irritation (angry encounter), one that elicited happiness/satisfaction/appreciation (positive encounter), and one with a patient with a mental health condition (mental health encounter). Providers rated their emotions and engagement in each encounter (quantitative data), and reported their perception of whether and how their emotions impacted their clinical decision-making and behaviour (qualitative data). RESULTS:Providers generated 282 encounter descriptions. Emotions reported in angry and mental health encounters were remarkably similar, highly negative, and associated with reports of low provider engagement compared with positive encounters. Providers reported their emotions influenced their clinical decision-making and behaviour most frequently in angry encounters, followed by mental health and then positive encounters. Emotions in angry and mental health encounters were associated with increased perceptions of patient safety risks; emotions in positive encounters were associated with perceptions of higher quality care. CONCLUSIONS:Positive and negative emotions can influence clinical decision-making and impact patient safety. Findings underscore the need for (1) education and training initiatives to promote awareness of emotional influences and to consider strategies for managing these influences, and (2) a comprehensive research agenda to facilitate discovery of evidence-based interventions to mitigate emotion-induced patient safety risks. The current work lays the foundation for testing novel interventions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Worldwide, policies exist on family presence during resuscitation (FPDR), however, this is still lacking in the Gulf Corporation Countries (GCC) in general and in the Kingdom of Bahrain in particular. The aim of this study is to assess the perspectives of healthcare providers (HP) on FPDR among those working in the emergency departments (EDs) in the Kingdom. METHODS:A self-administered anonymous electronic survey was collected from 146 HPs (emergency physicians and nurses) working in the three major EDs in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Besides demographic data, 18 items measuring HPs' perceptions of FPDR were generated using the 5-point Likert scale. RESULTS:Surveys (n?=?146) from physicians and nurses were analysed (45.9% vs. 54.1%, respectively). There were significant differences between physicians and nurses in terms of personal beliefs, FPDR enhancing professional satisfaction and behaviour, and the importance of a support person and saying goodbye (p?<?0.001). However, general responses demonstrated that the majority of HPs encouraged and supported FPDR, but with greater support from physicians than nurses. CONCLUSION:The study reflects that many HPs in EDs participated in and are familiar with FPDR, with the majority of ED physicians supporting it. Further studies should investigate the reasons for the lack of support from nurses. Results may contribute to the development of hospital ED policies that allow FPDR in the region.