Schwann cells, but not Oligodendrocytes, Depend Strictly on Dynamin 2 Function.
ABSTRACT: Myelination requires extensive plasma membrane rearrangements, implying that molecules controlling membrane dynamics play prominent roles. The large GTPase dynamin 2 (DNM2) is a well-known regulator of membrane remodeling, membrane fission, and vesicular trafficking. Here, we genetically ablated Dnm2 in Schwann cells (SCs) and in oligodendrocytes of mice. Dnm2 deletion in developing SCs resulted in severely impaired axonal sorting and myelination onset. Induced Dnm2 deletion in adult SCs caused a rapidly-developing peripheral neuropathy with abundant demyelination. In both experimental settings, mutant SCs underwent prominent cell death, at least partially due to cytokinesis failure. Strikingly, when Dnm2 was deleted in adult SCs, non-recombined SCs still expressing DNM2 were able to remyelinate fast and efficiently, accompanied by neuropathy remission. These findings reveal a remarkable self-healing capability of peripheral nerves that are affected by SC loss. In the central nervous system, however, we found no major defects upon Dnm2 deletion in oligodendrocytes.
Project description:Shiverer-immunodeficient (Shi-id) mice demonstrate defective myelination in the central nervous system (CNS) and significant ataxia by 2 to 3 weeks of life. Expanded, banked human neural stem cells (HuCNS-SCs) were transplanted into three sites in the brains of neonatal or juvenile Shi-id mice, which were asymptomatic or showed advanced hypomyelination, respectively. In both groups of mice, HuCNS-SCs engrafted and underwent preferential differentiation into oligodendrocytes. These oligodendrocytes generated compact myelin with normalized nodal organization, ultrastructure, and axon conduction velocities. Myelination was equivalent in neonatal and juvenile mice by quantitative histopathology and high-field ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging, which, through fractional anisotropy, revealed CNS myelination 5 to 7 weeks after HuCNS-SC transplantation. Transplanted HuCNS-SCs generated functional myelin in the CNS, even in animals with severe symptomatic hypomyelination, suggesting that this strategy may be useful for treating dysmyelinating diseases.
Project description:Schwann cells (SCs), the glia of the peripheral nervous system, play an essential role in nerve regeneration. Upon nerve injury, SCs are reprogrammed into unique "repair SCs," and these cells remove degenerating axons/myelin debris, promote axonal regrowth, and ultimately remyelinate regenerating axons. The AP-1 transcription factor JUN is promptly induced in SCs upon nerve injury and potently mediates this injury-induced SC plasticity; however, the regulation of these JUN-dependent SC injury responses is unclear. Previously, we produced mice with a SC-specific deletion of O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT). This enzyme catalyzes O-GlcNAcylation, a posttranslational modification that is influenced by the cellular metabolic state. Mice lacking OGT in SCs develop a progressive demyelinating peripheral neuropathy. Here, we investigated the nerve repair process in OGT-SCKO mutant mice and found that the remyelination of regenerating axons is severely impaired. Gene expression profiling of OGT-SCKO SCs revealed that the JUN-dependent SC injury program was elevated in the absence of injury and failed to shut down at the appropriate time after injury. This aberrant JUN activity results in abnormalities in repair SC function and redifferentiation and prevents the timely remyelination. This aberrant nerve injury response is normalized in OGT-SCKO mice with reduced Jun gene dosage in SCs. Mechanistically, OGT O-GlcNAcylates JUN at multiple sites, which then leads to an attenuation of AP-1 transcriptional activity. Together, these results highlight the metabolic oversight of the nerve injury response via the regulation of JUN activity by O-GlcNAcylation, a pathway that could be important in the neuropathy associated with diabetes and aging.
Project description:Previously we showed that YAP/TAZ promote not only proliferation but also differentiation of immature Schwann cells (SCs), thereby forming and maintaining the myelin sheath around peripheral axons (Grove et al., 2017). Here we show that YAP/TAZ are required for mature SCs to restore peripheral myelination, but not to proliferate, after nerve injury. We find that YAP/TAZ dramatically disappear from SCs of adult mice concurrent with axon degeneration after nerve injury. They reappear in SCs only if axons regenerate. YAP/TAZ ablation does not impair SC proliferation or transdifferentiation into growth promoting repair SCs. SCs lacking YAP/TAZ, however, fail to upregulate myelin-associated genes and completely fail to remyelinate regenerated axons. We also show that both YAP and TAZ are redundantly required for optimal remyelination. These findings suggest that axons regulate transcriptional activity of YAP/TAZ in adult SCs and that YAP/TAZ are essential for functional regeneration of peripheral nerve.
Project description:In the central nervous system (CNS), oligodendrocytes myelinate multiple axons; in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), Schwann cells (SCs) myelinate a single axon. Why are the myelinating potentials of these glia so fundamentally different? Here, we find that loss of Fbxw7, an E3 ubiquitin ligase component, enhances the myelinating potential of SCs. Fbxw7 mutant SCs make thicker myelin sheaths and sometimes appear to myelinate multiple axons in a fashion reminiscent of oligodendrocytes. Several Fbxw7 mutant phenotypes are due to dysregulation of mTOR; however, the remarkable ability of mutant SCs to ensheathe multiple axons is independent of mTOR signaling. This indicates distinct roles for Fbxw7 in SC biology including modes of axon interactions previously thought to fundamentally distinguish myelinating SCs from oligodendrocytes. Our data reveal unexpected plasticity in the myelinating potential of SCs, which may have important implications for our understanding of both PNS and CNS myelination and myelin repair.
Project description:Oligodendrocyte differentiation and central nervous system myelination require massive reorganization of the oligodendrocyte cytoskeleton. Loss of specific actin- and tubulin-organizing factors can lead to impaired morphological and/or molecular differentiation of oligodendrocytes, resulting in a subsequent loss of myelination. Dystonin is a cytoskeletal linker protein with both actin- and tubulin-binding domains. Loss of function of this protein results in a sensory neuropathy called Hereditary Sensory Autonomic Neuropathy VI in humans and dystonia musculorum in mice. This disease presents with severe ataxia, dystonic muscle and is ultimately fatal early in life. While loss of the neuronal isoforms of dystonin primarily leads to sensory neuron degeneration, it has also been shown that peripheral myelination is compromised due to intrinsic Schwann cell differentiation abnormalities. The role of this cytoskeletal linker in oligodendrocytes, however, remains unclear. We sought to determine the effects of the loss of neuronal dystonin on oligodendrocyte differentiation and central myelination. To address this, primary oligodendrocytes were isolated from a severe model of dystonia musculorum, Dstdt-27J, and assessed for morphological and molecular differentiation capacity. No defects could be discerned in the differentiation of Dstdt-27J oligodendrocytes relative to oligodendrocytes from wild-type littermates. Survival was also compared between Dstdt-27J and wild-type oligodendrocytes, revealing no significant difference. Using a recently developed migration assay, we further analysed the ability of primary oligodendrocyte progenitor cell motility, and found that Dstdt-27J oligodendrocyte progenitor cells were able to migrate normally. Finally, in vivo analysis of oligodendrocyte myelination was done in phenotype-stage optic nerve, cerebral cortex and spinal cord. The density of myelinated axons and g-ratios of Dstdt-27J optic nerves was normal, as was myelin basic protein expression in both cerebral cortex and spinal cord. Together these data suggest that, unlike Schwann cells, oligodendrocytes do not have an intrinsic requirement for neuronal dystonin for differentiation and myelination.
Project description:Schwann cells (SCs) promote axonal integrity independently of myelination by poorly understood mechanisms. Current models suggest that SC metabolism is critical for this support function and that SC metabolic deficits may lead to axonal demise. The LKB1-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) kinase pathway targets several downstream effectors, including mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and is a key metabolic regulator implicated in metabolic diseases. We found through molecular, structural and behavioral characterization of SC-specific mutant mice that LKB1 activity is central to axon stability, whereas AMPK and mTOR in SCs are largely dispensable. The degeneration of axons in LKB1 mutants was most dramatic in unmyelinated small sensory fibers, whereas motor axons were comparatively spared. LKB1 deletion in SCs led to abnormalities in nerve energy and lipid homeostasis and to increased lactate release. The latter acts in a compensatory manner to support distressed axons. LKB1 signaling is essential for SC-mediated axon support, a function that may be dysregulated in diabetic neuropathy.
Project description:Dynamin 2 (DNM2) belongs to a family of large GTPases that are well known for mediating membrane fission by oligomerizing at the neck of membrane invaginations. Autosomal dominant mutations in the ubiquitously expressed DNM2 cause 2 discrete neuromuscular diseases: autosomal dominant centronuclear myopathy (ADCNM) and dominant intermediate Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy (CMT). CNM and CMT mutations may affect DNM2 in distinct manners: CNM mutations may cause protein hyperactivity with elevated GTPase and fission activities, while CMT mutations could impair DNM2 lipid binding and activity. DNM2 is also a modifier of the X-linked and autosomal recessive forms of CNM, as DNM2 protein levels are upregulated in animal models and patient muscle samples. Strikingly, reducing DNM2 has been shown to revert muscle phenotypes in preclinical models of CNM. As DNM2 emerges as the key player in CNM pathogenesis, the role(s) of DNM2 in skeletal muscle remains unclear. This review aims to provide insights into potential pathomechanisms related to DNM2-CNM mutations, and discuss exciting outcomes of current and future therapeutic approaches targeting DNM2 hyperactivity.
Project description:Myelin, rather than being a static insulator of axons, is emerging as an active participant in circuit plasticity. This requires precise regulation of oligodendrocyte numbers and myelination patterns. Here, by devising a laser ablation approach of single oligodendrocytes, followed by in vivo imaging and correlated ultrastructural reconstructions, we report that in mouse cortex demyelination as subtle as the loss of a single oligodendrocyte can trigger robust cell replacement and remyelination timed by myelin breakdown. This results in reliable reestablishment of the original myelin pattern along continuously myelinated axons, while in parallel, patchy isolated internodes emerge on previously unmyelinated axons. Therefore, in mammalian cortex, internodes along partially myelinated cortical axons are typically not reestablished, suggesting that the cues that guide patchy myelination are not preserved through cycles of de- and remyelination. In contrast, myelin sheaths forming continuous patterns show remarkable homeostatic resilience and remyelinate with single axon precision.
Project description:A prerequisite to myelination of peripheral axons by Schwann cells (SCs) is SC differentiation, and recent evidence indicates that reprogramming from a glycolytic to oxidative metabolism occurs during cellular differentiation. Whether this reprogramming is essential for SC differentiation, and the genes that regulate this critical metabolic transition are unknown. Here we show that the tumour suppressor Lkb1 is essential for this metabolic transition and myelination of peripheral axons. Hypomyelination in the Lkb1-mutant nerves and muscle atrophy lead to hindlimb dysfunction and peripheral neuropathy. Lkb1-null SCs failed to optimally activate mitochondrial oxidative metabolism during differentiation. This deficit was caused by Lkb1-regulated diminished production of the mitochondrial Krebs cycle substrate citrate, a precursor to cellular lipids. Consequently, myelin lipids were reduced in Lkb1-mutant mice. Restoring citrate partially rescued Lkb1-mutant SC defects. Thus, Lkb1-mediated metabolic shift during SC differentiation increases mitochondrial metabolism and lipogenesis, necessary for normal myelination.
Project description:Heterozygous mutations in dynamin 2 (DNM2) have been linked to dominant Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy and centronuclear myopathy. We report the first homozygous mutation in the DNM2 protein p.Phe379Val, in three consanguineous patients with a lethal congenital syndrome associating akinesia, joint contractures, hypotonia, skeletal abnormalities, and brain and retinal hemorrhages. In vitro membrane tubulation, trafficking and GTPase assays are consistent with an impact of the DNM2p.Phe379Val mutation on endocytosis. Although DNM2 has been previously implicated in axonal and muscle maintenance, the clinical manifestation in our patients taken together with our expression analysis profile during mouse embryogenesis and knockdown approaches in zebrafish resulting in defects in muscle organization and angiogenesis support a pleiotropic role for DNM2 during fetal development in vertebrates and humans.