Different effects of long noncoding RNA NDRG1-OT1 fragments on NDRG1 transcription in breast cancer cells under hypoxia.
ABSTRACT: Hypoxia plays a crucial role in the aggressiveness of solid tumors by driving multiple signaling pathways. Recently, long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) has been reported to promote or inhibit tumor aggressiveness by regulating gene expression. Previous studies in our laboratory found that the lncRNA NDRG1-OT1 is significantly up-regulated under hypoxia and inhibits its target gene NDRG1 at both the mRNA and protein levels. At the protein level, NDRG1-OT1 increases NDRG1 degradation via ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. However, the repressive mechanism of NDRG1 at the RNA level is still unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to study how NDRG1-OT1 transcriptionally regulates its target gene NDRG1. Luciferase reporter assays showed that NDRG1-OT1 decreased NDRG1 promoter activities. Mass spectrometry, bioinformatics tools, genetic manipulation, and immunoblotting were used to identify the interacting proteins. Surprisingly, different fragments of NDRG1-OT1 had opposite effects on NDRG1. The first quarter fragment (1-149 nt) of NDRG1-OT1 had no effect on the NDRG1 promoter; the second quarter fragment (150-263 nt) repressed NDRG1 by increasing the binding affinity of HNRNPA1; the third quarter fragment (264-392 nt) improved NDRG1 promoter activity by recruiting HIF-1?; the fourth quarter fragment (393-508 nt) down-regulated NDRG1 promoter activity via down-regulation of KHSRP under hypoxia. In summary, we have found a novel mechanism by which different fragments of the same lncRNA can cause opposite effects within the same target gene.
Project description:To investigate the target gene of lncRNA NDRG1-OT1 in breast cancer Overall design: To over-express NDRG1-OT1, the MCF7 cell line was transfected with pcDNA3.1(+)-NDRG1-OT1 plasmid using jetPRIME transfection reagent (Polyplus-transfection SA) according to manufacturer’s instructions.
Project description:Hypoxia has been intensively investigated over the past several decades based on the observations that hypoxic tumors are more resistant to therapy and have a worse prognosis. Previously, we reported that N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is strongly up-regulated under hypoxia and may play an important role in tumor adaptation to fluctuating oxygen concentrations. However, the regulatory mechanism of NDRG1 under hypoxia remains elusive. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify the transcription factors that regulate NDRG1 and to investigate the functional roles of NDRG1 in hypoxia. We showed that binding sites of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) were predicted in the NDRG1 promoter. Nuclear AHR was up-regulated in the presence of cobalt and hypoxia. AHR translocated to nuclei and bound between base pairs -412 and -388 of the NDRG1 promoter in hypoxia. Moreover, hypoxia-mimetic induction of NDRG1 was attenuated by knockdown of AHR expression. Also, overexpression of AHR facilitated cell proliferation and migration via up-regulation of NDRG1. These results showed for the first time that AHR positively regulates NDRG1 transcription through an AHR binding site by way of hypoxia-mimetic signaling, which may lead to development of a specific therapeutic regimen to prevent tumor malignancy under hypoxia.
Project description:A hypoxic microenvironment induces resistance to alkylating agents by activating targets in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. The molecular mechanisms involved in this mTOR-mediated hypoxia-induced chemoresistance, however, are unclear. Here we identify the mTOR target N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) as a key determinant of resistance toward alkylating chemotherapy, driven by hypoxia but also by therapeutic measures such as irradiation, corticosteroids, and chronic exposure to alkylating agents via distinct molecular routes involving hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha, p53, and the mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2)/serum glucocorticoid-induced protein kinase 1 (SGK1) pathway. Resistance toward alkylating chemotherapy but not radiotherapy was dependent on NDRG1 expression and activity. In posttreatment tumor tissue of patients with malignant gliomas, NDRG1 was induced and predictive of poor response to alkylating chemotherapy. On a molecular level, NDRG1 bound and stabilized methyltransferases, chiefly O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), a key enzyme for resistance to alkylating agents in glioblastoma patients. In patients with glioblastoma, MGMT promoter methylation in tumor tissue was not more predictive for response to alkylating chemotherapy in patients who received concomitant corticosteroids.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Cancer cell differentiation is an important characteristic of malignant tumor and has a great impact on prognosis and therapeutic decision for patients. The N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1), a putative tumor suppression gene, is involved in the regulation of human cell differentiation and metastasis in various cancers. Changes in the status of methylation of the NDRG1 gene have not been studied in detail in human breast cancer. RESULTS: The MDA-MB-231 breast tumor cell line could express NDRG1. However, it was only expressed after treatment with 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (AZA) in T47D cell line, which revealed that NDRG1 expression could modulated by DNA methylation. Therefore, the fragment surrounding the transcript start site of NDRG1 gene promoter was cloned after sodium bisulfite DNA treatment. A high density (66%) of methylation for human NDRG1 gene promoter was detected in T47D; however, there was only 16% of methylated CpG dinucleotides in the NDRG1 gene promoter in MDA-MB-231. DNA methylation in the NDRG1 promoter was detected in 31.1% of primary breast cancer samples. Furthermore, the NDRG1 promoter methylation correlated with the Tumor Node Metastasis (TNM) at stage III/IV, metastasis, lymph invasion, moderate and poor histological grade in the breast cancer patients. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the DNA methylation status of NDRG1 gene may play an important role in the pathogenesis and/or development of breast cancer, and the expression could be regulated by aberrant DNA methylation.
Project description:N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is induced by cellular stress such as hypoxia and DNA damage, and in humans, germ line mutations cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. However, the cellular roles of NDRG1 are not fully understood. Previously, NDRG1 was shown to mediate doxorubicin resistance under hypoxia, suggesting a role for NDRG1 in cell survival under these conditions. We found decreased apoptosis in doxorubicin-treated cells expressing NDRG1 shRNAs under normoxia, demonstrating a requirement for NDRG1 in apoptosis in breast epithelial cells under normal oxygen pressure. Also, different cellular stress regimens, such as hypoxia and doxorubicin treatment, induced NDRG1 through different stress signalling pathways. We further compared expression profiles in human breast epithelial cells ectopically over-expressing NDRG1 with cells expressing NDRG1 shRNAs in order to identify biological pathways where NDRG1 is involved. The results suggest that NDRG1 may have roles connected to vesicle transport.
Project description:The expression of NDRG1 gene is induced by nickel, a transition metal sharing similar physical properties to cobalt. Nickel may create hypoxia-like conditions in cells and induce hypoxia-responsive genes, as does cobalt. Therefore NDRG1 is likely to be another gene induced by hypoxia. HIF-1 is a transcription factor which has a major role in the regulation of hypoxia-responsive genes, and thus it could be involved in the transcriptional regulation of NDRG1 gene. Hypoxia is such a common feature of solid tumours that it is of interest to investigate the expression of Ndrg1 protein in human cancers.Hypoxia and its mimetics induce in vitro expression of NDRG1 gene and cause the accumulation of Ndrg1 protein. Protein levels remain high even after cells revert to normoxia. Although HIF-1 is involved in the regulation of NDRG1, long term hypoxia induces the gene to some extent in HIF-1 knock-out cells. In the majority of human tissues studied, Ndrg1 protein is overexpressed in cancers compared to normal tissues and also reflects tumour hypoxia better than HIF-1 protein.Hypoxia is an inducer of the NDRG1 gene, and nickel probably causes the induction of the gene by interacting with the oxygen sensory pathway. Hypoxic induction of NDRG1 is mostly dependent on the HIF-1 transcription factor, but HIF-1 independent pathways are also involved in the regulation of the gene during chronic hypoxia. The determination of Ndrg1 protein levels in cancers may aid the diagnosis of the disease.
Project description:Hypoxia and reoxygenation are common characteristics of solid tumors, which lead to oxidative stress and activation of stress-response genes. Previously, we observed that N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) was strongly down-regulated after shifting to reoxygenation, but the regulatory mechanism of NDRG1 remained elusive. Here we focused on the regulation of NDRG1 by microRNAs (miRNAs). Breast cancer MCF-7 cells were cultured under hypoxia for 24 h followed by 24 h of reoxygenation. The miRNA profiles were examined by Nanostring nCounter assays. Forty-three miRNAs had significant changes upon reoxygenation. In silico analysis identified four oxygen-sensitive miRNAs whose seed regions perfectly matched the 3'-UTR of NDRG1. In particular, miR-769-3p was able to inhibit the expression of NDRG1, which caused a significant reduction of NDRG1 protein upon reoxygenation. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-769-3p significantly inhibited cell proliferation and enhanced apoptosis. Our results revealed that miR-769-3p can functionally regulate NDRG1 during changes in oxygen concentration.
Project description:N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (*NDRG1*) is induced by cellular stress such as hypoxia and DNA damage, and in humans, germ line mutations cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. However, the roles of NDRG1 in the cell are not fully understood. Previously, NDRG1 was shown to mediate doxorubicin resistance under hypoxia, suggesting a role for NDRG1 in cell survival under these conditions. We found decreased apoptosis in doxorubicin-treated cells expressing NDRG1 shRNAs under normoxia, demonstrating a requirement for NDRG1 in apoptosis in breast epithelial cells under normal oxygen pressure. We further compared expression profiles in human breast epithelial cells ectopically over-expressing NDRG1 with cells expressing NDRG1 shRNAs in order to identify biological pathways where NDRG1 is involved. The results suggest that NDRG1 may have roles connected to vesicle transport. The previously reported roles of NDRG1 in apoptosis, myelin sheet maintenance, enhanced exocytosis in mast cells and in cellular responses to hypoxia, heavy metals, and androgen may all converge by NDRG1 having a role linked to vesicle transport. Overall design: SUM102 and ME16C2 stably transduced with siRNA against NDRG1 compared with empty vector control ZR-75-1 stably transduced with NDRG1 overexpression construct compared with empty vector control Two condition design
Project description:MORC2 (microrchidia family CW-type zinc finger 2) is a newly identified chromatin remodeling protein that functions in diverse biological processes including gene transcription. NDRG1 is a metastasis suppressor and a prognostic biomarker for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the relationship between MORC2 and NDRG1 transcriptional regulation and the roles of MORC2 in CRC remain elusive. Here, we showed that MORC2 downregulated NDRG1 mRNA, protein levels, and promoter activity in CRC cells. We also found that MORC2 bound to the -446 to -213 bp region of the NDRG1 promoter. Mechanistically, histone deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) was involved in NDRG1 transcriptional regulation. MORC2 was able to interact with SIRT1 and inhibit NDRG1 promoter activity cumulatively with SIRT1. MORC2 overexpression led to a decrease of H3Ac and H4Ac of the NDRG1 promoter. Importantly, we showed that NDRG1 was essential in MORC2-mediated promotion of CRC cell migration and invasion in vitro, as well as lung metastasis of CRC cells in vivo. Moreover, MORC2 expression correlated negatively with NDRG1 expression in CRC patients. High expression of MORC2 was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.019) and poor pTNM stage (P = 0.02) and the expression of MORC2 correlated with poor prognosis in colon cancer patients. Our findings thus contribute to the knowledge of the regulatory mechanism of MORC2 in downregulating NDRG1, and suggest MORC2 as a potential therapeutic target for CRC.
Project description:Long noncoding RNAs (LncRNAs) have been implicated in the regulation of adipocyte and osteoblast differentiation. However, the functional contributions of LncRNAs to adipocyte or osteoblast differentiation remain largely unexplored. In the current study we have identified a novel LncRNA named peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator-1?-OT1 (PGC1?-OT1). The expression levels of PGC1?-OT1 were altered during adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation from progenitor cells. 5'- and 3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) revealed that PGC1?-OT1 is 1759 nt in full length. Overexpression of PGC1?-OT1 in progenitor cells inhibited adipogenic differentiation, whereas silencing of endogenous PGC1?-OT1 induced adipogenic differentiation. By contrast, overexpression of PGC1?-OT1 in progenitor cells stimulated, whereas silencing of PGC1?-OT1 inhibited osteogenic differentiation. In vivo experiment showed that silencing of endogenous PGC1?-OT1 in marrow stimulated fat accumulation and decreased osteoblast differentiation in mice. Mechanism investigations revealed that PGC1?-OT1 contains a functional miR-148a-3p binding site. Overexpression of the mutant PGC1?-OT1 with mutation at the binding site failed to regulate either adipogenic or osteogenic differentiation. In vivo crosslinking combined with affinity purification studies demonstrated that PGC1?-OT1 physically associated with miR-148a-3p through the functional miR-148a-3p binding site. Furthermore, PGC1?-OT1 affected the expression of endogenous miR-148a-3p and its target gene lysine-specific demethylase 6b (KDM6B). Supplementation of miR-148a-3p in progenitor cells blocked the inhibitory effect of PGC1?-OT1 on adipocyte formation. Moreover, overexpression of Kdm6b restored the osteoblast differentiation which was inhibited by silencing of endogenous PGC1?-OT. Our studies provide evidences that the novel LncRNA PGC1?-OT1 reciprocally regulates adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation through antagonizing miR-148a-3p and enhancing KDM6B effect.