Peri-prostatic Fat Volume Measurement as a Predictive Tool for Castration Resistance in Advanced Prostate Cancer.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Obesity and aggressive prostate cancer (PC) may be linked, but how local peri-prostatic fat relates to tumour response following androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is unknown. OBJECTIVE:To test if peri-prostatic fat volume (PPFV) predicts tumour response to ADT. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:We performed a retrospective study on consecutive patients receiving primary ADT. From staging pelvic magnetic resonance imaging scans, the PPFV was quantified with OsirixX 6.5 imaging software. Statistical (univariate and multivariate) analysis were performed using R Version 3.2.1. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS:Of 224 consecutive patients, 61 with advanced (?T3 or N1 or M1) disease had (3-mm high resolution axial sections) pelvic magnetic resonance imaging scan before ADT. Median age=75 yr; median PPFV=24.8cm3 (range, 7.4-139.4cm3). PPFV was significantly higher in patients who developed castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC; n=31), with a median of 37.9cm3 compared with 16.1cm3 (p <0.0001, Wilcoxon rank sum test) in patients who showed sustained response to ADT (n=30). Multivariate analysis using Cox proportional hazards models were performed controlling for known predictors of CRPC. PPFV was shown to be independent of all included factors, and the most significant predictor of time to CRPC. Using our multivariate model consisting of all known factors prior to ADT, PPFV significantly improved the area under the curve of the multivariate models receiver operating characteristic analysis. The main study limitation is a relatively small cohort to account for multiple variables, necessitating a future large-scale prospective analysis of PPFV in advanced PC. CONCLUSIONS:PPFV quantification in patients with advanced PC predicts tumour response to ADT. PATIENT SUMMARY:The amount of fat around the prostate predicts prostate cancer response to hormone treatment.
Project description:We investigated the diagnostic and prognostic potential of serum N-glycan profiling for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). We retrospectively investigated serum N-glycan structural analysis by glycoblotting for 287 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), 289 patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer (PC), 57 patients with PC treated with androgen-deprivation therapy without disease progression (PC-ADT), and 60 patients with CRPC. N-Glycan profiling was compared between the non-CRPC (BPH, newly diagnosed PC and PC-ADT) and CRPC patients. We obtained the quantitative score for CRPC (CRPC N-glycan score) by discriminant analysis based on the combination of 9 N-glycans that were significantly associated with CRPC. The median CRPC N-glycan score was found to be significantly greater in CRPC patients than in non-CRPC patients. The CRPC N-glycan score could classify CRPC patients with sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve of 87%, 69%, and 0.88, respectively. The CRPC N-glycan score >1.7 points was significantly associated with poor prognosis in patients with CRPC. The glycoprotein analysis showed that not immunoglobulins but ?-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) were a potential candidate for the carrier protein of N-glycans. The overexpression of specific N-glycans may be associated with their castration-resistant status and be a potential biomarker for CRPC.
Project description:The aim of the present study is to evaluate the impact of metastases-directed stereotactic body radiotherapy in two groups of oligometastatic prostate cancer (PC) patients: oligorecurrent PC and oligoprogressive castration-resistant PC (oligo-CRPC).Inclusion criteria of the present multicentre retrospective analysis were: (1) oligorecurrent PC, defined as the presence of 1-3 lesions (bone or nodes) detected with choline positron emission tomography or CT plus bone scan following biochemical recurrence; (2) oligo-CRPC, defined as metastases (bone or nodes) detected after a prostatic-specific antigen rise during androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Primary end points were: distant progression-free survival (DPFS) and ADT-free survival in oligorecurrent PC patients; DPFS and second-line systemic treatment-free survival in oligo-CRPC patients.About 100 patients with oligorecurrent PC (139 lesions) and 41 with oligo-CRPC (70 lesions), treated between March 2010 and April 2016, were analysed. After a median follow-up of 20.4 months, in the oligorecurrent group 1- and 2-year DPFS were 64.4 and 43%. The rate of LC was 92.8% at 2 years. At a median follow-up of 23.4 months, in the oligo-CRPC group 1- and 2-year DPFS were 43.2 and 21.6%. Limitations include the retrospective design.Stereotactic body radiotherapy seems to be a useful treatment both for oligorecurrent and oligo-CRPC.
Project description:PURPOSE:To determine whether SRD5A2 promoter methylation is associated with cancer progression during androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in CRPC. PATIENTS AND METHODS:In a Local CRPC cohort, 42 prostatic specimens were collected from patients who were diagnosed as CRPC and underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). In a metastatic CRPC (Met CRPC) cohort, 12 metastatic biopsies were collected from CRPC patients who would be treated with abiraterone plus dutasteride (Clinical Trial NCT01393730). As controls, 36 benign prostatic specimens were collected from patients undergoing prostate reduction surgery for symptoms of bladder outlet obstruction secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The methylation status of cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) site(s) at SRD5A2 promoter regions was tested. RESULTS:Compared with benign prostatic tissue, CRPC samples demonstrated higher SRD5A2 methylation in the whole promoter region (Local CRPC cohort: P < 0.001; Met CRPC cohort: P <0.05). In Local CRPC cohort, a higher ratio of methylation was correlated with better OS (R2 = 0.33, P = 0.013). Hypermethylation of specific regions (nucleotides -434 to -4 [CpG# -39 to CpG# -2]) was associated with a better OS (11.3±5.8 vs 6.4±4.4 years, P = 0.001) and PFS (8.4±5.4 vs 4.5±3.9 years, P = 0.003) with cutoff value of 37.9%. Multivariate analysis showed that SRD5A2 methylation was associated with OS independently (whole promoter region: P = 0.035; specific region: P = 0.02). CONCLUSION:Our study demonstrate that SRD5A2 methylation in promoter regions, specifically at CpG# -39 to -2, is significantly associated with better survival for CRPC patients treated with ADT. Recognition of epigenetic modifications of SRD5A2 may affect the choices and sequence of available therapies for management of CRPC.
Project description:Prostate is an immune-competent organ normally populated by inflammatory cells. Prostatic inflammation origin can be multi-factorial and there are some emerging evidences on its possible role as a factor involved in prostate cancer (PC) pathogenesis and progression. This review critically analyzes the role of inflammation as a prognostic factor for progression and aggressiveness of PC. We verified the last 10 years literature data on the association between inflammation and PC aggressiveness, or PC response to therapies. Several studies tried to correlate different inflammatory factors with the aggressiveness and metastatization of PC; all data sustain the role of inflammation in PC progression but they also produce confusion to identify a reliable clinical prognostic marker. Data on patients submitted to radical prostatectomy (RP) showed that cases with marked intraprostatic tissue inflammation are associated with higher rate of biochemical progression; systemic inflammation markers appear to have a significant prognostic value. Analyzing data on patients submitted to radiotherapy (RT) emerges a significant association between high neuthrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and decreased progression free survival and overall survival; also plateled to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) have been proposed as significant prognostic factors for progression and overall survival. In patients submitted to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), inflammation may drive castration resistant PC (CRPC) development by activation of STAT3 in PC cells. NLR has been proposed as independent predictor of overall survival in CRPC submitted to chemotherapy. Most of data are focused on markers related to systemic inflammation such as NLR and CRP, more than specifically to chronic prostatic inflammation. The suggestion is that these inflammatory parameters, also if not specific for prostatic inflammation and possibly influenced by several factors other than PC, can integrate with established prognostic factors.
Project description:Despite aggressive treatment for localized cancer, prostate cancer (PC) remains a leading cause of cancer-related death for American men due to a subset of patients progressing to lethal and incurable metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Organ-confined PC is treated by surgery or radiation with or without androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), while options for locally advanced and disseminated PC include radiation combined with ADT, or systemic treatments including chemotherapy. Progression to CRPC results from failure of ADT, which targets the androgen receptor (AR) signaling axis and inhibits AR-driven proliferation and survival pathways. The exact mechanisms underlying the transition from androgen-dependent PC to CRPC remain incompletely understood. Reactivation of AR has been shown to occur in CRPC despite depletion of circulating androgens by ADT. At the same time, the presence of AR-negative cell populations in CRPC has also been identified. While AR signaling has been proposed as the primary driver of CRPC, AR-independent signaling pathways may represent additional mechanisms underlying CRPC progression. Identification of new therapeutic strategies to target both AR-positive and AR-negative PC cell populations and, thereby, AR-driven as well as non-AR-driven PC cell growth and survival mechanisms would provide a two-pronged approach to eliminate CRPC cells with potential for synthetic lethality. In this review, we provide an overview of AR-dependent and AR-independent molecular mechanisms which drive CRPC, with special emphasis on the role of the Jak2-Stat5a/b signaling pathway in promoting castrate-resistant growth of PC through both AR-dependent and AR-independent mechanisms.
Project description:Androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) is standard treatment for locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer (PCa). Many patients develop castration resistance (castration-resistant PCa [CRPC]) after approximately 2-3 yr, with a poor prognosis. The molecular mechanisms underlying CRPC progression are unclear.To undertake quantitative tumour transcriptome profiling prior to and following ADT to identify functionally important androgen-regulated pathways or genes that may be reactivated in CRPC.RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed on tumour-rich, targeted prostatic biopsies from seven patients with locally advanced or metastatic PCa before and approximately 22 wk after ADT initiation. Differentially regulated genes were identified in treatment pairs and further investigated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) on cell lines and immunohistochemistry on a separate CRPC patient cohort. Functional assays were used to determine the effect of pathway modulation on cell phenotypes.We searched for gene expression changes affecting key cell signalling pathways that may be targeted as proof of principle in a CRPC in vitro cell line model.We identified ADT-regulated signalling pathways, including the Wnt/?-catenin signalling pathway, and observed overexpression of ?-catenin in a subset of CRPC by immunohistochemistry. We validated 6 of 12 (50%) pathway members by qRT-PCR on LNCaP/LNCaP-AI cell RNAs, of which 4 (67%) demonstrated expression changes consistent with RNA-seq data. We show that the tankyrase inhibitor XAV939 (which promotes ?-catenin degradation) reduced androgen-independent LNCaP-AI cell line growth compared with androgen-responsive LNCaP cells via an accumulation of cell proportions in the G0/G1 phase and reduction in the S and G2/M phases. Our biopsy protocol did not account for tumour heterogeneity, and pathway inhibition was limited to pharmacologic approaches.RNA-seq of paired PCa samples revealed ADT-regulated signalling pathways. Proof-of-principle inhibition of the Wnt/?-catenin signalling pathway specifically delays androgen-independent PCa cell cycle progression and proliferation and warrants further investigation as a potential target for therapy for CRPC.
Project description:Microseminoprotein-beta (MSMB, MSMB) is an abundant secretory protein contributed by the prostate, and is implicated as a prostate cancer (PC) biomarker based on observations of its lower expression in cancerous cells compared with benign prostate epithelium. However, as the current literature on MSMB is inconsistent, we assessed the expression of MSMB at the protein and mRNA levels in a comprehensive set of different clinical stages of PC. Immunohistochemistry using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against MSMB was used to study protein expression in tissue specimens representing prostatectomies (n = 261) and in diagnostic needle biopsies from patients treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) (n = 100), and in locally recurrent castration-resistant PC (CRPC) (n = 105) and CRPC metastases (n = 113). The transcript levels of MSMB, nuclear receptor co-activator 4 (NCOA4) and MSMB-NCOA4 fusion were examined by qRT-PCR in prostatectomy samples and by RNA-sequencing in benign prostatic hyperplasia, PC, and CRPC samples. We also measured serum MSMB levels and genotyped the single nucleotide polymorphism rs10993994 using DNA from the blood of 369 PC patients and 903 controls. MSMB expression in PC (29% of prostatectomies and 21% of needle biopsies) was more frequent than in CRPC (9% of locally recurrent CRPCs and 9% of CRPC metastases) (p<0.0001). Detection of MSMB protein was inversely correlated with the Gleason score in prostatectomy specimens (p = 0.024). The read-through MSMB-NCOA4 transcript was detected at very low levels in PC. MSMB levels in serum were similar in cases of PC and controls but were significantly associated with PC risk when adjusted for age at diagnosis and levels of free or total PSA (p<0.001). Serum levels of MSMB in both PC patients and controls were significantly associated with the rs10993994 genotype (p<0.0001). In conclusion, decreased expression of MSMB parallels the clinical progression of PC and adjusted serum MSMB levels are associated with PC risk.
Project description:It seems clear that androgen receptor (AR)-regulated expression of the TMPRSS2:ERG fusion gene plays an early role in prostate cancer (PC) development or progression, but the extent to which TMPRSS2:ERG is down-regulated in response to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and whether AR reactivates TMPRSS2:ERG expression in castration-resistant PC (CRPC) have not been determined. We show that ERG message levels in TMPRSS2:ERG fusion-positive CRPC are comparable with the levels in fusion gene-positive primary PC, consistent with the conclusion that the TMPRSS2:ERG expression is reactivated by AR in CRPC. To further assess whether TMPRSS2:ERG expression is initially down-regulated in response to ADT, we examined VCaP cells, which express the TMPRSS2:ERG fusion gene, and xenografts. ERG message and protein rapidly declined in response to removal of androgen in vitro and castration in vivo. Moreover, as observed in the clinical samples, ERG expression was fully restored in the VCaP xenografts that relapsed after castration, coincident with AR reactivation. AR reactivation in the relapsed xenografts was also associated with marked increases in mRNA encoding AR and androgen synthetic enzymes. These results show that expression of TMPRSS2:ERG, similarly to other AR-regulated genes, is restored in CRPC and may contribute to tumor progression.
Project description:PURPOSE:We aimed to study the associations between androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT)-induced weight changes and prostate cancer (PC) progression and mortality in men who had undergone radical prostatectomy (RP). METHODS:Data from the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital (SEARCH) cohort were used to study the associations between weight change approximately 1-year post-ADT initiation and metastases, castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), all-cause mortality (ACM), and PC-specific mortality (PCSM) in 357 patients who had undergone RP between 1988 and 2014. We estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) using covariate-adjusted Cox regression models for associations between weight loss, and weight gains of 2.3 kg or more, and PC progression and mortality post-ADT. RESULTS:During a median (IQR) follow-up of 81 (46-119) months, 55 men were diagnosed with metastases, 61 with CRPC, 36 died of PC, and 122 died of any cause. In multivariable analysis, weight loss was associated with increases in risks of metastases (HR 3.13; 95% CI 1.40-6.97), PCSM (HR 4.73; 95% CI 1.59-14.0), and ACM (HR 2.16; 95% CI 1.25-3.74) compared with mild weight gains of ??2.2. Results were slightly attenuated but remained statistically significant in analyses that accounted for competing risks of non-PC death. Estimates for the associations between weight gains of ??2.3 kg and metastases (HR 1.58; 95% CI 0.73-3.42), CRPC (HR 1.33; 95% CI 0.66-2.66), and PCSM (HR 2.44; 95% CI 0.84-7.11) were elevated, but not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that weight loss following ADT initiation in men who have undergone RP is a poor prognostic sign. If confirmed in future studies, testing ways to mitigate weight loss post-ADT may be warranted.
Project description:Yes-associated protein 65 (YAP65) has been implicated as an oncogene, and its expression is increased in human cancer. Previous studies have demonstrated that alterations in YAP activity may result in tumourigenesis of the prostate. With androgen deprivation therapies becoming progressively ineffective, often leading to life‑threatening androgen‑resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). The present study aimed to analyse the role of YAP in prostate cancer (PCa), particularly in CRPC. YAP protein was detected using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis in different prostatic tissues. In addition, three specific RNA interference vectors targeting the human YAP gene were synthesised, and PC‑3 cells with a stable inhibition of YAP were obtained by transfection. MTT, flow cytometry, reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot assays were used to analyse the effects of YAP inhibition on the proliferation and apoptosis of PC‑3 cells. The frequency of cells that were positive for YAP protein in PCa (78.13%) was significantly higher, compared with para‑PCa (26.67%; P=0.007) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (0%; P=0.002). The frequency of cells, which were positive for the expression of YAP exhibited a positive correlation (P=0.008) with the Gleason score, the tumour‑node‑metastasis staging (P=0.033) and the level of prostate specific antigens (P=0.0032) in PCa. The proliferative capacity of the transfected group was significantly lower, compared with the negative control group (P=0.022). The cell‑cycle of the transfected group was arrested in the G1 stage, which was detected using flow cytometry, and there was a significant increase in the apoptosis of cells in the transfected group (P=0.002). The mRNA and protein levels of TEA domain family member 1 were inhibited in the transfected group (P=0.001 and P=0.00, respectively). Therefore, it was concluded that gene transcription and protein expression of YAP may be involved in the development of PCa, particularly CRPC, and may be a novel biomarker for investigation of the occurrence and progression of CRPC. However, the mechanism underlying the modulation of YAP in CRPC remains to be fully elucidated.