The influence of the rs1137101 genotypes of leptin receptor gene on the demographic and metabolic profile of normal Saudi females and those suffering from polycystic ovarian syndrome.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is of frequent occurrence in Saudi females and is often associated with obesity, insulin resistance, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and infertility. Since these features are also associated with leptin receptor (LEP-R) deficiency, several studies have attempted to link LEP-R gene polymorphisms to PCOS. METHODS:The purpose of this study is to assess the possible association of LEP-R gene polymorphism (rs1137101) with the main obesity-linked metabolic parameters in Saudi female patients affected by PCOS. A cohort of 122 Saudi female subjects, attending the outpatient's clinics at Makkah, Saudi Arabia and diagnosed with PCOS was investigated. Metabolic parameters in serum samples, including lipidogram, glucose, leptin, ghrelin and insulin and obesity markers (BMI, W/H ratio, HOMA) were assayed and compared with values from 130 healthy female volunteers (controls). The genotyping of rs1137101 polymorphism in the leptin receptor gene by amplification (PCR) followed by DNA sequencing, was conducted in both groups (PCOS and controls). RESULTS:Waist/hip ratio (W/H ratio), leptin serum levels and triglycerides appeared to be associated with PCOS but, aside from W/H ratio (AA s GG p?=?0.009), this association also occurred for controls. No significant association in the leptin gene polymorphic locus rs1137101 with PCOS was seen in the results of the present study. In the control group, BMI, W/H ratio, leptin, Insulin, and HOMA-IR were significantly higher in the GG genotype compared to AA. CONCLUSION:Despite previous suggestion about a relationship between rs1137101, serum leptin levels, and PCOS, our studies do not show any statistical association and further investigations; possibly by also evaluating obese patients should be needed to elucidate this issue better.
Project description:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is considered as one of the most frequently encountered hormonal pathologies in women during their reproductive years. Leptin and ghrelin, peptide hormones with adipostatic and orexigenic effect, respectively, seem to be involved in the metabolic changes that occur in PCOS. The aim of this study was to determine serum ghrelin and leptin levels in obese and lean Saudi women with PCOS and to investigate their relationship to the metabolic profiles in these women.This study was conducted as a prospective, observational, cross-sectional, case-control study, at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Al-Noor Hospital, Makkah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The study population included 252 women [130 women with PCOS (diagnosed according to the Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus, 2003) and 122 normo-ovulatory women as matched controls] attending the outpatient Gynecology Clinic. Demographic details were recorded, blood was extracted following overnight fast and serum was used for the determination of serum ghrelin and leptin levels and other hormonal and biochemical parameters including total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, glucose, and insulin. Insulin resistance and sensitivity were calculated as HOMA-IR and HOMA-S.No significant differences in ghrelin (P?=?0.1830) and leptin (P?=?0.8329) levels were detected between the PCOS and control groups. However, ghrelin levels were significantly lower; and leptin levels were significantly higher in obese PCOS patients in comparison with lean patients (P?=?0.0001 for both). In the PCOS group, there were significant correlations between ghrelin and leptin levels with Body Mass Index (BMI), waist-hip ratio, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL and insulin levels. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that insulin was the main determinant for ghrelin (R2?=?0.316) and leptin (R2?=?0.352) levels (P?=?0.0001 for both).Although serum ghrelin and leptin levels were found to be normal in women with PCOS; yet, there is a relationship, possibly linked to obesity, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance between these levels and metabolic profile of Saudi PCOS.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The present study examined the contribution of ethnicity to the association of leptin receptor gene (LEPR) gene variants with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in Tunisian and Bahraini Arabic-speaking women.<h4>Methods</h4>Subjects consisted of 320 women with PCOS, and 446 eumenorrhic women from Tunisia, and 242 women with PCOS and 238 controls from Bahrain. Genotyping of (exonic) rs1137100 and rs1137101 and (intronic) rs2025804 LEPR variants was done by allelic exclusion.<h4>Results</h4>The minor allele frequencies (MAFs) of rs1137100 and rs1137101 were significantly different between PCOS cases and control women from Bahrain but not Tunisia, and LEPR rs1137101 was associated with increased PCOS susceptibility only in Bahraini subjects. Furthermore, rs1137100 was associated with decreased PCOS risk among Bahrainis under codominant and recessive models; rs1137100 was negatively associated with PCOS in Tunisians after controlling for testosterone. In addition, rs2025804 was associated with increased PCOS risk among Tunisian but not Bahraini women, after adjusting for key covariates. Negative correlation was seen between rs1137101 and triglycerides in Tunisians, while homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and insulin correlated with rs2025804 and rs1137101 among Bahraini subjects, and rs1137101 correlated with estradiol and prolactin. Taking TAG haplotype as common, positive association of TAA and negative association of TGG haplotype with PCOS was seen among Bahraini women; no three-locus PCOS-associated haplotypes were found in Tunisians.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The present study is the first to demonstrate the contribution of ethnicity to the association of LEPR gene variants with PCOS, thereby highlighting the significance of controlling for ethnicity in gene association investigations.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related mortality around the world. OBJECTIVES:With regard to the role of obesity in colorectal cancer (CRC) and the role of leptin in obesity, we investigated whether leptin (LEP) and leptin receptor (LEPR) gene variants are associated with CRC risk. PATIENTS AND METHODS:We evaluated LEP (rs7799039) and LEPR (rs1137101) gene variants by using PCR-RFLP method in 261 cases with CRC and 339 controls. RESULTS:No significant difference was found for rs7799039 and rs1137101gene variants between the cases with CRC and controls. However, the LEPR rs1137101 "GG" genotype compared with "AA" genotype and "AA + AG" genotype was associated with increased risks for obesity, and the differences remained significant after adjustment for confounding factors including age, sex, smoking status, and NSAID use (P = 0.015; OR = 2.42, 95%CI = 1.19 - 4.93 and P = 0.016; OR = 2.28, 95%CI = 1.17 - 4.48, respectively). In addition, the LEPR "G" allele compared with the "A" allele was associated with an increased risk for obesity (P = 0.024; OR = 1.44, 95%CI = 1.05 - 1.98). CONCLUSIONS:Consistent with most previous studies, our findings found no association between LEP (rs7799039) and LEPR (rs1137101) gene variants and CRC risk. However, the LEPR rs1137101 "GG" genotype compared with the "AA" genotype and "AA+AG" genotype was associated with a 2.42-fold and a 2.28-fold increased risk for obesity, respectively.
Project description:Leptin is a key hormone of weight regulation that modulates food intake. Since the elaboration of the leptin action mechanism, several studies tried to establish the relationship between obesity and the common polymorphisms of leptin (LEP) and leptin receptor (LEPR) genes, but results were controversial. We studied the association of G2548A of the LEP gene and Q223R of LEPR gene polymorphisms with obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). We recruited 169 nonobese volunteers (body mass index [BMI] < 30 kg/m(2)) and 160 obese ones (BMI ? 30 kg/m(2)). Glucose, insulin, and lipids were measured. BMI, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and daily energy intake were calculated. After adjustment to confounders parameters, 2548AA was found to increase the MetS (p=0.043) and obesity risk (p=0.019) in the studied population. After stratification according to the degree of obesity, the odds ratio [OR] of 2548AA was associated with moderate obesity (p=0.048) and morbid obesity (p=0.048). The LEPR 223RR genotype was associated with obesity in the studied population (OR=1.74, p=0.037) and only in the overweight (OR=1.8, p=0.049). Subjects with 2548AA had significantly higher BMI, daily energy intake, total cholesterol (TC), waist circumference (WC), insulinemia, and low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. With regard to 223RR, we noted a significantly higher daily energy intake, BMI, TC, glycemia, insulinemia, HOMA-IR index, and low HDL-C levels. Haplotype model AR (2548A+223R) and AQ (2548A+223Q) increased the risk of obesity (OR=3.36, p<0.001; OR=2.56, p=0.010, respectively). When we added daily energy intake in adjustment, these significant associations disappeared. In addition, the AR and AQ increased the MetS risk. This significant association persisted after we had added daily energy intake in adjustment. This study showed that LEP G2548A and LEPR Q223R polymorphisms and haplotype combination were associated with MetS and obesity risk in Tunisian volunteers.
Project description:The Gln233Arg (A>G; rs1137101) polymorphism of the leptin receptor gene (LEPR) has been investigated extensively and is reported to be associated with different metabolic states. In this investigation, we aimed to study the frequency of Gln233Arg genotypes and alleles in a group of Saudi women stratified by their body mass index (BMI), to correlate the LEPR genotypes with variations in anthropometric, lipid and hormonal parameters and to investigate conformational and structural variations in the mutant LEPR using molecular dynamic (MD) investigations. The study group included 122 Saudi women (normal weight = 60; obese = 62) attending the clinics for a routine checkup. Anthropometric data: height, weight, waist and hip circumference were recorded and fasting serum sample was used to estimate glucose, lipids, ghrelin, leptin and insulin. BMI, W/H ratio, and HOMA-IR values were calculated. Whole blood sample was used to extract DNA; exon 6 of the LEPR gene was amplified by PCR and sequencing was conducted on an ABI 3100 Avant Genetic Analyser. Molecular Dynamic Simulation studies were carried out using different softwares. The results showed the presence of all three genotypes of Gln233Arg in Saudi women, but the frequencies were significantly different when compared to reports from some populations. No differences were seen in the genotype and allele frequencies between the normal weight and obese women. Stratification by the genotypes showed significantly higher BMI, waist and hip circumference, leptin, insulin, fasting glucose and HOMA-IR and lower ghrelin levels in obese women carrying the GG genotype. Even in the normal weight group, individuals with GG genotype had higher BMI, waist and hip circumference and significantly lower ghrelin levels. The MD studies showed a significant effect of the Gln/Arg substitution on the conformation, flexibility, root-mean-square fluctuation (RMSF), radius of gyration (Rg) values, solvent-accessible surface area (SASA) and number of inter- and intra-molecular H-bonds. The results suggest that the structural changes brought about by the mutation, influence the signaling pathways by some unknown mechanism, which may be contributing to the abnormalities seen in the individuals carrying the G allele of rs1137101.
Project description:Human obesity is due to a complex interaction among environmental, behavioral, developmental and genetic factors, including the interaction of leptin (LEP) and leptin receptor (LEPR). Several LEPR mutations and polymorphisms have been described in patients with early onset severe obesity and hyperphagic eating behavior; however, some contradictory findings have also been reported. In the present study we explored the association of six LEPR gene polymorphisms in patients with morbid obesity.Twenty eight patients with morbid obesity and 56 non-obese Mexican Mestizo individuals were included. Typing of rs1137100, rs1137101, rs1805134, Ser492Thr, rs1805094 and rs1805096 LEPR polymorphisms was performed by PCR and allele specific hybridization. The LEPR Ser492Thr polymorphism was monomorphic with the presence of only the Ser492Thr-G allele. Allele C and genotype T/C for rs1805134 polymorphism were associated with susceptibility to morbid obesity (p = 0.02 and p = 0.03, respectively). No association was observed with any haplotype. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) showed that five polymorphisms (rs1137100, rs1137101, rs1805134, rs1805094 and rs1805096) were in absolute (D' = 1) but none in perfect (r2 = 1) LD.Our results suggest that rs1805134 polymorphism could be involved in the development of morbid obesity, whilst none of the alleles of the LEPR gene, rs1137100, rs1137101, rs1805094 and rs1805096 were associated as risk factors. However, more studies are necessary to confirm or reject this hypothesis.
Project description:Body mass is inversely related to breast cancer risk among premenopausal women. Leptin, an essential cytokine regulating food intake, energy expenditure, glucose, and fat metabolism may be part of the mechanistic pathway. We investigated 50 tagging and candidate SNPs in the leptin (LEP) and leptin receptor (LEPR) genes for associations with premenopausal breast cancer incidence using 405 cases and 810 controls nested within the Nurses' Health Study II. We also examined associations between these SNPs and circulating leptin (among 910 women) and breast cancer grade (among 267 patients). Permutation tests were performed to adjust for multiple testing. We did not detect a significant association between SNPs in the LEP or LEPR gene and either breast cancer incidence or plasma leptin levels. Among cases, 14 SNPs of the LEPR gene were significantly associated with cancer grade, and rs1137101 (Q223R) survived multiple testing adjustment (adjusted P = 0.04). The G carriers of rs1137101 were more likely to have poorly differentiated than well-differentiated cancers. Our data suggest that common genetic variation in the LEP or LEPR gene has no strong association with premenopausal breast cancer risk. The LEPR gene might be associated with breast cancer grade.
Project description:Objective. To identify the frequency of obesity and metabolic complications in child and adolescent users of risperidone. Potential associations with clinical parameters and SNPs of the HTR2C, DRD2, LEP, LEPR, MC4R, and CYP2D6 genes were analyzed. Methods. Samples from 120 risperidone users (8-20 years old) were collected and SNPs were analyzed, alongside assessment of chronological and bone ages, prescribed and weight-adjusted doses, use of other psychotropic drugs, waist circumference, BMI z-scores, blood pressure, HOMA-IR index, fasting levels of serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, transaminases, and leptin. Results. Thirty-two (26.7%) patients were overweight and 5 (4.2%) obese. Hypertension was recorded in 8 patients (6.7%), metabolic syndrome in 6 (5%), and increased waist circumference in 20 (16.7%). The HOMA-IR was high for 22 patients (18.3%), while total cholesterol and triglycerides were high in 20 (16.7%) and 41 (34.2%) patients, respectively. SNP associations were found for LEP, HTR2C, and CYP2D6 with BMI; CYP2D6 with blood pressure, ALT, and HOMA-IR; HTR2C and LEPR with leptin levels; MC4R and DRD2 with HOMA-IR; HTR2C with WC; and LEP with ALT. Conclusions. Although not higher than in the general pediatric population, a high frequency of patients was overweight/obese, with abnormalities in metabolic parameters and some pharmacogenetic associations.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Adipose tissue is an important endocrine organ that secretes a number of adipokines, such as adiponectin (ADIPOQ), leptin (LEP), leptin receptor (LEPR), and resistin (RETN) which may be implicated in obesity. Some adipokines' polymorphisms of genes might influence their concentrations and/or activities. Our aim was to study the relationship between seven SNPs in ADIPOQ (+45T<G (rs2241766); +276G<T (rs1501299); -4255C<T (rs822393); -395G<T (rs17366568)), LEP (2548G<A (rs7799039)), LEPR (223Q<R (rs1137101)), and RETN (-420C<G (rs1862513)) and obesity in Hammam Sousse Sahloul Heart Study (HSHS). METHODS:The study, carried out between February and June 2009, is mainly focused on 1121 respondents in HSHS which is a population-based epidemiological study of type "community-based" on cardiovascular risk. Genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Serum lipids and anthropometric parameters were measured. Statistic analysis was performed on SPSSv19. RESULTS:The polymorphisms of ADIPOQ 4522C<T and 276G<T, LEP 2548G<A, and RETN 420C<G seem to contribute to obesity. In fact, adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of obesity associated with mutated genotypes of each polymorphism were respectively OR=1.38, P=.037; OR=0.608, P<.001; OR=2.23, P=.034; and OR=2.18, P<.001. The 276G<T, 4522C<T, and 420C<G were associated with increased BMI (P=.010, P=.028, and P<.001). A significant association was found between the 276G<T; 4522C<T, LEP 2548G<A and 420C<G, and the waist circumference and hip measurements. CONCLUSION:ADIPOQ, LEP, and RETN gene polymorphisms were associated with obesity parameters in HSHS population.
Project description:Numerous studies confirmed the association of FTO (fat mass and obesity associated gene) common variant, rs9939609, with obesity in European populations. However, studies in Asian populations revealed conflicting results. We examined the association of rs9939609 variant of FTO gene with obesity and obesity-related anthropometric and metabolic parameters in Pakistani population. Body weight, height, waist circumference, hip circumference, and blood pressure (BP) were measured. BMI and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. Levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), insulin, leptin, and leptin receptors were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. The results showed association of FTO gene, rs9939609, with obesity in females (>18 years of age). FTO minor allele increased the risk of obesity by 2.8 times (95% CI = 1.3-6.0) in females. This allele showed association with body weight, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, WHR, BP, plasma FBG levels, HOMA-IR, plasma insulin levels, and plasma leptin levels. In conclusion, FTO gene, rs9939609, is associated with BMI and risk of obesity in adult Pakistani females. Association of rs9939609 variant with higher FBG, plasma insulin, and leptin levels indicates that this polymorphism may disturb the metabolism in adult females and predispose them to obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, the above-mentioned findings were not seen in children or males.