Hospital admission on weekends for patients who have surgery and 30-day mortality in Ontario, Canada: A matched cohort study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Healthcare interventions on weekends have been associated with increased mortality and adverse clinical outcomes, but these findings are inconsistent. We hypothesized that patients admitted to hospital on weekends who have surgery have an increased risk of death compared with patients who are admitted and have surgery on weekdays. METHODS AND FINDINGS:This matched cohort study included 318,202 adult patients from Ontario health administrative and demographic databases, admitted to acute care hospitals from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2015. A total of 159,101 patients who were admitted on weekends and underwent noncardiac surgery were classified by day of surgery (weekend versus weekday) and matched 1:1 to patients who both were admitted and had surgery on a weekday (Tuesday to Thursday); matching was based on age (in years), anesthesia basic unit value for the surgical procedure, median neighborhood household income quintile, resource utilization band (a ranking system of overall morbidity), rurality of home location, year of admission, and urgency of admission. Of weekend admissions, 16.2% (25,872) were elective and 53.9% (85,744) had surgery on the weekend of admission. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality within 30 days of the date of hospital admission. The 30-day all-cause mortality for patients admitted on weekends who had noncardiac surgery was 2.6% (4,211/159,101) versus 2.5% (3,901/159,101) for those who were admitted and had surgery on weekdays (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.05; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.11; P = 0.03). However, there was significant heterogeneity in the increased odds of death according to the urgency of admission and when surgery was performed (weekend versus weekday). For urgent admissions on weekends (n = 133,229), there was no significant increase in odds of mortality when surgery was performed on the weekend (adjusted OR 1.02; 95% CI 0.95 to 1.09; P = 0.7) or on a subsequent weekday (adjusted OR 1.05; 95% CI 0.98 to 1.12; P = 0.2) compared to urgent admissions on weekdays. Elective admissions on weekends (n = 25,782) had increased risk of death both when surgery was performed on the weekend (adjusted OR 3.30; 95% CI 1.98 to 5.49; P < 0.001) and when surgery was performed on a subsequent weekday (adjusted OR 2.70; 95% CI 1.81 to 4.03; P < 0.001). The main limitations of this study were the lack of data regarding reason for admission and cause of increased time interval from admission to surgery for some cases, the small number of deaths in some subgroups (i.e., elective surgery), and the possibility of residual unmeasured confounding from increased illness severity for weekend admissions. CONCLUSIONS:When patients have surgery during their hospitalization, admission on weekends in Ontario, Canada, was associated with a small but significant proportional increase in 30-day all-cause mortality, but there was significant heterogeneity in outcomes depending on the urgency of admission and when surgery was performed. An increased risk of death was found only for elective admissions on weekends; whether this is a function of patient-level factors or represents a true weekend effect needs to be further elucidated. These findings have potential implications for resource allocation in hospitals and the redistribution of elective surgery to weekends.
Project description:Hospital admissions over weekends have been associated with worse outcomes in different patient populations. The cause of this difference in outcomes remains unclear; however, different staffing patterns over weekends have been speculated to contribute. We evaluated outcomes in patients on maintenance dialysis therapy admitted over weekends using a national database.Retrospective cohort study.We included nonelective admissions of adult patients (?18 years) on maintenance dialysis therapy (n = 3,278,572) identified using appropriate International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes for 2005-2009 using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database.Weekend versus weekday admission.The primary outcome measure was all-cause in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included mortality by day 3 of admission, length of hospital stay, time to death, and discharge disposition.We adjusted for patient and hospital characteristics, payer, year, comorbid conditions, and primary discharge diagnosis common to maintenance dialysis patients.There were an estimated 704,491 admissions over weekends versus 2,574,081 over weekdays. Unadjusted all-cause in-hospital mortality was 40,666 (5.8%) for weekend admissions in comparison to 138,517 (5.4%) for weekday admissions (P < 0.001). In a multivariable model, patients admitted over weekends had higher all-cause in-hospital mortality (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.01-1.10) in comparison to those admitted over weekdays and higher mortality during the first 3 days of admission (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.10-1.26). Patients admitted over weekends were less likely to be discharged to home, had longer hospital stays, and had shorter times to death compared with those admitted over weekdays on adjusted analysis.Use of ICD-9-CM codes to identify patients, defining weekend as midnight Friday to midnight Sunday.Maintenance dialysis patients admitted over weekends have increased mortality rates and longer lengths of stay compared with those admitted over weekdays. Further studies are needed to identify the reasons for worse outcomes for weekend admissions in this patient population.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4> To determine the accuracy of coding of admissions for stroke on weekdays versus weekends and any impact on apparent outcome.<h4>Design</h4> Prospective population based stroke incidence study and a scoping review of previous studies of weekend effects in stroke.<h4>Setting</h4> Primary and secondary care of all individuals registered with nine general practices in Oxfordshire, United Kingdom (OXVASC, the Oxford Vascular Study).<h4>Participants</h4> All patients with clinically confirmed acute stroke in OXVASC identified with multiple overlapping methods of ascertainment in 2002-14 versus all acute stroke admissions identified by hospital diagnostic and mortality coding alone during the same period.<h4>Main outcomes measures</h4> Accuracy of administrative coding data for all patients with confirmed stroke admitted to hospital in OXVASC. Difference between rates of "false positive" or "false negative" coding for weekday and weekend admissions. Impact of inaccurate coding on apparent case fatality at 30 days in weekday versus weekend admissions. Weekend effects on outcomes in patients with confirmed stroke admitted to hospital in OXVASC and impacts of other potential biases compared with those in the scoping review.<h4>Results</h4> Among 92?728 study population, 2373 episodes of acute stroke were ascertained in OXVASC, of which 826 (34.8%) mainly minor events were managed without hospital admission, 60 (2.5%) occurred out of the area or abroad, and 195 (8.2%) occurred in hospital during an admission for a different reason. Of 1292 local hospital admissions for acute stroke, 973 (75.3%) were correctly identified by administrative coding. There was no bias in distribution of weekend versus weekday admission of the 319 strokes missed by coding. Of 1693 admissions for stroke identified by coding, 1055 (62.3%) were confirmed to be acute strokes after case adjudication. Among the 638 false positive coded cases, patients were more likely to be admitted on weekdays than at weekends (536 (41.0%) v 102 (26.5%); P<0.001), partly because of weekday elective admissions after previous stroke being miscoded as new stroke episodes (267 (49.8%) v 26 (25.5%); P<0.001). The 30 day case fatality after these elective admissions was lower than after confirmed acute stroke admissions (11 (3.8%) v 233 (22.1%); P<0.001). Consequently, relative 30 day case fatality for weekend versus weekday admissions differed (P<0.001) between correctly coded acute stroke admissions and false positive coding cases. Results were consistent when only the 1327 emergency cases identified by "admission method" from coding were included, with more false positive cases with low case fatality (35 (14.7%)) being included for weekday versus weekend admissions (190 (19.5%) v 48 (13.7%), P<0.02). Among all acute stroke admissions in OXVASC, there was no imbalance in baseline stroke severity for weekends versus weekdays and no difference in case fatality at 30 days (adjusted odds ratio 0.85, 95% confidence interval 0.63 to 1.15; P=0.30) or any adverse "weekend effect" on modified Rankin score at 30 days (0.78, 0.61 to 0.99; P=0.04) or one year (0.76, 0.59 to 0.98; P=0.03) among incident strokes.<h4>Conclusion</h4> Retrospective studies of UK administrative hospital coding data to determine "weekend effects" on outcome in acute medical conditions, such as stroke, can be undermined by inaccurate coding, which can introduce biases that cannot be reliably dealt with by adjustment for case mix.
Project description:Mortality is higher for adults admitted to hospital and for babies born on weekends compared to weekdays. This study compares in-hospital mortality and in children admitted to hospital on weekends and weekdays. Details for all acute medical admissions to hospitals in Scotland for children aged ?16 years between 1st January 2000 and 31st December 2013 were obtained. Death was linked to day of admission. There were 570,403 acute medical admissions and 334 children died, including 83 who died after an admission on Saturday or Sunday and 251 who died following admission between Monday and Friday. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for a child dying after admission on a weekend compared to weekday was 1.03 [95% CI 0.80 to 1.32]. The OR for a child admitted over the weekend requiring intensive care unit (ICU) or high dependency unit (HDU) care was 1.24 [1.16 to 1.32], but the absolute number of admissions to HDU and ICU per day were similar on weekends and weekdays. We see no evidence of increased in-hospital paediatric mortality after admission on a weekend. The increased risk for admission to ITU or HDU with more serious illness over weekends is explained by fewer less serious admissions.
Project description:Despite extensive research on the "weekend effect" i.e., the increased mortality associated with hospital admission during weekend, knowledge about disease severity in previous studies is limited. The aim of this study is to examine patient characteristics, including disease severity, 30-day mortality, and length of stay (LOS), according to time of admission to an emergency department.Our study encompassed all patients admitted to a Danish emergency department in 2014-2015. Using data from electronic patient records, this study examines patient characteristics including age, gender, Charlson Comorbidity Index score, triage score, and primary diagnosis. Triage score and transfer to intensive care unit (ICU) were used as indicators of disease severity. LOS within the department and within the hospital was examined. Age- and sex-standardized 30-day mortality rates comparing patients with the same triage score admitted at daytime, evening, and nighttime on weekdays and on weekends were computed. To test differences, a Cox regression analysis was added.We included 35,459 patient visits, of which 10,435 (32%) started on a weekend. There were no large differences in baseline characteristics between patients admitted on weekdays and those admitted on weekends. The relative risk (RR) for being triaged orange or red was 1.16 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.28, P?= 0.0017) for weekend admissions as compared with weekday admissions. Weekend admissions were twice as likely as weekday admissions to be transferred to the ICU (RR, 1.96; 95% CI 1.53-2.52, P?= 0.0000). No significant changes were found in LOS. The 30-day mortality rate increased with disease severity regardless of time of admission. When comparing the 30-day mortality rate for patients with the same triage score, the trend was toward a higher mortality when admission occurred during the weekend. Increasing mortality rate was significant for patients admitted at evening on weekends with a hazard ratio of 1.32 (95% CI 1.03-1.70, P?=?0.027) when compared with patients admitted on daytime on weekdays.When comparing weekday and weekend admissions, the 30-day mortality rate increased for patients admitted at evening on weekends after adjusting for comorbidity and triage score, indicating that the weekend effect was independent of changes in illness severity.
Project description:Objective Patients admitted as emergencies to hospitals at the weekend have higher death rates than patients admitted on weekdays. This may be because the restricted service availability at weekends leads to selection of patients with greater average severity of illness. We examined volumes and rates of hospital admissions and deaths across the week for patients presenting to emergency services through two routes: (a) hospital Accident and Emergency departments, which are open throughout the week; and (b) services in the community, for which availability is more restricted at weekends. Method Retrospective observational study of all 140 non-specialist acute hospital Trusts in England analyzing 12,670,788 Accident and Emergency attendances and 4,656,586 emergency admissions (940,859 direct admissions from primary care and 3,715,727 admissions through Accident and Emergency) between April 2013 and February 2014.Emergency attendances and admissions to hospital and deaths in any hospital within 30 days of attendance or admission were compared for weekdays and weekends. Results Similar numbers of patients attended Accident and Emergency on weekends and weekdays. There were similar numbers of deaths amongst patients attending Accident and Emergency on weekend days compared with weekdays (378.0 vs. 388.3). Attending Accident and Emergency at the weekend was not associated with a significantly higher probability of death (risk-adjusted OR: 1.010). Proportionately fewer patients who attended Accident and Emergency at weekend were admitted to hospital (27.5% vs. 30.0%) and it is only amongst the subset of patients attending Accident and Emergency who were selected for admission to hospital that the probability of dying was significantly higher at the weekend (risk-adjusted OR: 1.054). The average volume of direct admissions from services in the community was 61% lower on weekend days compared to weekdays (1317 vs. 3404). There were fewer deaths following direct admission on weekend days than weekdays (35.9 vs. 80.8). The mortality rate was significantly higher at weekends amongst direct admissions (risk-adjusted OR: 1.212) due to the proportionately greater reduction in admissions relative to deaths. Conclusions There are fewer deaths following hospital admission at weekends. Higher mortality rates at weekends are found only amongst the subset of patients who are admitted. The reduced availability of primary care services and the higher Accident and Emergency admission threshold at weekends mean fewer and sicker patients are admitted at weekends than during the week. Extending services in hospitals and in the community at weekends may increase the number of emergency admissions and therefore lower mortality, but may not reduce the absolute number of deaths.
Project description:To evaluate the association between weekend admission to hospital and 11 hospital acquired conditions recently considered by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid as "never events" for which resulting healthcare costs are not reimbursed.National analysis.US Nationwide Inpatient Sample discharge database.351 million patients discharged from US hospitals, 2002-10.Univariate rates and multivariable likelihood of hospital acquired conditions among patients admitted on weekdays versus weekends, as well as the impacts of these events on prolonged length of stay and total inpatient charges.From 2002 to 2010, 351,170,803 patients were admitted to hospital, with 19% admitted on a weekend. Hospital acquired conditions occurred at an overall frequency of 4.1% (5.7% among weekend admissions versus 3.7% among weekday admissions). Adjusting for patient and hospital cofactors the probability of having one or more hospital acquired conditions was more than 20% higher in weekend admissions compared with weekday admissions (odds ratio 1.25, 95% confidence interval 1.24 to 1.26, P<0.01). Hospital acquired conditions have a negative impact on both hospital charges and length of stay. At least one hospital acquired condition was associated with an 83% (1.83, 1.77 to 1.90, P<0.01) likelihood of increased charges and 38% likelihood of prolonged length of stay (1.38, 1.36 to 1.41, P<0.01).Weekend admission to hospital is associated with an increased likelihood of hospital acquired condition, cost, and length of stay. Future protocols and staffing regulations must be tailored to the requirements of this high risk subgroup.
Project description:Background:Patients with atrial fibrillation-flutter (AF) admitted on the weekends were initially reported to have poor outcomes. The primary purpose of this study is to re-evaluate the outcomes for weekend versus weekday AF hospitalization using the 2014 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS). Methods:Included hospitalizations were aged above 18 years. The hospitalizations with AF were identified using the international classification of diseases 9 (ICD-9) codes (427.31, 427.32). In-hospital mortality, length of stay (LOS), other co-morbidities, cardioversion procedures, and time to cardioversion were recorded. All analysis was performed using SAS 9.4 statistical software (Cary, North Carolina). Results:A total of 453,505 hospitalizations with atrial fibrillation and flutter as primary discharge diagnosis were identified. Among the total hospitalizations with a primary diagnosis of AF, 20.3% were admitted on the weekend. Among the weekend hospitalizations, 0.19% died in hospital compared to 0.74% among those admitted during the week. After adjusting for patient characteristics, hospital characteristics and disease severity, the adjusted odds for in-hospital mortality were not significantly different for weekend vs. weekday hospitalizations (OR = 0.91, 95% CI [0.77-1.11]; p = 0.33). The weekend admissions were associated with significantly lower odds of cardioversion procedures (OR = 0.72, 95% CI [0.69-0.76], P < 0.0001), lower cost of hospitalization (USD 8265.8 on weekends vs. USD 8966.5 on the weekdays, P < 0.001), slightly lower rate of anticoagulation (17.09% on the weekends vs. 18.73% on the weekdays. P < 0.0001), and slightly increased time to cardioversion (1.94 days on the weekend vs. 1.73 days on weekdays, P < 0.0005). The mean length of hospital stay (LOS) was statistically not different in both groups: (3.49 days ± 3.70 (SD) in the weekend group vs. 3.47 days ± 3.50 (SD) in the weekday group, P = 0.42). Discussion:The weekend AF hospitalizations did not have a clinically significant difference in mortality and LOS compared to those admitted on a weekday. However, the use of cardioversion procedures and cost of hospitalization was significantly lower on the weekends.
Project description:Objective:To assess the effects of weekend admission vs weekday admission on the management and outcomes of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods:Adult ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-STEMI (NSTEMI) hospital admissions were identified using the National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample (2000-2016). Interhospital transfers were excluded. Timing of coronary angiography (CA) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) relative to the day of admission was identified. Outcomes of interest included in-hospital mortality, receipt of early CA, timing of CA and PCI, resource utilization, and discharge disposition for weekend vs weekday admissions. Results:Of the 9,041,819 AMI admissions, 2,406,876 (26.6%) occurred on weekends. Compared with 2000, in 2016 there was an increase in weekend STEMI (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.12; 95% CI, 1.08-1.16; P<.001) but not NSTEMI (aOR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.98-1.02; P=.21) admissions. Compared with weekday admissions, weekend admissions received comparable CA (59.9% vs 58.8%) and PCI (38.4% vs 37.6%) and specifically lower rates of early CA (hospital day 0) (26.0% vs 20.8%; P<.001). There was a steady increase in CA and PCI use during the 17-year period. Mean ± SD time to CA was higher in the weekend group vs the weekday group (1.2±1.8 vs 1.0±1.8 days; P<.001). Weekend admission did not influence in-hospital mortality (aOR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00-1.01; P=.05) but had fewer discharges to home (58.7% vs 59.7%; P<.001). Conclusion:Despite small differences in CA and PCI, there were no differences in in-hospital mortality of AMI admissions on weekdays vs weekends in the United States in the contemporary era.
Project description:Background and purpose - The term "weekend effect" describes differences in outcomes between patients treated at weekends compared with weekdays. We investigated whether there is a weekend effect for the risk of reoperation and mortality after hip fracture surgery at Norwegian hospitals.Patients and methods - We included data from 76,410 hip fractures in patients 60 years and older reported to the Norwegian Hip Fracture Register (NHFR) between 2005 and 2017. Cox survival analyses with adjustments for age, sex, ASA class, type of fracture, operating method, and waiting time from fracture to surgery were used to calculate the risk of reoperation and death after surgeries performed at weekends compared with surgeries performed on weekdays.Results - The mean age for all patients was 82 years, and 71% were female. 73% of fractures occurred on weekdays (Monday to Friday) and 27% during weekends (Saturday and Sunday). 71% of fractures were operated on a weekday and 29% at a weekend. Slightly increased mortality was observed during the 2 first months after weekend admission with hip fracture (HR 1.08; 95% CI 1.03-1.14). This did not continue in subsequent months, but the initial effect of weekend presentation was still apparent at 1-year follow-up. Further, there was no difference in mortality between patients who were operated at a weekend and patients operated on a weekday. Neither were there any differences in the risk of reoperation between weekday and weekend when comparing day of fracture or day of surgery.Interpretation - Patients who suffered a hip fracture during a weekend had slightly increased mortality in the first 2 months postoperatively. Whether the surgery was done on weekdays or at weekends did not affect mortality or the risk of reoperation.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Higher mortality for patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) during the weekends has been occasionally reported with conflicting results that could be related to organisational factors. We investigated the effects of ICU organisational and staffing patterns on the potential association between weekend admission and outcomes in critically ill patients. METHODS:We included 59?614 patients admitted to 78 ICUs participating during 2013. We defined 'weekend admission' as any ICU admission from Friday 19:00 until Monday 07:00. We assessed the association between weekend admission with hospital mortality using a mixed logistic regression model controlling for both patient-level (illness severity, age, comorbidities, performance status and admission type) and ICU-level (decrease in nurse/bed ratio on weekend, full-time intensivist coverage, use of checklists on weekends and number of institutional protocols) confounders. We performed secondary analyses in the subgroup of scheduled surgical admissions. RESULTS:A total of 41?894 patients (70.3%) were admitted on weekdays and 17?720 patients (29.7%) on weekends. In univariable analysis, weekend admitted patients had higher ICU (10.9% vs 9.0%, P<0.001) and hospital (16.5% vs 13.5%, P<0.001) mortality. After adjusting for confounders, weekend admission was not associated with higher hospital mortality (OR 1.05, 95%?CI 0.99 to 1.12, P=0.095). However, a 'weekend effect' was still observed in scheduled surgical admissions, as well as in ICUs not using checklists during the weekends. For unscheduled admissions, no 'weekend effect' was observed regardless of ICU's characteristics. For scheduled surgical admissions, a 'weekend effect' was present only in ICUs with a low number of implemented protocols and those with a reduction in the nurse/bed ratio and not applying checklists during weekends. CONCLUSIONS:ICU organisational factors, such as decreased nurse-to-patient ratio, absence of checklists and fewer standardised protocols, may explain, in part, increases in mortality in patients admitted to the ICU mortality on weekends.