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Prokaryotic Community Structure of Long-Term Fertilization Field Andisols in Central Japan.
ABSTRACT: Long-term fertilization experiments are a useful way to elucidate the impacts of fertilization on soil ecosystems. Here, we report the prokaryotic community structure in experimental field soil after 80 years of successive fertilization. Our 16S rRNA gene sequencing detected 20,996 amplicon sequence variants, including major phyla such as Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria.
Project description:The importance of soil microbial flora in agro-ecosystems is well known, but there is limited understanding of the effects of long-term fertilization on soil microbial community succession in different farming management practices. Here, we report the responses of soil microbial community structure, abundance and activity to chemical (CF) and organic fertilization (OF) treatments in a sandy agricultural system of wheat-maize rotation over a 17-year period. Illumina MiSeq sequencing showed that the microbial community diversity and richness showed no significant changes in bacteria but decreased in fungi under both CF and OF treatments. The dominant species showing significant differences between fertilization regimes were Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria and Ascomycota at the phylum level, as well as some unclassified genera of other phyla at the genus level. As expected, soil organic matter content, nutrient element concentrations and bacterial abundance were enhanced by both types of fertilization, especially in OF, but fungal abundance was inhibited by OF. Redundancy analysis revealed that soil enzyme activities were closely related to both bacterial and fungal communities, and the soil nutrient, texture and pH value together determined the community structures. Bacterial abundance might be the primary driver of crop yield, and soil enzyme activities may reflect crop yield. Our results suggest a relatively permanent response of soil microbial communities to the long-term fertilization regimes in a reclaimed sandy agro-ecosystem from a mobile dune, and indicate that the appropriate dosage of chemical fertilizers is beneficial to sandy soil sustainability.
Project description:Little has been reported on the effects of long-term fertilization on rhizosphere soil microbial diversity. Here, we investigated the effects of long-term continuous nitrogen (N) fertilization on the diversity and composition of soil bacteria using data from a 10-year field experiment with five N application rates (0, 120, 180, 240, and 360 kg N hm-2). The results revealed varying degrees of reduction in the numbers of bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in response to the different N application rates. The highest wheat yield and number of proprietary bacterial OTUs were found in the N input of 180 kg N hm-2. In terms of average relative richness, the top seven phyla of soil bacteria in the rhizosphere of wheat after long-term nitrogen application were Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes, and Patescibacteria. Among these, Proteobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes were found to be unaffected by the nitrogen fertilizer and soil environmental factors (pH, C/N ratio, and NO3 - concentration), whereas Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria showed significant positive and negative correlations, respectively, with soil pH. The richness of Actinobacteria significantly increased in the N180 treatment. Patescibacteria and Bacteroidetes showed significant positive correlations with soil NO3 - and wheat yield, and the average relative richness of these two phyla was high under long-term application of the N180 treatment. These findings indicate that the relative richness of Patescibacteria and Bacteroidetes can affect wheat yield. In conclusion, the results of our 10-year field experiments clearly show that long-term N fertilization can significantly affect most of the dominant soil bacterial species via changing the soil pH. The richness of Actinobacteria can serve as an indicator of a decreased soil pH caused by long-term N fertilization.
Project description:Application of chemical fertilizer or manure can affect soil microorganisms directly by supplying nutrients and indirectly by altering soil pH. However, it remains uncertain which effect mostly shapes microbial community structure. We determined soil bacterial diversity and community structure by 454 pyrosequencing the V1-V3 regions of 16S rRNA genes after 7-years (2007-2014) of applying chemical nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) fertilizers, composted manure or their combination to acidic (pH 5.8), near-neutral (pH 6.8) or alkaline (pH 8.4) Eutric Regosol soil in a maize-vegetable rotation in southwest China. In alkaline soil, nutrient sources did not affect bacterial Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU) richness or Shannon diversity index, despite higher available N, P, K, and soil organic carbon in fertilized than in unfertilized soil. In contrast, bacterial OTU richness and Shannon diversity index were significantly lower in acidic and near-neutral soils under NPK than under manure or their combination, which corresponded with changes in soil pH. Permutational multivariate analysis of variance showed that bacterial community structure was significantly affected across these three soils, but the PCoA ordination patterns indicated the effect was less distinct among nutrient sources in alkaline than in acidic and near-neural soils. Distance-based redundancy analysis showed that bacterial community structures were significantly altered by soil pH in acidic and near-neutral soils, but not by any soil chemical properties in alkaline soil. The relative abundance (%) of most bacterial phyla was higher in near-neutral than in acidic or alkaline soils. The most dominant phyla were Proteobacteria (24.6%), Actinobacteria (19.7%), Chloroflexi (15.3%) and Acidobacteria (12.6%); the medium dominant phyla were Bacterioidetes (5.3%), Planctomycetes (4.8%), Gemmatimonadetes (4.5%), Firmicutes (3.4%), Cyanobacteria (2.1%), Nitrospirae (1.8%), and candidate division TM7 (1.0%); the least abundant phyla were Verrucomicrobia (0.7%), Armatimonadetes (0.6%), candidate division WS3 (0.4%) and Fibrobacteres (0.3%). In addition, Cyanobacteria and candidate division TM7 were more abundant in acidic soil, whereas Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae and candidate division WS3 were more abundant in alkaline soil. We conclude that after 7-years of fertilization, soil bacterial diversity and community structure were shaped more by changes in soil pH rather than the direct effect of nutrient addition.
Project description:The effects of different agronomic practices, such as fertilization regimes, can be experimentally tested in long-term experiments (LTE). Here, we aimed to evaluate the effect of different nitrogen fertilizations on the bacterial microbiota in both rhizosphere and bulk soil of sugar beet, in the Giessen-LTE (Germany). Fertilization treatments included mineral-N, manure, mineral-N + manure and no N-amendment. Metabarcoding and co-occurrence analysis of 16S rRNA genes, qPCR of amoA, nirK, nirS, nosZ-I and nosZ-II genes and soil physico-chemical analyses were performed. The effect of the fertilization treatments was more evident in the bulk soil, involving 33.1% of the microbiota. Co-occurrence analysis showed a rhizosphere cluster, dominated by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia (hub taxa: Betaproteobacteriales), and a bulk soil cluster, dominated by Acidobacteria, Gemmatominadetes and "Latescibacteria" (hub taxa: Acidobacteria). In the bulk soil, mineral N-fertilization reduced nirK, amoA, nosZ-I and nosZ-II genes. Thirteen Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed 23 negative correlations with gene relative abundances. These OTUs likely represent opportunistic species that profited from the amended mineral-N and outgrew the species carrying N-cycle genes. Our results indicate trajectories for future research on soil microbiome in LTE and add new experimental evidence that will be helpful for sustainable management of nitrogen fertilizations on arable soils.
Project description:One of the most important challenges in agriculture is to determine the effectiveness and environmental impact of certain farming practices. The aim of present study was to determine and compare the taxonomic composition of the microbiomes established in soil following long-term exposure (14 years) to a conventional and organic farming systems (CFS and OFS accordingly). Soil from unclared forest next to the fields was used as a control. The analysis was based on RT-PCR and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes of bacteria and archaea. The number of bacteria was significantly lower in CFS than in OFS and woodland. The highest amount of archaea was detected in woodland, whereas the amounts in CFS and OFS were lower and similar. The most common phyla in the soil microbial communities analyzed were Proteobacteria (57.9%), Acidobacteria (16.1%), Actinobacteria (7.9%), Verrucomicrobia (2.0%), Bacteroidetes (2.7%) and Firmicutes (4.8%). Woodland soil differed from croplands in the taxonomic composition of microbial phyla. Croplands were enriched with Proteobacteria (mainly the genus Pseudomonas), while Acidobacteria were detected almost exclusively in woodland soil. The most pronounced differences between the CFS and OFS microbiomes were found within the genus Pseudomonas, which significantly (p<0,05) increased its number in CFS soil compared to OFS. Other differences in microbiomes of cropping systems concerned minor taxa. A higher relative abundance of bacteria belonging to the families Oxalobacteriaceae, Koribacteriaceae, Nakamurellaceae and genera Ralstonia, Paenibacillus and Pedobacter was found in CFS as compared with OFS. On the other hand, microbiomes of OFS were enriched with proteobacteria of the family Comamonadaceae (genera Hylemonella) and Hyphomicrobiaceae, actinobacteria from the family Micrococcaceae, and bacteria of the genera Geobacter, Methylotenera, Rhizobium (mainly Rhizobium leguminosarum) and Clostridium. Thus, the fields under OFS and CFS did not differ greatly for the composition of the microbiome. These results, which were also confirmed by cluster analysis, indicated that microbial communities in the field soil do not necessarily differ largely between conventional and organic farming systems.
Project description:Under paddy field conditions, biological sulfur oxidation occurs in the oxidized surface soil layer and rhizosphere, in which oxygen leaks from the aerenchyma system of rice plants. In the present study, we examined community shifts in sulfur-oxidizing bacteria associated with the oxidized surface soil layer and rice roots under different sulfur fertilization conditions based on the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene in order to explore the existence of oligotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in the paddy rice ecosystem. Rice plants were grown in pots with no fertilization (control) or CaCO3 or CaSO4 fertilization. A principal-coordinates analysis (PCoA) showed that CaSO4 fertilization markedly affected bacterial communities associated with rice roots and soil, whereas no significant differences were observed in plant growth among the fertilizer treatments examined. In rice roots, the relative abundance of Acidobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and TM7 was significantly higher in CaSO4-fertilized pots than in control pots. Alphaproteobacteria, Bradyrhizobiaceae, and Methylocystaceae members were significantly more abundant in CaSO4-fertilized roots than in control roots. On the other hand, the abundance of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria was lower in CaSO4-fertilized soil than in control soil. These results indicate that the bacteria associated with rice roots and soil responded to the sulfur amendment, suggesting that more diverse bacteria are involved in sulfur oxidation in the rice paddy ecosystem than previously considered.
Project description:Understanding the response of soil properties and bacterial communities in rhizosphere soil to aridity and dune types is fundamental to desertification control. This study investigated soil properties and bacterial communities of both rhizosphere and bulk soils of Caragana microphylla from four sites with different aridity indices, and one site with three different types of dunes. All sites were located in the desert regions of northern China. The results indicated that compared with the bulk soil, the soil nutrient content of rhizosphere, especially the content of total phosphorus, was generally significantly improved in different desertification environments. The bacterial richness and diversity were also higher than those of bulk soil, especially in arid regions and fixed dunes. Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Acidobacteria were the most dominant phyla in all samples. The regression analyses showed that at different sites, soil total organic C, total N, Na+, and total P played key roles in determining the bacterial community structure while total organic carbon, electronic conductivity, pH and total phosphorus were the dominant factors at the different dunes. The results further revealed that the dominant phyla strongly affected by environmental factors at different sites were Acidobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, and Actinobacteria among which, Acidobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes were negatively correlated with Na+ content. At different types of dunes, Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Gemmatimonadetes were particularly affected by environmental factors. The increased abundance of Actinobacteria in the rhizosphere soil was mainly caused by the decreased soil pH.
Project description:This is a pioneering report on the metagenomic exploration of the bacterial diversity from a busy sea port in Paradip, Odisha, India. In our study, high-throughput sequencing of community 16S rRNA gene amplicon was performed using 454 GS Junior platform. Metagenome contain 34,121 sequences with 16,677,333 bp and 56.3% G + C content. Metagenome sequences data are now available at NCBI under the Sequence Read Archive (SRA) database with accession no. SRX897055. Community metagenome sequence revealed the presence of 11,705 species belonging to 40 different phyla. Bacteroidetes (23%), Firmicutes (19%), Proteobacteria (17%), Spirochaetes (10%), Nitrospirae (8%), Actinobacteria (7%) and Acidobacteria (3%) are the predominant bacterial phyla in this port soil. Analysis of metagenomic sequences unfolded the interesting distribution of several phyla which pointed to the significant anthropogenic intervention influencing the bacterial community character of this port.
Project description:The bacterial diversity in rhizosphere soil of pear trees (Pyrus communis L. cv. Krystalli) from an orchard at Thessaly region of Greece was characterized employing amplicon-based metagenomics analysis. Pathogenic filamentous oomycetes of the genus Phytophthora comprises more than 150 recognized species and cause highly destructive soil-borne diseases in deciduous trees crops worldwide. Moreover, the treatment of soil microbiota with amino acids is an alternative strategy to achieve desirable effects even against phytopathogenic oomycetes. In our study, samples from rhizosphere soil were collected either from naturally Phytophthora-infected trees, from completely asymptomatic ones, or from trees as above subjected also to treatments with amino acids (Amino16®) under different fertilization regimes. The interactions of bacterial communities with plant pathogenic oomycetes are crucial to determine the course of infection and the pathogenicity encompassing various functional contexts like biofilm formation. Thus, for deciphering the structure and diversity of these soil bacterial communities, we applied a 16S rRNA Illumina sequencing approach targeting the V3-V4 gene region. After quality check 478,479 sequences were obtained in the dataset comprising a total read length of 192,291,625 base pairs. Proteobacteria were the dominant phylum (46.1%) followed by Acidobacteria (13.2%) and Actinobacteria (12.4%). Different distributions of phyla were observed among our samples which is indicative of various alterations of soil bacterial communities in rhizosphere. The metagenome data from this survey are available at NCBI Sequence Read Archive (SRA) database and Biosample under accession number PRJNA542725.
Project description:In this present study we report the profile of bacterial community at variable depth of soil sediment in the world's largest tropical mangrove sediments of Sundarbans, India using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Metagenome of three samples consisted of 61301 sequences with 32.0 Mbp and 55.6% G + C content. Metagenome data of this study are available at NCBI under the Biosample data base accession no. SRX883521. The taxonomic analysis of 2746 species belonged to 33 different phyla revealing the dominance of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria, Nitrospirae and Actinobacteria respectively. Remarkably less than 5.0% sequences belong to a poorly characterized group. Our pyrosequencing data report unfolds the bacterial community profile at different depth of soil sediment indicating the changing community pattern, in the light of specific chronology.