Improved Modeling of Halogenated Ligand-Protein Interactions Using the Drude Polarizable and CHARMM Additive Empirical Force Fields.
ABSTRACT: Halogenated ligands can participate in nonbonding interactions with proteins via halogen bond (XB) or halogen-hydrogen bond donor (X-HBD) interactions. In the context of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, the accuracy of the simulations depends strongly on the force field (FF) used. To ensure good reproduction of XB and X-HBD interactions with proteins, we optimized the previously developed additive CHARMM36/CHARMM General force field (CGenFF) and Drude polarizable force field by including atom pair-specific Lennard-Jones parameters for aromatic halogen-protein interactions. The optimization targeted quantum mechanical interaction energy surfaces with the developed parameters then examined for their ability to reproduce experimental halogen-containing ligand-protein interactions in MD simulations. The calculated halogenated ligand interaction geometries were in good overall agreement with the experimental crystal data for both the polarizable and additive FFs, showing that these models can accurately treat both XB and X-HBD interactions. Analysis of the ligand-protein interactions shows significant contributions of polarizability to binding occurring in the Drude FF, with self-polarization energy making both favorable and unfavorable contributions to binding. Further analysis of the dipole moments from aqueous solution to protein indicates the polarizable FF accounts for subtle changes of the environment of the ligands that can impact binding. The present work demonstrates the utility of the updated additive CHARMM36/CGenFF and polarizable Drude FFs for the study of halogenated ligand-protein interactions in computer-aided drug design.
Project description:The quality of the force field is crucial to ensure the accuracy of simulations used in molecular modeling, including computer-aided drug design (CADD). To perform more accurate modeling and simulations of halogenated molecules, in this study the polarizable force field based on the classical Drude oscillator model was extended to both aliphatic and aromatic systems using halogenated ethane and benzene model compounds for the halogens F, Cl, Br, and I. The force field parameters were optimized targeting quantum mechanical dipole moments, water interactions, and molecular polarizabilities as well as experimental observables, including enthalpies of vaporization, molecular volumes, hydration free energies, and dielectric constants. The developed halogenated polarizable force field is capable of reproducing QM relative energies and geometries of both halogen bonds and halogen-hydrogen bond donor interactions at an unprecedented level due to the inclusion of a virtual particle and anisotropic atomic polarizability on the halogen and, notably, the inclusion of Lennard-Jones parameters on the halogen Drude particle. The model was validated on the basis of its ability to accurately reproduce pure solvent properties for halogenated naphthalenes and alkanes, including species analogous to those used as refrigerants. Accordingly, it is anticipated that the model will be applicable for the study of halogenated derivatives in CADD as well as in other chemical and biophysical studies.
Project description:In the present study we report on interactions of and competition between monovalent ions for two DNA sequences in MD simulations. Efforts included the development and validation of parameters for interactions among the first-group monovalent cations, Li(+), Na(+), K(+), and Rb(+), and DNA in the Drude polarizable and additive CHARMM36 force fields (FF). The optimization process targeted gas-phase QM interaction energies of various model compounds with ions and osmotic pressures of bulk electrolyte solutions of chemically relevant ions. The optimized ionic parameters are validated against counterion condensation theory and buffer exchange-atomic emission spectroscopy measurements providing quantitative data on the competitive association of different monovalent ions with DNA. Comparison between experimental and MD simulation results demonstrates that, compared to the additive CHARMM36 model, the Drude FF provides an improved description of the general features of the ionic atmosphere around DNA and leads to closer agreement with experiment on the ionic competition within the ion atmosphere. Results indicate the importance of extended simulation systems on the order of 25 Å beyond the DNA surface to obtain proper convergence of ion distributions.
Project description:Recently we presented a first-generation all-atom Drude polarizable force field for DNA based on the classical Drude oscillator model, focusing on optimization of key dihedral angles followed by extensive validation of the force field parameters. Presently, we describe the procedure for balancing the electrostatic interactions between ions, water, and DNA as required for development of the Drude force field for DNA. The proper balance of these interactions is shown to impact DNA stability and subtler conformational properties, including the conformational equilibrium between the BI and BII states, and the A and B forms of DNA. The parametrization efforts were simultaneously guided by gas-phase quantum mechanics (QM) data on small model compounds and condensed-phase experimental data on the hydration and osmotic properties of biologically relevant ions and their solutions, as well as theoretical predictions for ionic distribution around DNA oligomer. In addition, fine-tuning of the internal base parameters was performed to obtain the final DNA model. Notably, the Drude model is shown to more accurately reproduce counterion condensation theory predictions of DNA charge neutralization by the condensed ions as compared to the CHARMM36 additive DNA force field, indicating an improved physical description of the forces dictating the ionic solvation of DNA due to the explicit treatment of electronic polarizability. In combination with the polarizable DNA force field, the availability of Drude polarizable parameters for proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates will allow for simulation studies of heterogeneous biological systems.
Project description:The current status of classical force fields for proteins is reviewed. These include additive force fields as well as the latest developments in the Drude and AMOEBA polarizable force fields. Parametrization strategies developed specifically for the Drude force field are described and compared with the additive CHARMM36 force field. Results from molecular simulations of proteins and small peptides are summarized to illustrate the performance of the Drude and AMOEBA force fields.
Project description:The present report demonstrates that the conformational properties of DNA in solution are sensitive to the type of monovalent ion. Results are based on the ability of a polarizable force field using the classical Drude oscillator to reproduce experimental solution X-ray scattering data more accurately than two nonpolarizable DNA models, AMBER Parmbsc0 and CHARMM36. The polarizable model is then used to calculate scattering profiles of DNA in the presence of four different monovalent salts, LiCl, NaCl, KCl, and RbCl, showing the conformational properties of DNA to vary as a function of ion type, with that effect being sequence-dependent. The primary conformational mode associated with the variations is contraction of the DNA minor groove width with decreasing cation size. These results indicate that the Drude polarizable model provides a more realistic representation of ion-DNA interactions than additive models that may lead to a new level of understanding of the physical mechanisms driving salt-mediated biological processes involving nucleic acids.
Project description:The majority of computer simulations exploring biomolecular function employ Class I additive force fields (FF), which do not treat polarization explicitly. Accordingly, much effort has been made into developing models that go beyond the additive approximation. Development and optimization of the Drude polarizable FF has yielded parameters for selected lipids, proteins, DNA and a limited number of carbohydrates. The work presented here details parametrization of aliphatic aldehydes and ketones (viz. acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, butaryaldehyde, isobutaryaldehyde, acetone, and butanone) as well as their associated acyclic sugars (D-allose and D-psicose). LJ parameters are optimized targeting experimental heats of vaporization and molecular volumes, while the electrostatic parameters are optimized targeting QM water interactions, dipole moments, and molecular polarizabilities. Bonded parameters are targeted to both QM and crystal survey values, with the models for ketones and aldehydes shown to be in good agreement with QM and experimental target data. The reported heats of vaporization and molecular volumes represent a compromise between the studied model compounds. Simulations of the model compounds show an increase in the magnitude and the fluctuations of the dipole moments in moving from gas phase to condensed phases, which is a phenomenon that the additive FF is intrinsically unable to reproduce. The result is a polarizable model for aliphatic ketones and aldehydes including the acyclic sugars D-allose and D-psicose, thereby extending the available biomolecules in the Drude polarizable FF.
Project description:Development of accurate force field parameters for molecular ions in the context of a polarizable energy function based on the classical Drude oscillator is a crucial step toward an accurate polarizable model for modeling and simulations of biological macromolecules. Toward this goal we have undertaken a hierarchical approach in which force field parameter optimization is initially performed for small molecules for which experimental data exists that serve as building blocks of macromolecular systems. Small molecules representative of the ionic moieties of biological macromolecules include the cationic ammonium and methyl substituted ammonium derivatives, imidazolium, guanidinium and methylguanidinium, and the anionic acetate, phenolate, and alkanethiolates. In the present work, parameters for molecular ions in the context of the Drude polarizable force field are optimized and compared to results from the nonpolarizable additive CHARMM general force field (CGenFF). Electrostatic and Lennard-Jones parameters for the model compounds are developed in the context of the polarizable SWM4-NDP water model, with emphasis on assuring that the hydration free energies are consistent with previously reported parameters for atomic ions. The final parameters are shown to be in good agreement with the selected quantum mechanical (QM) and experimental target data. Analysis of the structure of water around the ions reveals substantial differences between the Drude and additive force fields indicating the important role of polarization in dictating the molecular details of aqueous solvation. The presented parameters represent the foundation for the charged functionalities in future generations of the Drude polarizable force field for biological macromolecules as well as for drug-like molecules.
Project description:Presented is a first generation atomistic force field (FF) for DNA in which electronic polarization is modeled based on the classical Drude oscillator formalism. The DNA model is based on parameters for small molecules representative of nucleic acids, including alkanes, ethers, dimethylphosphate, and the nucleic acid bases and empirical adjustment of key dihedral parameters associated with the phosphodiester backbone, glycosidic linkages, and sugar moiety of DNA. Our optimization strategy is based on achieving a compromise between satisfying the properties of the underlying model compounds in the gas phase targeting quantum mechanical (QM) data and reproducing a number of experimental properties of DNA duplexes in the condensed phase. The resulting Drude FF yields stable DNA duplexes on the 100-ns time scale and satisfactorily reproduce (1) the equilibrium between A and B forms of DNA and (2) transitions between the BI and BII substates of B form DNA. Consistency with the gas phase QM data for the model compounds is significantly better for the Drude model as compared to the CHARMM36 additive FF, which is suggested to be due to the improved response of the model to changes in the environment associated with the explicit inclusion of polarizability. Analysis of dipole moments associated with the nucleic acid bases shows the Drude model to have significantly larger values than those present in CHARMM36, with the dipoles of individual bases undergoing significant variations during the MD simulations. Additionally, the dipole moment of water was observed to be perturbed in the grooves of DNA.
Project description:Novel halogenated aromatic dichlorodiazadienes were prepared via copper-mediated oxidative coupling between the corresponding hydrazones and CCl4. These rare azo-dyes were characterized using 1H and 13C NMR techniques and X-ray diffraction analysis for five halogenated dichlorodiazadienes. Multiple non-covalent halogen···halogen interactions were detected in the solid state and studied by DFT calculations and topological analysis of the electron density distribution within the framework of Bader's theory (QTAIM method). Theoretical studies demonstrated that non-covalent halogen···halogen interactions play crucial role in self-assembly of highly polarizable dichlorodiazadienes. Thus, halogen bonding can dictate a packing preference in the solid state for this class of dichloro-substituted heterodienes, which could be a convenient tool for a fine tuning of the properties of this novel class of dyes.
Project description:Long-range Lennard-Jones (LJ) interactions have a significant impact on the structural and thermodynamic properties of nonpolar systems. While several methods have been introduced for the treatment of long-range LJ interactions in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, increased accuracy and extended applicability is required for anisotropic systems such as lipid bilayers. The recently refined Lennard-Jones particle-mesh Ewald (LJ-PME) method extends the particle-mesh Ewald (PME) method to long-range LJ interactions and is suitable for use with anisotropic systems. Implementation of LJ-PME with the CHARMM36 (C36) additive and CHARMM Drude polarizable force fields improves agreement with experiment for density, isothermal compressibility, surface tension, viscosity, translational diffusion, and 13C T1 relaxation times of pure alkanes. Trends in the temperature dependence of the density and isothermal compressibility of hexadecane are also improved. While the C36 additive force field with LJ-PME remains a useful model for liquid alkanes, the Drude polarizable force field with LJ-PME is more accurate for nearly all quantities considered. LJ-PME is also preferable to the isotropic long-range correction for hexadecane because the molecular order extends to nearly 20 Å, well beyond the usual 10-12 Å cutoffs used in most simulations.