Classifying cells with Scasat, a single-cell ATAC-seq analysis tool.
ABSTRACT: ATAC-seq is a recently developed method to identify the areas of open chromatin in a cell. These regions usually correspond to active regulatory elements and their location profile is unique to a given cell type. When done at single-cell resolution, ATAC-seq provides an insight into the cell-to-cell variability that emerges from otherwise identical DNA sequences by identifying the variability in the genomic location of open chromatin sites in each of the cells. This paper presents Scasat (single-cell ATAC-seq analysis tool), a complete pipeline to process scATAC-seq data with simple steps. Scasat treats the data as binary and applies statistical methods that are especially suitable for binary data. The pipeline is developed in a Jupyter notebook environment that holds the executable code along with the necessary description and results. It is robust, flexible, interactive and easy to extend. Within Scasat we developed a novel differential accessibility analysis method based on information gain to identify the peaks that are unique to a cell. The results from Scasat showed that open chromatin locations corresponding to potential regulatory elements can account for cellular heterogeneity and can identify regulatory regions that separates cells from a complex population.
Project description:We present Model-based AnalysEs of Transcriptome and RegulOme (MAESTRO), a comprehensive open-source computational workflow ( http://github.com/liulab-dfci/MAESTRO ) for the integrative analyses of single-cell RNA-seq (scRNA-seq) and ATAC-seq (scATAC-seq) data from multiple platforms. MAESTRO provides functions for pre-processing, alignment, quality control, expression and chromatin accessibility quantification, clustering, differential analysis, and annotation. By modeling gene regulatory potential from chromatin accessibilities at the single-cell level, MAESTRO outperforms the existing methods for integrating the cell clusters between scRNA-seq and scATAC-seq. Furthermore, MAESTRO supports automatic cell-type annotation using predefined cell type marker genes and identifies driver regulators from differential scRNA-seq genes and scATAC-seq peaks.
Project description:Conventional high-throughput genomic technologies for mapping regulatory element activities in bulk samples such as ChIP-seq, DNase-seq and FAIRE-seq cannot analyze samples with small numbers of cells. The recently developed low-input and single-cell regulome mapping technologies such as ATAC-seq and single-cell ATAC-seq (scATAC-seq) allow analyses of small-cell-number and single-cell samples, but their signals remain highly discrete or noisy. Compared to these regulome mapping technologies, transcriptome profiling by RNA-seq is more widely used. Transcriptome data in single-cell and small-cell-number samples are more continuous and often less noisy. Here, we show that one can globally predict chromatin accessibility and infer regulatory element activities using RNA-seq. Genome-wide chromatin accessibility predicted by RNA-seq from 30 cells can offer better accuracy than ATAC-seq from 500 cells. Predictions based on single-cell RNA-seq (scRNA-seq) can more accurately reconstruct bulk chromatin accessibility than using scATAC-seq. Integrating ATAC-seq with predictions from RNA-seq increases the power and value of both methods. Thus, transcriptome-based prediction provides a new tool for decoding gene regulatory circuitry in samples with limited cell numbers.
Project description:SUMMARY:Single-cell assay of transposase-accessible chromatin followed by sequencing (scATAC-seq) is an emerging new technology for the study of gene regulation with single-cell resolution. The data from scATAC-seq are unique-sparse, binary and highly variable even within the same cell type. As such, neither methods developed for bulk ATAC-seq nor single-cell RNA-seq data are appropriate. Here, we present Destin, a bioinformatic and statistical framework for comprehensive scATAC-seq data analysis. Destin performs cell-type clustering via weighted principle component analysis, weighting accessible chromatin regions by existing genomic annotations and publicly available regulomic datasets. The weights and additional tuning parameters are determined via model-based likelihood. We evaluated the performance of Destin using downsampled bulk ATAC-seq data of purified samples and scATAC-seq data from seven diverse experiments. Compared to existing methods, Destin was shown to outperform across all datasets and platforms. For demonstration, we further applied Destin to 2088 adult mouse forebrain cells and identified cell-type-specific association of previously reported schizophrenia GWAS loci. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION:Destin toolkit is freely available as an R package at https://github.com/urrutiag/destin. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Project description:Characterizing epigenetic heterogeneity at the cellular level is a critical problem in the modern genomics era. Assays such as single cell ATAC-seq (scATAC-seq) offer an opportunity to interrogate cellular level epigenetic heterogeneity through patterns of variability in open chromatin. However, these assays exhibit technical variability that complicates clear classification and cell type identification in heterogeneous populations. We present scABC, an R package for the unsupervised clustering of single-cell epigenetic data, to classify scATAC-seq data and discover regions of open chromatin specific to cell identity.
Project description:Single-cell ATAC-seq (scATAC-seq) profiles the chromatin accessibility landscape at single cell level, thus revealing cell-to-cell variability in gene regulation. However, the high dimensionality and sparsity of scATAC-seq data often complicate the analysis. Here, we introduce a method for analyzing scATAC-seq data, called Single-Cell ATAC-seq analysis via Latent feature Extraction (SCALE). SCALE combines a deep generative framework and a probabilistic Gaussian Mixture Model to learn latent features that accurately characterize scATAC-seq data. We validate SCALE on datasets generated on different platforms with different protocols, and having different overall data qualities. SCALE substantially outperforms the other tools in all aspects of scATAC-seq data analysis, including visualization, clustering, and denoising and imputation. Importantly, SCALE also generates interpretable features that directly link to cell populations, and can potentially reveal batch effects in scATAC-seq experiments.
Project description:The assay for transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing (ATAC-seq) is widely used to identify regulatory regions throughout the genome. However, very few studies have been performed at the single cell level (scATAC-seq) due to technical challenges. Here we developed a simple and robust plate-based scATAC-seq method, combining upfront bulk Tn5 tagging with single-nuclei sorting. We demonstrate that our method works robustly across various systems, including fresh and cryopreserved cells from primary tissues. By profiling over 3000 splenocytes, we identify distinct immune cell types and reveal cell type-specific regulatory regions and related transcription factors.
Project description:Single-cell ATAC-seq (scATAC) yields sparse data that make conventional analysis challenging. We developed chromVAR (http://www.github.com/GreenleafLab/chromVAR), an R package for analyzing sparse chromatin-accessibility data by estimating gain or loss of accessibility within peaks sharing the same motif or annotation while controlling for technical biases. chromVAR enables accurate clustering of scATAC-seq profiles and characterization of known and de novo sequence motifs associated with variation in chromatin accessibility.
Project description:Single-cell sequencing assay for transposase-accessible chromatin (scATAC-seq) is the state-of-the-art technology for analyzing genome-wide regulatory landscapes in single cells. Single-cell ATAC-seq data are sparse and noisy, and analyzing such data is challenging. Existing computational methods cannot accurately reconstruct activities of individual cis-regulatory elements (CREs) in individual cells or rare cell subpopulations. We present a new statistical framework, SCATE, that adaptively integrates information from co-activated CREs, similar cells, and publicly available regulome data to substantially increase the accuracy for estimating activities of individual CREs. We demonstrate that SCATE can be used to better reconstruct the regulatory landscape of a heterogeneous sample.
Project description:An increasing number of single cell transcriptome and epigenome technologies, including single cell ATAC-seq (scATAC-seq), have been recently developed as powerful tools to analyze the features of many individual cells simultaneously. However, the methods and software were designed for one certain data type and only for single cell transcriptome data. A systematic approach for epigenome data and multiple types of transcriptome data is needed to control data quality and to perform cell-to-cell heterogeneity analysis on these ultra-high-dimensional transcriptome and epigenome datasets. Here we developed Dr.seq2, a Quality Control (QC) and analysis pipeline for multiple types of single cell transcriptome and epigenome data, including scATAC-seq and Drop-ChIP data. Application of this pipeline provides four groups of QC measurements and different analyses, including cell heterogeneity analysis. Dr.seq2 produced reliable results on published single cell transcriptome and epigenome datasets. Overall, Dr.seq2 is a systematic and comprehensive QC and analysis pipeline designed for parallel single cell transcriptome and epigenome data. Dr.seq2 is freely available at: http://www.tongji.edu.cn/~zhanglab/drseq2/ and https://github.com/ChengchenZhao/DrSeq2.
Project description:Understanding complex tissues requires single-cell deconstruction of gene regulation with precision and scale. Here, we assess the performance of a massively parallel droplet-based method for mapping transposase-accessible chromatin in single cells using sequencing (scATAC-seq). We apply scATAC-seq to obtain chromatin profiles of more than 200,000 single cells in human blood and basal cell carcinoma. In blood, application of scATAC-seq enables marker-free identification of cell type-specific cis- and trans-regulatory elements, mapping of disease-associated enhancer activity and reconstruction of trajectories of cellular differentiation. In basal cell carcinoma, application of scATAC-seq reveals regulatory networks in malignant, stromal and immune cells in the tumor microenvironment. Analysis of scATAC-seq profiles from serial tumor biopsies before and after programmed cell death protein 1 blockade identifies chromatin regulators of therapy-responsive T cell subsets and reveals a shared regulatory program that governs intratumoral CD8+ T cell exhaustion and CD4+ T follicular helper cell development. We anticipate that scATAC-seq will enable the unbiased discovery of gene regulatory factors across diverse biological systems.