Spin-Orbit induced phase-shift in Bi2Se3 Josephson junctions.
ABSTRACT: The transmission of Cooper pairs between two weakly coupled superconductors produces a superfluid current and a phase difference; the celebrated Josephson effect. Because of time-reversal and parity symmetries, there is no Josephson current without a phase difference between two superconductors. Reciprocally, when those two symmetries are broken, an anomalous supercurrent can exist in the absence of phase bias or, equivalently, an anomalous phase shift ?0 can exist in the absence of a superfluid current. We report on the observation of an anomalous phase shift ?0 in hybrid Josephson junctions fabricated with the topological insulator Bi2Se3 submitted to an in-plane magnetic field. This anomalous phase shift ?0 is observed directly through measurements of the current-phase relationship in a Josephson interferometer. This result provides a direct measurement of the spin-orbit coupling strength and open new possibilities for phase-controlled Josephson devices made from materials with strong spin-orbit coupling.
Project description:In a standard Josephson junction the current is zero when the phase difference between superconducting leads is zero. This condition is protected by parity and time-reversal symmetries. However, the combined presence of spin-orbit coupling and magnetic field breaks these symmetries and can lead to a finite supercurrent even when the phase difference is zero. This is the so called anomalous Josephson effect-the hallmark effect of superconducting spintronics-which can be characterized by the corresponding anomalous phase shift. Here we report the observation of a tunable anomalous Josephson effect in InAs/Al Josephson junctions measured via a superconducting quantum interference device. By gate controlling the density of InAs, we are able to tune the spin-orbit coupling in the Josephson junction. This gives us the ability to tune the anomalous phase, and opens new opportunities for superconducting spintronics, and new possibilities for realizing and characterizing topological superconductivity.
Project description:Exciton superfluid is a macroscopic quantum phenomenon in which large quantities of excitons undergo the Bose-Einstein condensation. Recently, exciton superfluid has been widely studied in various bilayer systems. However, experimental measurements only provide indirect evidence for the existence of exciton superfluid. In this article, by viewing the exciton in a bilayer system as an electric dipole, we derive the London-type and Ginzburg-Landau-type equations for the electric dipole superconductors. By using these equations, we discover the Meissner-type effect and the electric dipole current Josephson effect. These effects can provide direct evidence for the formation of the exciton superfluid state in bilayer systems and pave new ways to drive an electric dipole current.
Project description:Many applications in photonics require all-optical manipulation of plasma waves1, which can concentrate electromagnetic energy on sub-wavelength length scales. This is difficult in metallic plasmas because of their small optical nonlinearities. Some layered superconductors support Josephson plasma waves (JPWs)2,3, involving oscillatory tunneling of the superfluid between capacitively coupled planes. Josephson plasma waves are also highly nonlinear4, and exhibit striking phenomena like cooperative emission of coherent terahertz radiation5,6, superconductor-metal oscillations7 and soliton formation8. We show here that terahertz JPWs can be parametrically amplified through the cubic tunneling nonlinearity in a cuprate superconductor. Parametric amplification is sensitive to the relative phase between pump and seed waves and may be optimized to achieve squeezing of the order parameter phase fluctuations9 or single terahertz-photon devices.
Project description:We suggest that spin-singlet pseudo-scalar s-wave superconducting pairing creates a two dimensional sea of Majorana fermions on the surface of three dimensional Dirac superconductors (3DDS). This pseudo-scalar superconducting order parameter Δ5, in competition with scalar Dirac mass m, leads to a topological phase transition due to band inversion. We find that a perfect Andreev-Klein reflection is guaranteed by presence of anomalous Andreev reflection along with the conventional one. This effect manifests itself in a resonant peak of the differential conductance. Furthermore, Josephson current of the Δ5|m|Δ5 junction in the presence of anomalous Andreev reflection is fractional with 4π period. Our finding suggests another search area for condensed matter realization of Majorana fermions which are beyond the vortex-core of p-wave superconductors. The required Δ5 pairing can be extrinsically induced by a conventional s-wave superconductor into a three dimensional Dirac material (3DDM).
Project description:Superconductor-insulator/metal transition (SIT/SMT) represents a prototype of quantum phase transition, where quantum fluctuation plays a dominant role and dramatically changes the physical properties of low-dimensional superconducting systems. Recent observation of quantum Griffiths singularity (QGS) offers an essential perspective to understand the subtleties of quantum phase transition in two-dimensional superconductors. Here we study the magnetic field induced SMT in ultrathin crystalline Pb films down to ultralow temperatures. The divergent critical exponent is observed when approaching zero temperature quantum critical point, indicating QGS. Distinctively, the anomalous phase boundary of SMT that the onset critical field decreases with decreasing temperatures in low temperature regime distinguishes our observation from previous reports of QGS in various two-dimensional superconductors. We demonstrate that the anomalous phase boundary originates from the superconducting fluctuations in ultrathin Pb films with pronounced spin-orbit interaction. Our findings reveal a novel aspect of QGS of SMT in two-dimensional superconductors with anomalous phase boundary.
Project description:The extended Bose-Hubbard model captures the essential properties of a wide variety of physical systems including ultracold atoms and molecules in optical lattices, Josephson junction arrays, and certain narrow band superconductors. It exhibits a rich phase diagram including a supersolid phase where a lattice solid coexists with a superfluid. We use quantum Monte Carlo to study the supersolid part of the phase diagram of the extended Bose-Hubbard model on the simple cubic lattice. We add disorder to the extended Bose-Hubbard model and find that the maximum critical temperature for the supersolid phase tends to be suppressed by disorder. But we also find a narrow parameter window in which the supersolid critical temperature is enhanced by disorder. Our results show that supersolids survive a moderate amount of spatial disorder and thermal fluctuations in the simple cubic lattice.
Project description:Strong spin-orbit coupling fosters exotic electronic states such as topological insulators and superconductors, but the combination of strong spin-orbit and strong electron-electron interactions is just beginning to be understood. Central to this emerging area are the 5d transition metal iridium oxides. Here, in the pyrochlore iridate Pr2Ir2O7, we identify a non-trivial state with a single-point Fermi node protected by cubic and time-reversal symmetries, using a combination of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and first-principles calculations. Owing to its quadratic dispersion, the unique coincidence of four degenerate states at the Fermi energy, and strong Coulomb interactions, non-Fermi liquid behaviour is predicted, for which we observe some evidence. Our discovery implies that Pr2Ir2O7 is a parent state that can be manipulated to produce other strongly correlated topological phases, such as topological Mott insulator, Weyl semimetal, and quantum spin and anomalous Hall states.
Project description:The Josephson effect describes the generic appearance of a supercurrent in a weak link between two superconductors. Its exact physical nature deeply influences the properties of the supercurrent. In recent years, considerable efforts have focused on the coupling of superconductors to the surface states of a three-dimensional topological insulator. In such a material, an unconventional induced p-wave superconductivity should occur, with a doublet of topologically protected gapless Andreev bound states, whose energies vary 4?-periodically with the superconducting phase difference across the junction. In this article, we report the observation of an anomalous response to rf irradiation in a Josephson junction made of a HgTe weak link. The response is understood as due to a 4?-periodic contribution to the supercurrent, and its amplitude is compatible with the expected contribution of a gapless Andreev doublet. Our work opens the way to more elaborate experiments to investigate the induced superconductivity in a three-dimensional insulator.
Project description:When a second-order magnetic phase transition is tuned to zero temperature by a nonthermal parameter, quantum fluctuations are critically enhanced, often leading to the emergence of unconventional superconductivity. In these "quantum critical" superconductors it has been widely reported that the normal-state properties above the superconducting transition temperature T(c) often exhibit anomalous non-Fermi liquid behaviors and enhanced electron correlations. However, the effect of these strong critical fluctuations on the superconducting condensate below T(c) is less well established. Here we report measurements of the magnetic penetration depth in heavy-fermion, iron-pnictide, and organic superconductors located close to antiferromagnetic quantum critical points, showing that the superfluid density in these nodal superconductors universally exhibits, unlike the expected T-linear dependence, an anomalous 3/2 power-law temperature dependence over a wide temperature range. We propose that this noninteger power law can be explained if a strong renormalization of effective Fermi velocity due to quantum fluctuations occurs only for momenta k close to the nodes in the superconducting energy gap ?(k). We suggest that such "nodal criticality" may have an impact on low-energy properties of quantum critical superconductors.
Project description:We investigate the Josephson effects in the junction formed by the indirect coupling between DIII-class topological and s-wave superconductors via an embedded quantum dot. Due to the presence of two kinds of superconductors, three dot-superconductor coupling manners are considered, respectively. As a result, the Josephson current is found to oscillate in period 2?. More importantly, the presence of Majorana doublet in the DIII-class superconductor renders the current finite at the case of zero phase difference, with its sign determined by the fermion parity of such a junction. In addition, the dot-superconductor coupling plays a nontrivial role in adjusting the Josephson current. When the s-wave superconductor couples to the dot in the weak limit, the current direction will have an opportunity to reverse. It is believed that these results will be helpful for understanding the transport properties of the DIII-class superconductor.