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Assessment of Patient Medication Adherence, Medical Record Accuracy, and Medication Blood Concentrations for Prescription and Over-the-Counter Medications.


ABSTRACT: Importance:Inaccurate medication records and poor medication adherence result in incomplete knowledge of therapy for patients. Objective:To study accuracy of medical records and patient adherence by measuring blood concentrations of medications. Design, Setting, and Participants:This cross-sectional study validated a serum-based liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay to simultaneously quantify 263 medications used for acute and chronic conditions. The assay panel was applied to 3 clinical patient cohorts: residual serum from 1000 randomly selected samples sent for routine clinical chemistry testing between April 8 and October 6, 2015 (residuals cohort), 50 prospectively enrolled patients in a gastroenterology clinic between March 1 and March 15, 2016, who were prescribed more than 5 medications (gastroenterology care cohort), and a convenience cohort of 296 patients with hypertension who sought care in an emergency department (ED care cohort) between July 1, 2012, and April 25, 2013. Integrated data analysis of the cohorts was performed from August 22 to November 29, 2017. Main Outcomes and Measures:Medication serum concentrations, electronic health record medication lists, and predicted drug interactions. Results:Of the 1346 total samples, 1000 came from the residuals cohort (640 women and 360 men; median age, 60 years [interquartile range (IQR), 44-71 years]), 50 from the gastroenterology care cohort (30 women and 20 men; median age, 66 years [IQR, 62-70 years]), and 296 from the ED care cohort (160 women and 136 men; median age, 59 years [IQR, 52-66 years]). Median medication adherence, defined as the subset of detected medications from the prescription record, was 83% (IQR, 50%-100%) in the residuals cohort, 100% (IQR, 84%-100%) in the gastroenterology care cohort, and 78% (IQR, 57%-100%) in the ED care cohort. Patients adherent to 1 medication were more often adherent to other medications. Among patients prescribed 3 medications or more, there were no significant associations between medication adherence and sex or number of prescribed medications, and there was a modest association between adherence and age. By comparing detected vs prescribed medications, we detected a median of 0 (IQR, 0-2) medications per patient that were not listed in the electronic health record in the residuals cohort, 1 (IQR, 0-2) medication per patient that was not listed in the electronic health record in the gastroenterology care cohort, and 1 (IQR, 0-2) medication per patient that was not listed in the electronic health record in the ED care cohort. A total of 435 patients (43.5%) in the residuals cohort had no discrepancy between the electronic health record and detected medication lists, 22 patients (44.0%) in the gastroenterology care cohort had no discrepancy between the electronic health record and detected medication lists, and 41 patients (13.9%) in the ED care cohort had no discrepancy between the electronic health record and detected medication lists. Half of adverse drug reaction alerts occurred among medications detected without prescription. Conclusions and Relevance:Comprehensive medication monitoring offers promise to improve adherence, the accuracy of medical records, and the safety for patients with polypharmacy.

SUBMITTER: Sutherland JJ 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC6324396 | BioStudies | 2018-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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