Podocytes contribute, and respond, to the inflammatory environment in lupus nephritis.
ABSTRACT: Lupus nephritis (LN) affects up to 80% of juvenile onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients, leading to end stage renal failure requiring dialysis or transplantation in 10-15%. Podocytes are specialized epithelial cells of the glomerulus known to be a key site of damage in glomerular diseases. However, their roles in LN have yet to be fully identified. This project aims to identify structural and functional roles of podocytes in an in vitro model of LN. Conditionally immortalized podocytes were treated with proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, TNF-?, IFN-?, and IFN-?) alone and in combination in an in vitro model of LN and were assessed for their structural and functional characteristics. Podocytes produce TNF-?, IL-6, IL-8, VEGF, granulocyte-monocyte colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) at relatively low levels under basal conditions; stimulation with IL-1? led to increased secretion of IL-6 ( P = 0.011), IL-8 ( P = 0.05), VEGF ( P = 0.02), and M-CSF ( P = 0.03). Stimulation with TNF-? led to increased secretion of M-CSF ( P?= 0.049) and stimulation with IFN-? led to novel production of IL-10 ( P = 0.036) and interferon-?-inducible protein-10 ( P = 0.036). Podocytes demonstrate a reduction in the area covered by filamentous-actin in response to IL-1? treatment within 1 h ( P = 0.011), which is restored by 24 h, associated with an increase in the level of intracellular calcium but not with increased cell death. Podocytes contribute to the inflammatory milieu in LN through cytokine/chemokine secretion and respond to the inflammatory milieu via rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton leading to effacement, a well-known method of protection against apoptosis in these cells. This demonstrates that podocytes are involved in the pathogenesis of LN.
PROVIDER: S-EPMC6336988 | BioStudies |