Histone deacetylase inhibitors: Isoform selectivity improves survival in a hemorrhagic shock model.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Hemorrhage is a leading preventable cause of death. Nonselective histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs), such as valproic acid (VPA), have been shown to improve outcomes in hemorrhagic shock (HS). The HDACs can be divided into four functional classes (I, IIa/IIb, III, and IV). Classes I, IIa/IIb, and III have previously been implicated in the pathophysiology of HS. This study aimed to determine which HDAC class, or classes, are responsible for the survival benefit observed with nonselective HDACIs. METHODS:Survival study: Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to lethal HS (50% hemorrhage) and randomized to the following groups (n = 8): (1) no treatment, (2) normal saline vehicle, (3) cyclodextrin vehicle, (4) MS275 (class I HDACI), (5) VPA (class I/IIa HDACI), (6) MC1568 (class IIa HDACI), (7) ACY1083 (class IIb HDACI), and (8) EX527 (class III HDACI). Survival was monitored for 24 hours. Mechanistic study: Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to sublethal HS (40% hemorrhage) and randomized to the same groups (n = 3), excluding EX527, based on results of the survival study. Tissues were harvested at 3 hours posttreatment, and expression of phosphorylated-AKT, ?-catenin, acetylated histones H3 and H4, and acetylated ?-tubulin were analyzed in myocardial tissue. RESULTS:Survival rate was 12.5% in the untreated group, and did not improve with vehicle or MS275 treatment. EX527 improved survival to 50%, although this did not achieve statistical significance (p = 0.082). However, treatment with VPA, MC1568, and ACY1083 improved survival rates to 87.5%, 75%, and 75%, respectively (p < 0.05). The VPA-induced acetylation of both histones H3 and H4, while MC1568 and ACY1083 increased acetylation of histone H4. ACY1083 also induced acetylation of ?-tubulin. All treatment groups, except MS275, increased phosphorylated-AKT, and ?-catenin. CONCLUSION:Inhibition of HDAC classes IIa or IIb, but not class I, activates prosurvival pathways, which may be responsible for the improved outcomes in rodent models of HS.
Project description:In primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) cells infected with latent Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), the promoter of the viral lytic switch gene, Rta, is organized into bivalent chromatin, similar to cellular developmental switch genes. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors (HDACis) reactivate latent KSHV and dramatically remodel the viral genome topology and chromatin architecture. However, reactivation is not uniform across a population of infected cells. We sought to identify an HDACi cocktail that would uniformly reactivate KSHV and reveal the regulatory HDACs. Using HDACis with various specificities, we found that class I HDACis were sufficient to reactivate the virus but differed in potency. Valproic acid (VPA) was the most effective HDACi, inducing lytic cycle gene expression in 75% of cells, while trichostatin A (TSA) induced less widespread lytic gene expression and inhibited VPA-stimulated reactivation. VPA was only slightly superior to TSA in inducing histone acetylation of Rta's promoter, but only VPA induced significant production of infectious virus, suggesting that HDAC regulation after Rta expression has a dramatic effect on reactivation progression. Ectopic HDACs 1, 3, and 6 inhibited TPA-stimulated KSHV reactivation. Surprisingly, ectopic HDACs 1 and 6 stimulated reactivation independently, suggesting that the stoichiometries of HDAC complexes are critical for the switch. Tubacin, a specific inhibitor of the ubiquitin-binding, proautophagic HDAC6, also inhibited VPA-stimulated reactivation. Immunofluorescence indicated that HDAC6 is expressed diffusely throughout latently infected cells, but its expression level and nuclear localization is increased during reactivation. Overall, our data suggest that inhibition of HDAC classes I and IIa and maintenance of HDAC6 (IIb) activity are required for optimal KSHV reactivation.
Project description:PKD-mediated phosphorylation of class IIa HDACs frees the MEF2 transcription factor to activate genes that govern muscle differentiation and growth. Studies of the regulation and function of this signaling axis have involved MC1568 and Gö-6976, which are small molecule inhibitors of class IIa HDAC and PKD catalytic activity, respectively. We describe unanticipated effects of these compounds. MC1568 failed to inhibit class IIa HDAC catalytic activity in vitro, and exerted divergent effects on skeletal muscle differentiation compared to a bona fide inhibitor of these HDACs. In cardiomyocytes, Gö-6976 triggered calcium signaling and activated stress-inducible kinases. Based on these findings, caution is warranted when employing MC1568 and Gö-6976 as pharmacological tool compounds to assess functions of class IIa HDACs and PKD.
Project description:In this study, we examined the effect of MC1568, a selective class IIa histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, on the development and progression of renal fibrosis in a murine model of renal fibrosis induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). All 4 class IIa HDAC isoforms, in particular HDAC4, were up-regulated in renal epithelial cells of the injured kidney. Administration of MC1568 immediately after UUO injury reduced expression of ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), fibronectin, and collagen 1. MC1568 treatment or small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of HDAC4 also suppressed expression of those proteins in cultured renal epithelial cells. Mechanistically, MC1568 abrogated UUO-induced phosphorylation of Smad3, NF-?B, and up-regulation of integrin ?V?6 in the kidney and inhibited TGF-?1-induced responses in cultured renal epithelial cells. MC1568 also increased renal expression of klotho, bone morphogenetic protein 7, and Smad7. Moreover, delayed administration of MC1568 at 3 d after ureteral obstruction reversed the expression of ?-SMA, fibronectin, and collagen 1 and increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9. Collectively, these results suggest that selectively targeting class IIa HDAC isoforms (in particular HDAC4) may inhibit development and progression of renal fibrosis by suppressing activation and expression of multiple profibrotic molecules and increasing expression of antifibrotic proteins and MMPs.-Xiong, C., Guan, Y., Zhou, X., Liu, L., Zhuang, M. A., Zhang, W., Zhang, Y., Masucci, M. V., Bayliss, G., Zhao, T. C., Zhuang, S. Selective inhibition of class IIa histone deacetylases alleviates renal fibrosis.
Project description:Immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) thalidomide, lenalidomide (Len) and pomalidomide trigger anti-tumor activities in multiple myeloma (MM) by targetting cereblon and thereby impacting IZF1/3, c-Myc and IRF4. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) also downregulate c-Myc. We therefore determined whether IMiDs with HDACi trigger significant MM cell growth inhibition by inhibiting or downregulating c-Myc. Combination treatment of Len with non-selective HDACi suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid or class-I HDAC-selective inhibitor MS275 induces synergic cytotoxicity, associated with downregulation of c-Myc. Unexpectedly, we observed that decreased levels of cereblon (CRBN), a primary target protein of IMiDs, was triggered by these agents. Indeed, sequential treatment of MM cells with MS275 followed by Len shows less efficacy than simultaneous treatment with this combination. Importantly ACY1215, an HDAC6 inhibitor with minimal effects on class-I HDACs, together with Len induces synergistic MM cytotoxicity without alteration of CRBN expression. Our results showed that only modest class-I HDAC inhibition is able to induce synergistic MM cytotoxicity in combination with Len. These studies may provide the framework for utilizing HDACi in combination with Len to both avoid CRBN downregulation and enhance anti-MM activities.
Project description:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause for deaths worldwide. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition (HDACi) is emerging as a promising therapeutic strategy. However, most pharmacological HDACi unselectively block different HDAC classes and their molecular mechanisms of action are only incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to systematically analyze expressions of different HDAC classes in HCC cells and tissues and to functionally analyze the effect of the HDACi suberanilohydroxamic acid (SAHA) and trichostatin A (TSA) on the tumorigenicity of HCC cells. The gene expression of all HDAC classes was significantly increased in human HCC cell lines (Hep3B, HepG2, PLC, HuH7) compared to primary human hepatocytes (PHH). The analysis of HCC patient data showed the increased expression of several HDACs in HCC tissues compared to non-tumorous liver. However, there was no unified picture of regulation in three different HCC patient datasets and we observed a strong variation in the gene expression of different HDACs in tumorous as well as non-tumorous liver. Still, there was a strong correlation in the expression of HDAC class IIa (HDAC4, 5, 7, 9) as well as HDAC2 and 8 (class I) and HDAC10 (class IIb) and HDAC11 (class IV) in HCC tissues of individual patients. This might indicate a common mechanism of the regulation of these HDACs in HCC. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset analysis revealed that HDAC4, HDAC7 and HDAC9 as well as HDAC class I members HDAC1 and HDAC2 is significantly correlated with patient survival. Furthermore, we observed that SAHA and TSA reduced the proliferation, clonogenicity and migratory potential of HCC cells. SAHA but not TSA induced features of senescence in HCC cells. Additionally, HDACi enhanced the efficacy of sorafenib in killing sorafenib-susceptible cells. Moreover, HDACi reestablished sorafenib sensitivity in resistant HCC cells. In summary, HDACs are significantly but differently increased in HCC, which may be exploited to develop more targeted therapeutic approaches. HDACi affect different facets of the tumorigenicity of HCC cells and appears to be a promising therapeutic approach alone or in combination with sorafenib.
Project description:Parkinson's disease is characterized by the intracellular accumulation of ?-synuclein which has been linked to early dopaminergic axonal degeneration. Identifying druggable targets that can promote axonal growth in cells overexpressing ?-synuclein is important in order to develop strategies for early intervention. Class-IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs) have previously emerged as druggable targets, however, it is not known which specific class-IIa HDACs should be targeted to promote neurite growth in dopaminergic neurons. To provide insight into this, we used gene co-expression analysis to identify which, if any, of the class-IIa HDACs had a positive correlation with markers of dopaminergic neurons in the human substantia nigra. This revealed that two histone deacetylases, HDAC5 and HDAC9, are co-expressed with TH, GIRK2 and ALDH1A1 in the human SN. We further found that HDAC5 and HDAC9 are expressed in dopaminergic neurons in the adult mouse substantia nigra. We show that siRNAs targeting HDAC5 or HDAC9 can promote neurite growth in SH-SY5Y cells, and that their pharmacological inhibition, using the drug MC1568, promoted neurite growth in cultured rat dopaminergic neurons. Moreover, MC1568 treatment upregulated the expression of the neurotrophic factor, BMP2, and its downstream transcription factor, SMAD1. In addition, MC1568 or siRNAs targeting HDAC5 or HDAC9 led to an increase in Smad-dependent GFP expression in a reporter assay. Furthermore, MC1568 treatment of cultured rat dopaminergic neurons increased cellular levels of phosphorylated Smad1, which was prevented by the BMP receptor inhibitor, dorsomorphin. Dorsomorphin treatment prevented the neurite growth-promoting effects of siRNAs targeting HDAC5, as did overexpression of dominant-negative Smad4 or of the inhibitory Smad7, demonstrating a functional link to BMP signaling. Supplementation with BMP2 prevented the neurite growth-inhibitory effects of nuclear-restricted HDAC5. Finally, we report that siRNAs targeting HDAC5 or HDAC9 promoted neurite growth in cells overexpressing wild-type or A53T-?-synuclein and that MC1568 protected cultured rat dopaminergic neurons against the neurotoxin, MPP+. These findings establish HDAC5 and HDAC9 as novel regulators of BMP-Smad signaling, that additionally may be therapeutic targets worthy of further exploration in iPSC-derived human DA neurons and in vivo models of Parkinson's disease.
Project description:Altered expression and activity of histone deacetylases (HDACs) have been correlated with tumorigenesis. Inhibitors of HDACs (HDACi) induce acetylation of histone and non-histone proteins affecting gene expression, cell cycle progression, cell migration, terminal differentiation and cell death. Here, we analyzed the regulation of ARHGEF3, a RhoA-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor, by the HDACi MS275 (entinostat). MS275 is a well-known benzamide-based HDACi, which induces differentiation of the monoblastic-like human histiocytic lymphoma cell line U937 to monocytes/macrophages. Incubation of U937 cells with MS275 resulted in an up regulation of ARHGEF3, followed by a significant enhancement of the marker of macrophage differentiation CD68. ARHGEF3 protein is primarily nuclear, but MS275 treatment rapidly induced its translocation into the cytoplasm. ARHGEF3 cytoplasmic localization is associated with activation of the RhoA/Rho-associated Kinase (ROCK) pathway. In addition to cytoskeletal rearrangements orchestrated by RhoA, we showed that ARHGEF3/RhoA-dependent signals involve activation of SAPK/JNK and then Elk1 transcription factor. Importantly, MS275-induced CD68 expression was blocked by exposure of U937 cells to exoenzyme C3 transferase and Y27632, inhibitors of Rho and ROCK respectively. Moreover, ARHGEF3 silencing prevented RhoA activation leading to a reduction in SAPK/JNK phosphorylation, Elk1 activation and CD68 expression, suggesting a crucial role for ARHGEF3 in myeloid differentiation. Taken together, our results demonstrate that ARHGEF3 modulates acute myeloid leukemia differentiation through activation of RhoA and pathways directly controlled by small GTPase family proteins. The finding that GEF protein modulation by HDAC inhibition impacts on cell differentiation may be important for understanding the antitumor mechanism(s) by which HDACi treatment stimulates differentiation in cancer.
Project description:Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a collection of symptoms caused by prolonged exposure to excess cortisol. Chronically elevated glucocorticoid (GC) levels contribute to hepatic steatosis. We hypothesized that histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) could attenuate hepatic steatosis through glucocorticoid receptor (GR) acetylation in experimental CS. To induce CS, we administered adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; 40 ng/kg/day) to Sprague-Dawley rats by subcutaneous infusion with osmotic mini-pumps. We administered the HDACi, sodium valproate (VPA; 0.71% w/v), in the drinking water. Treatment with the HDACi decreased steatosis and the expression of lipogenic genes in the livers of CS rats. The enrichment of GR at the promoters of the lipogenic genes, such as acetyl-CoA carboxylase (Acc), fatty acid synthase (Fasn), and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (Srebp1c), was markedly decreased by VPA. Pan-HDACi and an HDAC class I-specific inhibitor, but not an HDAC class II a-specific inhibitor, attenuated dexamethasone (DEX)-induced lipogenesis in HepG2 cells. The transcriptional activity of Fasn was decreased by pretreatment with VPA. In addition, pretreatment with VPA decreased DEX-induced binding of GR to the glucocorticoid response element (GRE). Treatment with VPA increased the acetylation of GR in ACTH-infused rats and DEX-induced HepG2 cells. Taken together, these results indicate that HDAC inhibition attenuates hepatic steatosis hrough GR acetylation in experimental CS.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive neoplasia with no effective therapy. Our laboratory has developed a unique TNBC cell model presenting epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) a process known to be important for tumor progression and metastasis. There is increasing evidence showing that epigenetic mechanisms are involved in the activation of EMT. The objective of this study is to epigenetically reverse the process of EMT in TNBC by using DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNMTi) and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi). METHODS:We evaluated the antitumor effect of three DNMTi and six HDACi using our TNBC cell model by MTT assay, migration and invasion assay, three dimensional culture, and colony formation assay. We then performed the combined treatment both in vitro and in vivo using the most potent DNMTi and HDACi, and tested the combined treatment in a panel of breast cancer cell lines. We investigated changes of EMT markers and potential signaling pathways associated with the antitumor effects. RESULTS:We showed that DNMTi and HDACi can reprogram highly aggressive TNBC cells that have undergone EMT to a less aggressive phenotype. SGI-110 and MS275 are superior to other seven compounds being tested. The combination of SGI with MS275 exerts a greater effect than single agent alone in inhibiting cell proliferation, motility, colony formation, and stemness of cancer cells. We also demonstrated that MS275 and the combination of SGI with MS275 exert in vivo antitumor effect. We revealed that the combined treatment synergistically reverses EMT through inhibiting EpCAM cleavage and WNT signaling, suppressing mutant p53, ZEB1, and EZH2, and inducing E-cadherin, apoptosis, as well as histone H3 tri-methylation. CONCLUSIONS:Our study showed that DNMTi and HDACi exert antitumor activity in TNBC cells partially by epigenetically reprograming EMT. Our findings strongly suggest that TNBC is sensitive to epigenetic therapies. Therefore, we propose a new strategy to treat TNBC by using the combination of SGI-110 with MS275, which exerts superior antitumor effects by simultaneously targeting multiple pathways.
Project description:Reverting activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) to less activation or quiescent status is a promising strategy for liver fibrosis. Histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI) could suppress HSCs activation. Our previous study demonstrated a critical role of miRNAs in HSCs activation. Here, we explored the involvement of miRNAs in HDACI induced HSCs deactivation. Human cell line LX2 that resembled activated HSCs was treated with an HDACI - valproic acid (VPA). The effects of VPA on the protein and miRNA profile of LX2 were comprehensively analyzed by iTraq quantitative proteomics and miRNA microarray. The interaction between miRNA and proteins was investigated systematically. The biofunctions of differentially expressed proteins and miRNA targeted proteins were annotated. VPA treatment attenuated the activation phenotype of LX2. In VPA treated LX2, among 1548 quantified proteins, only 86 proteins were differentially expressed (VPA-proteins). While among 282 high-abundance miRNAs, 123 were differentially expressed (VPA-miRNAs), with 104 down-regulated and 19 up-regulated. The top biofunctions of VPA-proteins were closely related to HSCs activation, including cell death and survival, cell movement, cellular growth and proliferation. Furthermore, 22 out of the 36 VPA-proteins involved in cell death and survival, and 19 out of the 30 VPA-proteins involved in cellular movement were predicted targets of VPA-miRNAs. A direct regulatory effect of histone acetylation on miRNA expression was also established. In conclusion, our data provided the molecular mechanisms for VPA induced HSCs deactivation at the protein level and suggested crosstalk between histone acetylation and miRNAs in the inhibitory effects of HDACI on HSCs activation.